Results for 'Robyn Clay-Wlliams'

961 found
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  1.  13
    Device Representatives in Hospitals: Are Commercial Imperatives Driving Clinical Decision-Making?Quinn Grundy, Katrina Hutchison, Jane Johnson, Brette Blakely, Robyn Clay-Wlliams, Bernadette Richards & Wendy A. Rogers - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):589-592.
    Despite concerns about the relationships between health professionals and the medical device industry, the issue has received relatively little attention. Prevalence data are lacking; however, qualitative and survey research suggest device industry representatives, who are commonly present in clinical settings, play a key role in these relationships. Representatives, who are technical product specialists and not necessarily medically trained, may attend surgeries on a daily basis and be available to health professionals 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to provide (...)
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  2.  6
    The Growth of Lead Nitrate Crystals From Aqueous Solutiont.Anne P. Wlliams - 1957 - Philosophical Magazine 2 (15):317-322.
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  3.  42
    Postscript by Prof. Clay.J. Clay - 1948 - Synthese 7 (1):465-465.
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  4. Linguistic Communication and the Semantics/Pragmatics Distinction.Robyn Carston - 2008 - Synthese 165 (3):321-345.
    Most people working on linguistic meaning or communication assume that semantics and pragmatics are distinct domains, yet there is still little consensus on how the distinction is to be drawn. The position defended in this paper is that the semantics/pragmatics distinction holds between encoded linguistic meaning and speaker meaning. Two other ‘minimalist’ positions on semantics are explored and found wanting: Kent Bach’s view that there is a narrow semantic notion of context which is responsible for providing semantic values for a (...)
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  5. Implicature, Explicature, and Truth-Theoretic Semantics.Robyn Carston - 2013 - In Maite Ezcurdia & Robert J. Stainton (eds.), The Semantics–Pragmatics Boundary in Philosophy. Broadview Press. pp. 261.
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  6. Knowledge and Sensory Knowledge in Hume's Treatise.Graham Clay - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 10.
    I argue that the Hume of the Treatise maintains an account of knowledge according to which (i) every instance of knowledge must be an immediately present perception (i.e., an impression or an idea); (ii) an object of this perception must be a token of a knowable relation; (iii) this token knowable relation must have parts of the instance of knowledge as relata (i.e., the same perception that has it as an object); and any perception that satisfies (i)-(iii) is an instance (...)
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  7.  12
    Rethinking God as Gift: Marion, Derrida, and the Limits of Phenomenology.Robyn Horner - 2001 - Fordham University Press.
    "At once rigorous, insightful, and accessible.... the most thorough study yet available on the phenomenological treatment of God as gift in Marion and Derrida. Invaluable reading for those concerned with the theological promise of contemporary Continental philosophy."-Thomas A. Carlson, University of California, Santa Barbara.
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  8.  53
    Physiological Mechanisms and Epidemiological Research.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):422 - 426.
  9.  5
    Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science.Robyn Bluhm, Anne Jaap Jacobson & Heidi Lene Maibom (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Going beyond the hype of recent fMRI "findings," this interdisciplinary collection examines such questions as: Do women and men have significantly different brains? Do women empathize, while men systematize? Is there a "feminine" ethics? What does brain research on intersex conditions tell us about sex and gender?
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  10.  16
    The Highway of Despair: Critical Theory After Hegel.Robyn Marasco - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Hegel's "highway of despair," introduced in his _Phenomenology of Spirit_, represents the tortured path traveled by "natural consciousness" on its way to freedom. Despair, the passionate residue of Hegelian critique, also indicates fugitive opportunities for freedom and preserves the principle of hope against all hope. Analyzing the works of an eclectic cast of thinkers, Robyn Marasco considers the dynamism of despair as a critical passion, reckoning with the forms of historical life forged along Hegel's highway. _The Highway of Despair_ (...)
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  11.  47
    Linear Models in Decision Making.Robyn M. Dawes & Bernard Corrigan - 1974 - Psychological Bulletin 81 (2):95-106.
    A review of the literature indicates that linear models are frequently used in situations in which decisions are made on the basis of multiple codable inputs. These models are sometimes used normatively to aid the decision maker, as a contrast with the decision maker in the clinical vs statistical controversy, to represent the decision maker "paramorphically" and to "bootstrap" the decision maker by replacing him with his representation. Examination of the contexts in which linear models have been successfully employed indicates (...)
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  12.  14
    The Neural Basis of Human Error Processing: Reinforcement Learning, Dopamine, and the Error-Related Negativity.Clay B. Holroyd & Michael G. H. Coles - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):679-709.
  13. XIII-Metaphor: Ad Hoc Concepts, Literal Meaning and Mental Images.Robyn Carston - 2010 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (3_pt_3):295-321.
    I propose that an account of metaphor understanding which covers the full range of cases has to allow for two routes or modes of processing. One is a process of rapid, local, on-line concept construction that applies quite generally to the recovery of word meaning in utterance comprehension. The other requires a greater focus on the literal meaning of sentences or texts, which is metarepresented as a whole and subjected to more global, reflective pragmatic inference. The questions whether metaphors convey (...)
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  14. New Research, Old Problems: Methodological and Ethical Issues in fMRI Research Examining Sex/Gender Differences in Emotion Processing.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):319-330.
    Neuroscience research examining sex/gender differences aims to explain behavioral differences between men and women in terms of differences in their brains. Historically, this research has used ad hoc methods and has been conducted explicitly in order to show that prevailing gender roles were dictated by biology. I examine contemporary fMRI research on sex/gender differences in emotion processing and argue that it, too, both uses problematic methods and, in doing so, reinforces gender stereotypes.
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  15. Informativeness, Relevance and Scalar Implicature.Robyn Carston - unknown
    The idea is that, in a wide range of contexts, utterances of the sentences in (a) in each case will communicate the assumption in (b) in each case (or something closely akin to it, there being a certain amount of contextually governed variation in the speaker's propositional attitude and so the scope of the negation). These scalar inferences are taken to be one kind of (generalized) conversational implicature. As is the case with pragmatic inference quite generally, these inferences are defeasible (...)
     
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  16.  29
    Multiple Review.Robyn Carston - 1987 - Mind and Language 2 (4):333-349.
  17.  68
    The Robust Beauty of Improper Linear Models in Decision Making.Robyn M. Dawes - 1979 - American Psychologist 34 (7):571-582.
    Proper linear models are those in which predictor variables are given weights such that the resulting linear composite optimally predicts some criterion of interest; examples of proper linear models are standard regression analysis, discriminant function analysis, and ridge regression analysis. Research summarized in P. Meehl's book on clinical vs statistical prediction and research stimulated in part by that book indicate that when a numerical criterion variable is to be predicted from numerical predictor variables, proper linear models outperform clinical intuition. Improper (...)
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  18.  15
    The (Dis)Unity of Nursing Science.Robyn L. Bluhm - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (4):250-260.
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  19.  40
    Folie À Deux and its Lessons for Two‐Factor Theorists.Robyn Langdon - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (1):72-82.
    In folie à deux, a ‘primary’ patient transmits a delusional belief to one or more ‘secondary’ patients who then adopt and share the belief. This paper applies the two‐factor theory of delusion to retrospectively analyse published cases of folie à deux. Lessons from this retrospective analysis include, firstly, that two‐factor theorists need to shift their focus from endogenous processes to consider the exogenous source of delusional content in most secondaries. Secondly, secondaries who come to share the belief via normal processes (...)
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  20. Explicature and Semantics.Robyn Carston - unknown
    A standard view of the semantics of natural language sentences or utterances is that a sentence has a particular logical structure and is assigned truth-conditional content on the basis of that structure. Such a semantics is assumed to be able to capture the logical properties of sentences, including necessary truth, contradiction and valid inference; our knowledge of these properties is taken to be part of our semantic competence as native speakers of the language. The following examples pose a problem for (...)
     
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  21.  77
    The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Delusions.Robyn Langdon & Max Coltheart - 2000 - Mind and Language 15 (1):183-216.
  22. From Hierarchy to Network: A Richer View of Evidence for Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):535-547.
  23.  75
    The Threat of Effective Intentions to Moral Responsibility in the Zygote Argument.Robyn Repko Waller - 2013 - Philosophia 42 (1):209-222.
    In Free Will and Luck, Mele presents a case of an agent Ernie, whose zygote was intentionally designed so that Ernie A-s in 30 years, bringing about a certain event E. Mele uses this case of original design to outline the zygote argument against compatibilism. In this paper I criticize the zygote argument. Unlike other compatibilists who have responded to the zygote argument, I contend that it is open to the compatibilist to accept premise one, that Ernie does not act (...)
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  24. The Statue and the Clay.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 1998 - Noûs 32 (2):149-173.
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  25. Metalinguistic Negation and Echoic Use.Robyn Carston - unknown
    What I hope to achieve in this paper is some rather deeper understanding of the semantic and pragmatic properties of utterances which are said to involve the phenomenon of metalinguistic negation[FN1]. According to Laurence Horn, who has been primarily responsible for drawing our attention to it, this is a special non-truthfunctional use of the negation operator, which can be glossed as 'I object to U' where U is a linguistic utterance. This is to be distinguished from descriptive truthfunctional negation which (...)
     
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  26.  27
    Polysemy: Pragmatics and Sense Conventions.Robyn Carston - 2021 - Mind and Language 36 (1):108-133.
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  27. Russell and the Temporal Contiguity of Causes and Effects.Graham Clay - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (6):1245-1264.
    There are some necessary conditions on causal relations that seem to be so trivial that they do not merit further inquiry. Many philosophers assume that the requirement that there could be no temporal gaps between causes and their effects is such a condition. Bertrand Russell disagrees. In this paper, an in-depth discussion of Russell’s argument against this necessary condition is the centerpiece of an analysis of what is at stake when one accepts or denies that there can be temporal gaps (...)
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  28.  25
    Establishing How Natural Environmental Competency, Organizational Social Consciousness, and Innovativeness Relate.Clay Dibrell, Justin B. Craig, Jaemin Kim & Aaron J. Johnson - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (3):591-605.
    This article investigates the moderating effects of organizational social consciousness on the natural environmental competency and innovativeness relationship. Organizational social consciousness reflects the organization’s awareness of its place and contribution to the larger system in which it exists and is developed through an organization’s social responsibility, ethics, culture, corporate values, and the view of its stakeholders. Through our study of key strategic decision makers from organizations located in the USA, we operationalize organizational social consciousness and demonstrate the efficacy of this (...)
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  29. Enrichment and Loosening: Complementary Processes in Deriving the Proposition Expressed?Robyn Carston - unknown
    Within relevance theory the two local pragmatic processes of enrichment and loosening of linguistically encoded conceptual material have been given quite distinct treatments. Enrichments of various sorts, including those which involve a logical strengthening of a lexical concept, contribute to the proposition expressed by the utterance, hence to its truth-conditions. Loosenings, including metaphorical uses, do not enter into the proposition expressed by the utterance or affect its truth-conditions; they stand in a relation of 'interpretive resemblance' with the linguistically encoded concept (...)
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  30.  43
    Environmentalism and Political Theory.Robyn Eckersley - 1992 - Environmental Values:1996-1996.
    Anthropocentrism is "the belief that there is a clear and morally relevant dividing line between humankind and the rest of nature, that humankind is the only principal source of value or meaning in the world" p. 51.
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  31. Motivation of Extended Behaviors by Anterior Cingulate Cortex.Clay B. Holroyd & Nick Yeung - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (2):122-128.
  32.  12
    It’s Not Just Counting That Counts: A Reply to Gilbert, Viaña, and Ineichen.Robyn Bluhm & Laura Y. Cabrera - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-4.
    Gilbert et al. argue that discussions of self-related changes in patients undergoing DBS are overblown. They show that there is little evidence that these changes occur frequently and make recommendations for further research. We point out that their framing of the issue, their methodology, and their recommendations do not attend to other important questions about these changes.
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  33.  34
    Resolving the Tensions Between White People's Active Investment in Racial Inequality and White Ignorance: A Response to Marzia Milazzo.Robyn Moore - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (2):257-267.
    This article responds to Marzia Milazzo's article ‘On white ignorance, white shame, and other pitfalls in critical philosophy of race’, in which Milazzo argues that the concepts white shame, white guilt, white privilege, white habits, white invisibility and white ignorance are pitfalls in the process of decolonisation. Milazzo contends that the way these concepts are theorised in much critical philosophy of race minimises white people's active interest in reproducing the racial status quo. While I agree with Milazzo's critique of white (...)
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  34. Linguistic Meaning, Communicated Meaning and Cognitive Pragmatics.Robyn Carston - 2002 - Mind and Language 17 (1-2):127–148.
    Within the philosophy of language, pragmatics has tended to be seen as an adjunct to, and a means of solving problems in, semantics. A cognitive-scientific conception of pragmatics as a mental processing system responsible for interpreting ostensive communicative stimuli (specifically, verbal utterances) has effected a transformation in the pragmatic issues pursued and the kinds of explanation offered. Taking this latter perspective, I compare two distinct proposals on the kinds of processes, and the architecture of the system(s), responsible for the recovery (...)
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  35.  13
    Covid-19 and the Accelerating Smart Home.Robyn Dowling & Sophia Maalsen - 2020 - Big Data and Society 7 (2).
    Home, digital technologies and data are intersecting in new ways as responses to the COVID-19 pandemic emerge. We consider the data practices associated with COVID-19 responses and their implications for housing and home through two overarching themes: the notion of home as a private space, and digital technology and surveillance in the home. We show that although home has never been private, the rapid adoption and acceptance of technologies in the home for quarantine, work and study, enabled by the pandemic, (...)
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  36. Relevance Theory and the Saying/Implicating Distinction.Robyn Carston - 2004 - In . pp. 155--181.
    It is widely accepted that there is a distinction to be made between the explicit content and the implicit import of an utterance. There is much less agreement about the precise nature of this distinction, how it is to be drawn, and whether any such two-way distinction can do justice to the levels and kinds of meaning involved in utterance interpretation. Grice’s distinction between what is said by an utterance and what is implicated is probably the best known instantiation of (...)
     
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  37.  20
    What we (Should) Talk about when we Talk about Deep Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity.Robyn Bluhm, Laura Cabrera & Rachel McKenzie - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):289-301.
    A number of reports have suggested that patients who undergo deep brain stimulation may experience changes to their personality or sense of self. These reports have attracted great philosophical interest. This paper surveys the philosophical literature on personal identity and DBS and draws on an emerging empirical literature on the experiences of patients who have undergone this therapy to argue that the existing philosophical discussion of DBS and personal identity frames the problem too narrowly. Much of the discussion by neuroethicists (...)
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  38.  40
    The Need for New Ontologies in Psychiatry.Robyn Bluhm - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (2):146-159.
    Although researchers in psychiatry have been trying for decades to elucidate the pathophysiology underlying mental disorders, relatively little progress has been made. One explanation for this failure is that diagnostic categories in psychiatry are unlikely to track underlying neurological mechanisms. Because of this, the US National Institutes of Mental Health has recently developed a novel ontology to guide research in biological psychiatry: the Research Domain Criteria. In this paper, I argue that while RDoC may lead to better neuroscientific explanations for (...)
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  39.  9
    A Clay Person. The Promises of Moral Bioenhancement.Adriano Pessina - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):87-93.
    The debate on moral bioenhancement—expressed in the acronym MB-is in fact influenced by the requirements of both the market and scientific research and philosophy must avoid an ideological use of its arguments. The moral phenomenon is highly complex and it does not seem likely that MB will be able to produce the desired effects without undermining human freedom, which, however, is a constitutive element of personal morality. There is the risk that MB perceives the human being as “something” to be (...)
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  40.  14
    Playing with Clay and the Uncertainty of Agency. A Material Engagement Theory Perspective.Paul March - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):133-151.
    I describe how close attention to the process of sculpting clay from the perspective of Material Engagement Theory can create a detailed description of a mutable sense of agency and of self. First, I show that sculpting is associated with a loss of sense of agency and self. Second, that to sense agency as a systemic phenomenon creates anxiety. Third, that meaning in an art encounter develops in association with an anterospective viewpoint. Fourth, that within the logic of the (...)
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  41. Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
  42.  21
    Figurative Language, Mental Imagery, and Pragmatics.Robyn Carston - 2018 - Metaphor and Symbol 33 (3):198-217.
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  43.  24
    Is Irrationality Systematic?Robyn M. Dawes - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):491.
  44. Self‐Fulfilling Prophecies: The Influence of Gender Stereotypes on Functional Neuroimaging Research on Emotion.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (4):870-886.
    Feminist scholars have shown that research on sex/gender differences in the brain is often used to support gender stereotypes. Scientists use a variety of methodological and interpretive strategies to make their results consistent with these stereotypes. In this paper, I analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research that examines differences between women and men in brain activity associated with emotion and show that these researchers go to great lengths to make their results consistent with the view that women are more (...)
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  45. Semantics/Pragmatics Distinction.Robyn Carston & Gower Street - unknown
    Most people working on linguistic meaning or communication assume that semantics and pragmatics are distinct domains, yet there is still little consensus on how the distinction is to be drawn. The position defended in this paper is that the semantics/pragmatics distinction holds between (context-invariant) encoded linguistic meaning and speaker meaning. Two other ‘minimalist’ positions on semantics are explored and found wanting: Kent Bach’s view that there is a narrow semantic notion of context which is responsible for providing semantic values for (...)
     
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  46. Truth-Conditional Content and Conversational Implicature.Robyn Carston - 2004 - In Claudia Bianchi (ed.), The Semantics/Pragmatics Distinction. CSLI Publications. pp. 65--100.
     
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  47.  22
    Confabulation and Delusion: A Review of Hirstein's Brain Fiction. [REVIEW]Robyn Langdon - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (6):785 – 802.
  48.  11
    Scientists’ Ontological and Epistemological Views About Science From the Perspective of Critical Realism.Robyn Yucel - 2018 - Science & Education 27 (5-6):407-433.
    Including the perspectives of scientists about the nature and process of science is important for an authentic and nuanced portrayal of science in science education. The small number of studies that have explored scientists’ worldviews about science has thus far generated contradictory findings, with recent studies claiming that scientists simultaneously hold contradictory sophisticated and naïve views. This article reports on an exploratory study that uses the framework of Bhaskar’s critical realism to elicit and separately analyse academic scientists’ ontological and epistemological (...)
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  49. How Many Pragmatic Systems Are There?Robyn Carston - 2007 - In María José Frápolli (ed.), Saying, Meaning and Referring: Essays on François Recanati's Philosophy of Language. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  50.  28
    Pragmatic Enrichment: Beyond Gricean Rational Reconstruction – a Response to Mandy Simons.Robyn Carston - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (5):517-538.
    It has been claimed that pragmatic effects that arise in embedded clauses pose a problem for the Gricean reasoning procedure. I maintain, however, that the real issue these phenomena raise for Grice, as he himself acknowledged, is their violation of his saying/implicating distinction. While these effects can be accounted for by Gricean reasoning, which Mandy Simons clearly demonstrates, there is no way round this latter problem other than a major revision of Grice’s notion of ‘saying’ and hence of the saying/implicating (...)
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