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Roberto De Andrade Martins
Universidade de São Paulo
  1. A Metodologia de Lamarck.Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins & Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1996 - Trans/Form/Ação 19:115-140.
    This paper studies Lamarck's scientific method both from the point of view of his methodological discourse and according to his scientific praxis. Lamarck's methodology is compared to Condillac's as well as to that of the idéologues - a group in which Lamarck is usually included. The analysis of this paper shows that Lamarck's methodological discourse is very similar to Condillac's, but his scientific praxis does not follow this view. Instead of following an empiricist approach, Lamarck's work is grounded upon general (...)
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  2. Em busca do nada: considerações sobre os argumentos a favor do vácuo ou do éter.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1993 - Trans/Form/Ação 16:07-27.
    This paper discusses the possibility of an absolute vacuum - a space without any substance. The motivation of this study is the contrast between most philosophers, up to Descartes, who stated that a vacuum was impossible, and the 17th century change of outlook, when the possibility and effective existence of the vacuum was accepted after the experiments of Torricelli and Pascal. This article attempts to show that, contrary to the received opinion, the acceptance of an ether is preferable to the (...)
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  3.  31
    A Origem Dos Pombos Domésticos Na Estratégia Argumentativa de Darwin.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2012 - Filosofia E Hist’Oria da Biologia 7 (1):91-116.
    In the first chapter of the Origin of species and in two chapters of the Variation of animals and plants under domestication, Darwin discusses the origin of domestic pigeons, claiming that all the known breeds were produced from a single species: Columba livia, the rock pigeon. The detailed defense of this point is of high relevance in Darwin’s argumentation strategy, since the differences between the several domestic breeds is so large that, if they were found in the wild, they could (...)
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  4.  6
    Filosofia e História da Ciência no Cone Sul. 3o Encontro.Roberto de Andrade Martins, Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins, Cibelle Celestino Silva & Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira (eds.) - 2008 - Associação de Filosofia e História da Ciência do Cone Sul, AFHIC.
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  5.  27
    A doutrina das causas finais na Antiguidade. 1. A teleologia na natureza, dos pré-socráticos a Platão.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2013 - Filosofia E Hist’Oria da Biologia 8 (1):107-132.
    From Antiquity to the 19th century it was very common to explain natural phenomena (especially biological ones) through final causes. This paper analyses one of the periods of development of this concept, in Antiquity, with special emphasis upon the contributions of Socrates and Plato. They introduced the idea of an intelligent and beneficial god, who plans the structure of the universe and of all beings in the best possible way. This concept was strongly influential in later periods. RESUMO: Da Antiguidade (...)
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  6.  79
    La naturaleza de la pseudociencia: algunas consideraciones sobre el estudio de fenómenos inexistentes.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2001 - Epistemologia E Historia de la Ciencia 7:317-328.
    O conceito de pseudo-ciência procura identificar propostas que têm uma aparência científica mas que não satisfazem critérios rigorosos de cientificidade. Alguns exemplos muito citados de pseudo-fenômenos estão os fatos alegados pela parapsicologia e pela astrologia. Para caracterizar a pseudo-ciência alguns autores propuseram critérios psicológicos, sociológicos ou metodológicos. O objetivo básico de uma caracterização metodológica dos pseudo-fenômenos é permitir identificar aquilo que parece existir, mas não existe. Trata-se, portanto, de uma distinção essencialmente ontológica. Este trabalho irá descrever várias tentativas de estabelecer (...)
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  7.  31
    Galileo’s Trattato Della Sfera Ovvero Cosmografia and Its Sources.Roberto de Andrade Martins & Walmir Thomazi Cardoso - 2017 - Philosophia Scientae 21:131-147.
    Dans cet article nous étudions le Trattato della sfera de Galilée, écrit avant 1600. C’est un traité d’astronomie géocentrique qui suit la structure du Tractatus de sphæra de Johannes de Sacrobosco. Nous analysons quelques particularités du traité, en le comparant à d’autres travaux astronomiques du xvie siècle, et nous discutons ses sources probables. Nous soutenons que l’influence du commentaire de Christoph Clavius sur la Sphæra de Sacrobosco ne peut pas être considérée comme son influence unique ou principale. Le traité de (...)
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  8.  11
    Filosofia E História da Ciência no Cone Sul. Seleção de Trabalhos do 5o Encontro.Roberto de Andrade Martins, Cibelle Celestino Silva, Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira & Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins (eds.) - 2008 - Associação de Filosofia e História da Ciência do Cone Sul, AFHIC.
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  9.  46
    Use and Violation of Operationalism in Relativity.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1981 - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 5 (2):103-115.
    Einstein knew and accepted some philosophical ideas similar to Bridgman's operationalism, at the time when he developed the theory of relativity. It is possible to detect the influence of those ideas both in the special and the general theories. Some of the basic steps taken by Einstein were essentially operationalistic: they could not be justified without epistemological principles of that kind. The common opinion is held that the special theory of relativity embodied a complete and coherent operational elucidation of physical (...)
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  10.  53
    O Que É a Ciência, Do Ponto de Vista da Epistemologia?Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1999 - Caderno de Metodologia E Tã©Cnica de Pesquisa 9:5-20.
    The issue concerning the nature of science can be dealt in different ways. The question “What is science?” can receive empirical answers (what has been science, historically?), normative answers (what should be science?) and analytical ones (what could be science?). The two later approaches concern Philosophy. This paper criticises some philosophical attitudes towards science (relativism, dogmatism, scepticism, ecletism). It claims the existence of a well grounded acquired epistemological wisdom, encompassed by “impotence principles” that exhibit some limits of the human thought (...)
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  11.  22
    Acceptación o rechazo de las hipótesis o teorías: un nuevo método de análisis.Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins & Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1999 - Epistemologia E Historia de la Ciencia 5:273-280.
    Although historians and philosophers of science usually try to explain the acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or theories by scientists, there are no well definite criteria to evaluate when a scientist accepts or rejects a theory/hypothesis. This work proposes a new method of analysis. The attitudes of scientists towards a theory or hypothesis are classified according to three dimensions (cognitive, instrumental and strategic). This method is exemplified by the study of the attitude of the British naturalist William Bateson (1861-1924) towards (...)
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  12.  38
    Voltaire, Maupertuis E o Debate Sobre o Princípio de Ação Mínima No Século XVIII: Aspectos Científicos E Extracientíficos.Roberto de Andrade Martins & Silva Ana Paula Bispo da - 2007 - Filosofia Unisinos 8 (2):146-169.
    Towards the middle of the 18th century, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis proposed the “principle of least action” as a fundamental law of physics and as a proof of the existence of God. Samuel König and other contemporary authors criticized Maupertuis’ work. There ensued a fierce discussion concerning this subject, in which Leonhard Euler, the king Frédéric II of Prussia and Voltaire took part. This paper discusses that debate, emphasizing its extrascientific features and analyzing the interests that motivated the actions of (...)
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  13.  4
    Émile Meyerson and Mass Conservation in Chemical Reactions: A Priori Expectations Versus Experimental Tests.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):109-124.
    In his celebrated historic-epistemological work Identité et réalité, Émile Meyerson claimed that the scientific conservation principles were first suggested and accepted for philosophical reasons, and only afterwards were submitted to experimental tests. One of the instances he discussed in his book is the principle of mass conservation in chemical reactions. Meyerson pointed out that several authors, from Antiquity to Kant, accepted the idea of quantitative conservation of matter; and Lavoisier himself was strongly influenced by a priori ideas, using this principle (...)
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  14.  33
    El Empleo de Retórica En la Controversia Entre Weismann y Spencer Acerca de la Selección Natural y El Efecto de Uso y Desuso.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2010 - In Roberto de Andrade Martins, Lucía Lewowicz, Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira, Cibelle Celestino Silva & Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins (eds.), Filosofia E História da Ciência no Cone Sul. Seleção de Trabalhos do 5o Encontro. Associação de Filosofia e História da Ciência do Cone Sul, AFHIC. pp. 533-539.
  15.  28
    Descartes E a Impossibilidade de Ações À Distância.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1998 - In Saul Fuks (ed.), Descartes 400 Anos: Um Legado Científico E Filosófico. Relume Dumara. pp. 79-126.
    This work compares the views of René Descartes and Isaac Newton on the nature of gravitation and the possibility of direct action at a distance. In his early writings, Newton tried to find mechanical explanations of gravitation, but could not find any acceptable model. For that reason he preferred to avoid any mechanical explanation. He admitted that the existence of gravitation could be justified by induction, and used it to explain and to predict several phenomena, although gravitation itself was not (...)
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  16.  26
    History and Philosophy of Science in Science Education, in Brazil.Roberto de Andrade Martins, Cibelle Celestino Silva & Maria Elice Brzezinski Prestes - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 2271-2299.
    This paper addresses the context of emergence, development, and current status of the use of history and philosophy of science in science education in Brazil. After a short overview of the three areas (history of science, philosophy of science, and science education) in Brazil, the paper focuses on the application of this approach to teaching physics, chemistry, and biology at the secondary school level. The first Brazilian researches along this line appeared more consistently in the decade of 1970. From 1980 (...)
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  17.  27
    Lamarck’s Method and Metaphysics.Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins & Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1996 - Jahrbuch Für Geschichte Und Theorie der Biologie 3:181-199.
    Lamarck's evolutionary theory has been regarded as groundless speculation by both coeval naturalists and modern historians of science. Lamarck is usually regarded as belonging to the group of the " idéologues" – followers of Condillac, with a strong empiricist outlook. Indeed, Lamarck refers respectfully to Condillac, and in his methodological discourse presents himself as an empiricist. However, if one compares his evolutionary theory with the empiricist requirements, Lamarck's work should be dismissed as groundless – a mere metaphysical " système" – (...)
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  18.  25
    El empirismo en la relatividad especial de Einstein y la supuesta superación de la teoría de Lorentz y Poincaré.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2005 - Epistemologia E Historia de la Ciencia 11:509-516.
    Este trabajo analiza las diferencias entre las teorías de Lorentz y Poincaré (quienes aceptaban el éter) y de Einstein, cuestionando las explicaciones comunes de los motivos por los cuales la teoría de la relatividad es preferible a la anterior. La principal diferencia entre los puntos de vista de Einstein y de Lorentz y Poincaré era de naturaleza epistemológica y no teórica. Cada uno de los enfoques tenía aspectos epistémicos positivos, pero de la misma manera les hacía falta a los dos (...)
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  19.  22
    ¿Que es el descubrimiento científico de un nuevo fenómeno?Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1999 - Epistemologia E Historia de la Ciencia 5:281-288.
    Norwood Hanson's last paper (“An anatomy of discovery”, 1967) presented an analysis of the very concept of "discovery". Many recent historiographical works discuss episodes of scientific discovery, but there are few epistemological analyses of this concept. The present paper attempts to improve Hanson's work, proposing a hierarchical series of discovery levels. The analysis presented here establishes the conditions that should be satisfied in order to ascribe the scientific discovery of a new phenomenon to somebody. It also points out the partial (...)
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  20.  19
    Estado de repouso e estado de movimento: uma revolução conceitual de Descartes.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2012 - In Luiz Peduzzi, André Ferrer Martins & Juliana Ferreira (eds.), Temas de História e Filosofia da Ciência no Ensino. Editora da Ufrn. pp. 291-308.
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  21.  19
    A doutrina das causas finais na Antiguidade. 2. A teleologia na natureza, segundo Aristóteles.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2013 - Filosofia E Hist’Oria da Biologia 8 (2):167-209.
    This paper describes the four causes accepted by Aristotle, and then focus upon his concept of final causes, especially emphasizing its use in the study of living beings. The article discusses several difficulties in interpreting Aristotle’s teleology, such as its relation with the concept of a providential god, and the difficulty of understanding goals in processes that do not include intelligent agency. The Aristotelian ideas on final causes are highly complex, and they are widely different from those usually ascribed to (...)
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  22.  18
    Natural or Violent Motion? Galileo's Conjectures on the Fall of Heavy Bodies.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1998 - Dialoghi €“ Rivista di Studi Italici 2:45-67.
    According to Aristotelian physics, there was a fundamental distinction between natural and violent motion. When the cause of the motion was internal to the moving body, that motion was regarded as natural. Violent motion was supposed to have an external efficient cause. It should stop as soon as this external cause ceased its action. The fall of a body was believed to have an internal cause – the very nature of the heavy body – but the motion of a projectile (...)
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  23.  16
    Ørsted, Ritter and Magnetochemistry.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2007 - In Robert Brain, Cohen Robert & Ole Knudsen (eds.), Hans Christian Ørsted and the Romantic Legacy in Science: Ideas, Disciplines, Practices. Springer. pp. 339-385.
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  24.  16
    Límites del pensamiento científico: análisis de algunos conflictos entre física e filosofía.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2002 - Epistemologia E Historia de la Ciencia 8:266-273.
    Este trabajo discute si hoy todavía es posible admitir que hay principios a priori que no pueden ser abandonados por la física. La historia indica que ciertas “imposibilidades” filosóficas (como el movimiento, el vacuo y la acción directa a distancia) fueron sucesivamente abandonadas por la física. En el siglo XX, la mecánica cuántica rechazó al determinismo y al principio de simetría. La opinión más común entre los científicos es la de que cuando hay un conflicto entre física y filosofía hay (...)
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  25.  15
    Espaço, Tempo E Éter Na Teoria da Relatividade.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2010 - In Marcelo Knobel & Peter A. Schultz (eds.), Einstein: Muito Além da Relatividade. Instituto Sangari. pp. 31-60.
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  26.  15
    Intrinsic Values in Science.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2001 - Revista Patagónica de Filosofía 2 (2):5-25.
    In the early 20th century, science was supposed to be “value free”. In 1953 Richard Rudner claimed that “the scientist qua scientist makes value judgments”, and later philosophers discussed the relations between science and values. From the 60’s onward Michael Scriven and other authors came to the conclusion that non-moral values (intrinsic or epistemic values) are required to evaluate scientific works. This paper supports this general view. However, it stresses that there are several independent scientific values, corresponding to a multi-dimensional (...)
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  27.  12
    A situação epistemológica da epistemologia.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1984 - Revista de Ciencias Humanas, Ufsc 3 (5):85-110.
    There are several kinds of studies about science (metascientific): empirical studies (grounded upon historical, sociological and other factual data); formal studies (analytic studies, that is, grounded upon logical analysis, definitions, formal distinctions); and axiological studies (grounded on value analysis). Those approaches are epistemologically independent from each other, in the sense that from one of them it is impossible to draw conclusions pertaining to the others. Every normative proposal concerning science is essentially axiological, because it is associated to value judgments (what (...)
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  28.  11
    Instrumentos E Técnicas Nas Ciências Biológicas.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2010 - In Ana Maria de Andrade Caldeira & Elaine S. Nicoline Nabuco de Araújo (eds.), Introdução à Didática da Biologia. Escrituras. pp. 98-138.
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  29.  10
    Abordagem axiológica da epistemologia científica.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1981 - Textos Seaf 1 (2):38-57.
    A considerable part of the 20th century epistemology was devoted to attempts at differentiating science from metaphysics or from non-science. Such demarcations try to establish necessary and sufficient conditions to ascribe the scientific status to a theory. However, all demarcations that were proposed conflict with scientific practice, and no proposal received general acceptance. This article suggests a new kind of approach, in which nothing is prohibited in science, but criteria for evaluating and guiding the scientific research are established through desiderata, (...)
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  30.  6
    Lamarck's method.Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins & Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1996 - Trans/Form/Ação 19:115-140.
    This paper studies Lamarck's scientific method both from the point of view of his methodological discourse and according to his scientific praxis. Lamarck's methodology is compared to Condillac's as well as to that of the idéologues - a group in which Lamarck is usually included. The analysis of this paper shows that Lamarck's methodological discourse is very similar to Condillac's, but his scientific praxis does not follow this view. Instead of following an empiricist approach, Lamarck's work is grounded upon general (...)
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  31.  6
    Measurement and the Mathematical Role of Scientific Magnitudes.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1984 - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 7 (2):71-84.
    The mathematical or theoretical approach to the theory of measurement (opposed to the operational approach) is usually accepted by philosophers, at least in its general lines. Some recent criticimsms against this theory can be answered by qualifying the requirements of the theoretical approach as "desiderata", not as strict impositions or prohibitions. Besides, it is shown that the use of this approach is instrumental in creating mathematically simple quantitative laws and in allowing the development of a "scientific intuition" concerning the relevant (...)
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  32. Primórdios da moderna teoria dos germes: Agostino Bassi e a doença dos bichos-da-seda.Renata Riveira Ferreira & Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1997 - Episteme 3.
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  33.  3
    Becquerel e a Descoberta da Radioatividade: Uma Análise Crítica.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2012 - Editora da Uepb, Livraria da Física.
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  34.  27
    History and Philosophy of Physics in the South Cone.Roberto de Andrade Martins, Guillermo Boido & Víctor Rodríguez (eds.) - 2013 - College Publications.
  35. Mayer ea conservação da energia.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 1984 - Cadernos de História E Filosofia da Ciência 6:63-84.
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  36. O Trattato Della Sfera Ovvero Cosmografia De Galileo Galilei E Algumas Cosmografias E Tratados Da Esfera Do Século Xvi.Roberto de Andrade Martins & Walmir Cardoso - 2008 - Episteme (Porto Alegre) 27.
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  37. The Law of Inertia and Vis Insita: Newton and His Sources.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2013 - In Cibelle Celestino Silva & Maria Elice Brzezinski Prestes (eds.), Aprendendo Ciência e Sobre Sua Natureza: Abordagens Históricas e Filosóficas. Tipogrphia Editora Expressa. pp. 115-128.
     
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