8 found
Order:
  1. The Relationship Between Culture and Perception of Ethical Problems in International Marketing.Robert W. Armstrong - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (11):1199 - 1208.
    This research study sought to identify whether there is a relationship between ethical perceptions and culture. An examination of the cultural variables suggests that there is a relationship between two of Hofstede's cultural dimensions (i.e., Uncertainty Avoidance and Individualism) and ethical perceptions. This finding supports the hypothetical linkage between the cultural environment and the perceived ethical problem variables posited in Hunt and Vitell's General Theory of Marketing Ethics (1986).
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  2.  64
    Industry Type, Culture, Mode of Entry and Perceptions of International Marketing Ethics Problems: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. [REVIEW]Robert W. Armstrong & Jill Sweeney - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (10):775 - 785.
    The authors investigate the differences in ethical perceptions of Australian and Hong Kong international managers. Ethical perceptions are measured with respect to different industry types, cultures and modes of entry into international markets. Mode of entry refers to how firms select to enter foreign markets. Modes of entry include: exporting (indirect or direct), contractual methods (licensing and franchising) and via direct foreign investment (joint ventures and wholly-owned subsidiaries). It was determined that culture and mode of entry have a significant effect (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  3.  48
    The Impact of Banality, Risky Shift and Escalating Commitment on Ethical Decision Making.Robert W. Armstrong, Robert J. Williams & J. Douglas Barrett - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):365-370.
    This paper posits that organizational variables are the factors that lead to the moral decline of companies like Enron and Worldcom. The individuals involved created environments within the organizations that precipitated a spiral of unethical decision-making. It is proposed that at the executive level, it is the organizational factors associated with power and decision-making that have the critical influence on moral and ethical behavior. The study has used variables that were deemed to be surrogate measures of the ethical violations (OSHA (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  4.  60
    Ethical Marginality: The Icarus Syndrome and Banality of Wrongdoing.Dennis R. Balch & Robert W. Armstrong - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):291-303.
    This study proposes a conceptual model to explain persistent, accepted-as-normal corporate wrongdoing (hereafter banality of wrongdoing), particularly for high performance organizations. The model describes five explanatory variables: the culture of competition, ends-biased leadership, missionary zeal, legitimizing myth, and the corporate cocoon. Our thesis is that the nature of competition drives both legitimate and illegitimate goal-seeking to adopt an iconoclastic (rule-breaking) orientation. High performance organizations are favorable hosts for wrongdoing because high performance requires aggressive behavior at the ethical margins of what (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  5.  12
    Special Issue on International Management.Robert W. Armstrong & Slamet S. Sarwono - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (1):405-406.
    This study examines the importance of microcultural differences on perceived ethical problems. This study also sought to identify the relationship between perceived ethical problems and value orientations as shown in the Hunt and Vitell's General Theory of Marketing Ethics. The data was collected from 173 Javanese, 128 Batak, and 170 Indonesian-Chinese marketing managers in Indonesia. The results indicate that, Religious Value Orientation is positively related to the perceived ethical problems scores, and there are significant differences among the three ethnic microcultural (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  6.  30
    The Ethical Environment of Tax Practitioners: Western Australian Evidence. [REVIEW]Rex L. Marshall, Robert W. Armstrong & Malcolm Smith - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (12):1265-1279.
    This study examines Australian tax agents' perceptions of the ethical environment in which they practice, within the context of an income tax system based on self-assessment principles. The research identifies and ranks an inventory of ethical issues in terms of perceived frequency of occurrence and importance to Western Australian tax agents. In addition, the extent and influence of ethical concerns in the profession are evaluated.The study has determined that the most frequently cited ethical issue is the failure to make reasonable (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  7.  41
    Comparative Ethical Report Card: A Study of Australian and Canadian Manager's Perceptions of International Marketing Ethics Problems. [REVIEW]T. S. Chan & Robert W. Armstrong - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (1):3 - 15.
    This research study sought to identify and categorize international marketing ethical problems that confront business managers in Australia and Canada. The study focused on ten major ethical problems developed from previous exploratory research. Managers from both countries indicate that the most frequently cited ethical problem is "gifts/ favors/entertainment" and the most important ethical problem is "large-scale bribery". However, there exist significant differences in terms of rankings and mean values of frequency and importance ratings for other ethical problems.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  8.  42
    An Empirical Investigation of International Marketing Ethics: Problems Encountered by Australian Firms. [REVIEW]Robert W. Armstrong - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (3):161 - 171.
    This study identifies and categorises ethical problems in terms of frequency of occurrence and importance to a sample of Australian international business managers. The study determined that the most frequently cited ethical problem is gifts/favours/entertainment and that this problem may be related to the culture where the international business is being conducted. The most important ethical problem is large-scale bribery. When the frequency of occurrence and importance means are compared in a scatter plot, cultural differences, pricing practices and questionable commissions (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations