Results for 'Rodney E. Langman'

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  1.  92
    A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior.David L. Hull, Rodney E. Langman & Sigrid S. Glenn - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):511-528.
    Authors frequently refer to gene-based selection in biological evolution, the reaction of the immune system to antigens, and operant learning as exemplifying selection processes in the same sense of this term. However, as obvious as this claim may seem on the surface, setting out an account of “selection” that is general enough to incorporate all three of these processes without becoming so general as to be vacuous is far from easy. In this target article, we set out such a general (...)
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  2.  53
    At Last: Serious Consideration.David L. Hull, Rodney E. Langman & Sigrid S. Glenn - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):559-569.
    For a long time, several natural phenomena have been considered unproblematically selection processes in the same sense of “selection.” In our target article we dealt with three of these phenomena: gene-based selection in biological evolution, the reaction of the immune system to antigens, and operant learning. We characterize selection in terms of three processes (variation, replication, and environmental interaction) resulting in the evolution of lineages via differential replication. Our commentators were largely supportive with respect to variation and environmental interaction but (...)
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  3. Commentary On: A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior. Authors' Reply.David L. Hull, Rodney E. Langman, Sigrid S. Glenn & Liane Gabora - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):901-904.
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  4.  29
    Rodney E. Hero, Racial Diversity and Social Capital: Equality and Community in America. [REVIEW]Jason D. Grinnell - 2009 - Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4):547-550.
  5. Multiculturalism and Welfare Policies in the US States: A State-Level Comparative Analysis.Rodney E. Hero & Robert R. Preuhs - 2006 - In Keith Banting & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies. Oxford University Press.
     
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  6.  17
    Primitive Classification.E. B., Emile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss & Rodney Needham - 1963 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (2):278.
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  7.  22
    Asymptotic Density and Computably Enumerable Sets.Rodney G. Downey, Carl G. Jockusch & Paul E. Schupp - 2013 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 13 (2):1350005.
    We study connections between classical asymptotic density, computability and computable enumerability. In an earlier paper, the second two authors proved that there is a computably enumerable set A of density 1 with no computable subset of density 1. In the current paper, we extend this result in three different ways: The degrees of such sets A are precisely the nonlow c.e. degrees. There is a c.e. set A of density 1 with no computable subset of nonzero density. There is a (...)
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  8.  1
    A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior-Open Peer Commentary-A Single-Process Learning Theory.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & M. Blute - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):529-530.
    Many analogies exist between the process of evolution by natural selection and of learning by reinforcement and punishment. A full extension of the evolutionary analogy to learning to include analogues of the fitness, genotype, development, environmental influences, and phenotype concepts makes possible a single theory of the learning process able to encompass all of the elementary procedures known to yield learning.
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  9.  9
    Overall Self‐Rated Health: A New Quality Indicator for Primary Care.James E. Rohrer, Rodney Young, Virginia Sicola & Margaret Houston - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (1):150-153.
  10.  11
    A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Activity Anorexia: Biological, Behavioral, and Neural Levels of Selection.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & W. D. Pierce - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):551-551.
    Activity anorexia illustrates selection of behavior at the biological, behavioral, and neural levels. Based on evolutionary history, food depletion increases the reinforcement value of physical activity that, in turn, decreases the reinforcement effectiveness of eating – resulting in activity anorexia. Neural opiates participate in the selection of physical activity during periods of food depletion.
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  11.  3
    A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Operant Learning and Selectionism: Risks and Benefits of Seeking Interdisciplinary Parallels.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & R. W. Malott - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):544-544.
    Seeking parallels among disciplines can have both risks and benefits. Finding parallels may be a vacuous exercise in categorization, generating no new insights. And pointing to analogous functions may cause us to treat them as homologous. Hull et al. have provided a basis for the generation of insights in different selectionist areas, without confusing analogy with homology.
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  12.  18
    Overall Self‐Rated Health as an Outcome Indicator in Primary Care.James E. Rohrer, Ahmed Arif, Anne Denison, Rodney Young & Steve Adamson - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (6):882-888.
  13.  17
    The Accounting Profession: Substantive Change and/or Image Management.Rodney K. Rogers, Jesse Dillard & Kristi Yuthas - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):159-176.
    . The accounting profession’s image and reputation is built upon the members of the profession acting with the “highest sense of integrity” in “the public interest” (AICPA, 2003, www.aicpa.org/about). The Enron debacle initiated the latest crisis facing the profession regarding its image and reputation. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is the largest professional body representing the accounting profession and the one to which regulators have looked in establishing and upholding professional standards relating to the public practice of (...)
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  14.  20
    Schnorr Randomness.Rodney G. Downey & Evan J. Griffiths - 2004 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (2):533 - 554.
    Schnorr randomness is a notion of algorithmic randomness for real numbers closely related to Martin-Löf randomness. After its initial development in the 1970s the notion received considerably less attention than Martin-Löf randomness, but recently interest has increased in a range of randomness concepts. In this article, we explore the properties of Schnorr random reals, and in particular the c.e. Schnorr random reals. We show that there are c.e. reals that are Schnorr random but not Martin-Löf random, and provide a new (...)
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  15.  2
    A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Variations and Active Versus Reactive Behavior as Factors of the Selection Processes.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & V. S. Rotenberg - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):553-553.
    The interaction of the organism with the environment requires not only reactive, but also active behavior which helps subject to meet the challenge of the uncertainty of the environment. A positive feedback between active behavior and immune system makes the selection process effective.
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  16.  5
    A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Is Operant Selectionism Coherent?D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn, F. Tonneau & M. B. C. Sokolowski - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):558-558.
    Hull et al.'s analysis of operant behavior in terms of interaction and replication does not seem consistent with a genuine selection model. The putative replicators do not replicate, and the overall process is more reminiscent of directed mutation than of natural selection. General analogies between natural selection and operant reinforcement are too superficial to be of much scientific use.
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  17. A General Account of Selection: Biology, Immunology, and Behavior-Open Peer Commentary-A Neural-Network Interpretation of Selection in Learning and Behavior.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & J. E. Burgos - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):531-532.
    In their account of learning and behavior, the authors define an interactor as emitted behavior that operates on the environment, which excludes Pavlovian learning. A unified neural-network account of the operant-Pavlovian dichotomy favors interpreting neurons as interactors and synaptic efficacies as replicators. The latter interpretation implies that single-synapse change is inherently Lamarckian.
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  18.  45
    Learning to Coordinate Behaviors.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    We describe an algorithm which allows a behavior-based robot to learn on the basis of positive and negative feedback when to activate its behaviors. In accordance with the philosophy of behavior-based robots, the algorithm is completely distributed: each of the behaviors independently tries to find out (i) whether it is relevant (ie. whether it is at all correlated to positive feedback) and (ii) what the conditions are under which it becomes reliable (i.e. the conditions under which i t maximizes the (...)
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  19.  18
    Countable Thin Π01 Classes.Douglas Cenzer, Rodney Downey, Carl Jockusch & Richard A. Shore - 1993 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 59 (2):79-139.
    Cenzer, D., R. Downey, C. Jockusch and R.A. Shore, Countable thin Π01 classes, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 59 79–139. A Π01 class P {0, 1}ω is thin if every Π01 subclass of P is the intersection of P with some clopen set. Countable thin Π01 classes are constructed having arbitrary recursive Cantor- Bendixson rank. A thin Π01 class P is constructed with a unique nonisolated point A and furthermore A is of degree 0’. It is shown that no (...)
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  20. Decomposition and Infima in the Computably Enumerable Degrees.Rodney G. Downey, Geoffrey L. Laforte & Richard A. Shore - 2003 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (2):551-579.
    Given two incomparable c.e. Turing degrees a and b, we show that there exists a c.e. degree c such that c = (a ⋃ c) ⋂ (b ⋃ c), a ⋃ c | b ⋃ c, and c < a ⋃ b.
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  21.  28
    There is No Plus-Capping Degree.Rodney G. Downey & Steffen Lempp - 1994 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 33 (2):109-119.
    Answering a question of Per Lindström, we show that there is no “plus-capping” degree, i.e. that for any incomplete r.e. degreew, there is an incomplete r.e. degreea>w such that there is no r.e. degreev>w witha∩v=w.
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  22.  46
    The Complexity of Orbits of Computably Enumerable Sets.Peter A. Cholak, Rodney Downey & Leo A. Harrington - 2008 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):69 - 87.
    The goal of this paper is to announce there is a single orbit of the c.e. sets with inclusion, ε, such that the question of membership in this orbit is ${\Sigma _1^1 }$ -complete. This result and proof have a number of nice corollaries: the Scott rank of ε is $\omega _1^{{\rm{CK}}}$ + 1; not all orbits are elementarily definable; there is no arithmetic description of all orbits of ε; for all finite α ≥ 9, there is a properly $\Delta (...)
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  23.  51
    The Role of Learning in Autonomous Robots.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    Applications of learning to autonomous agents (simulated or real) have often been restricted to learning a mapping from perceived state of the world to the next action to take. Often this is couched in terms of learning from no previous knowledge. This general case for real autonomous robots is very difficult. In any case, when building a real robot there is usually a lot of a priori knowledge (e.g., from the engineering that went into its design) which doesn’t need to (...)
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  24.  37
    The U.S. War in Iraq, Just War Theory and Neoconservatism.Rodney G. Peffer - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 40:115-151.
    Given certain well-known empirical facts–including the Bush II administration’s motivations and its actions initiating the war – the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 (and its continuing war of occupation) is not just (i.e., is not morally justified), on any standard interpretation of Just War Theory criteria for jus ad bellum. Since there was no imminent threat of attack by Iraq against the U.S., the U.S. invasion of Iraq was a Preventative or Merely Precautionary War (which is notrecognized by either (...)
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  25.  24
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Theodore Brameld, Midori Matsuyama, Harvey Neufeldt, Lois M. R. Louden, Margaret Gillett, Don Adams, Theodore Hutchcroft, William T. Lowe, Rodney P. Riegle, Bergen Jr, Charles R. Schindler, Gerald L. Gutek, William E. Eaton, Gertrude Langsam, John F. Murphy, Paul D. Travers, Charles M. Dye, Natalie A. Naylor & Richard Edward Kelly - 1977 - Educational Studies 8 (4):395-437.
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  26.  12
    Degrees Containing Members of Thin Π10 Classes Are Dense and Co-Dense.Rodney G. Downey, Guohua Wu & Yue Yang - 2018 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 18 (1):1850001.
    In [Countable thin [Formula: see text] classes, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 59 79–139], Cenzer, Downey, Jockusch and Shore proved the density of degrees containing members of countable thin [Formula: see text] classes. In the same paper, Cenzer et al. also proved the existence of degrees containing no members of thin [Formula: see text] classes. We will prove in this paper that the c.e. degrees containing no members of thin [Formula: see text] classes are dense in the c.e. degrees. We will (...)
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  27.  2
    Owning an Older, No-Longer-New, Used Car.Rodney Evans - 2020 - Phenomenology and Practice 15 (2):52-72.
    In his highly insightful and wide-ranging rebuttal article “Doing Phenomenology on the Things,” van Manen makes the important claim that “the mission of modern phenomenology transcends foundational and exegetical philosophical theorizing”. I take this claim seriously and put forward this article as an exercise in practical lifeworld phenomenological reflection. By lifeworld I refer to the environing world in which we are enmeshed and in which we live and breathe and have our being; it penetrates our awareness of things while at (...)
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  28.  19
    The Idea of an Age of Majority.Rodney C. Roberts - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):217-225.
    This paper gives a brief history of the idea of an age of majority and argues that no age of majority should exceed the fighting age, i.e., the age at which a person becomes eligible to serve in a military unit. Several objections to the proposed constraint on ages of majority are raised and answered.
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  29.  15
    Book Review Section 3. [REVIEW]John R. Thelin, Thomas R. Mcdaniel, Bruce Beezer, Joseph Watras, Sally Schumacher, Wagoner Jr, James M. Giarelli, Rodney P. Riegle, Richard Labrecque, Robert E. Roemer, John Martin Rich, John R. Palmer, Scott Enright & David Bensman - 1982 - Educational Studies: A Jrnl of the American Educ. Studies Assoc 13 (3&4):442-500.
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  30.  71
    Knowledge on the Horizon: A Phenomenological Inquiry Into the “Framing” of Rodney King.Ian Gerrie - 2006 - Human Studies 29 (3):295-315.
    Using the 1991 police beating of Rodney King as case study, this paper draws on Husserlian phenomenology to establish a coherentist account of knowledge as situated with respect to its concrete circumstances of production (e.g., social, cultural, historical, political). I take as my point of departure Gail Weiss's phenomenological investigation into the jury's assessment of evidence in the "Rodney King incident," and in particular, her interest in Husserl's conception of the "horizon" as a structure of consciousness that mediates (...)
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  31. Rodney Syme: Pharmacological Oblivion Contributes to and Hastens Patients’ Deaths.Rodney Syme - 1999 - Monash Bioethics Review 18 (2):40-43.
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  32. Chapter Three The Bowie Business: Capitalising on Subversion? Rodney Sharkey.Rodney Sharkey - 2007 - In John Wall (ed.), Music, Metamorphosis and Capitalism: Self, Poetics and Politics. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 33.
     
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  33.  30
    Rodney A. Clifton 25.Rodney A. Clifton - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  34. G. E. Moore: Selected Writings.G. E. Moore - 1993 - Routledge.
    G.E. Moore, more than either Bertrand Russell or Ludwig Wittgenstein, was chiefly responsible for the rise of the analytic method in twentieth-century philosophy. This selection of his writings shows Moore at his very best. The classic essays are crucial to major philosophical debates that still resonate today. Amongst those included are: * A Defense of Common Sense * Certainty * Sense-Data * External and Internal Relations * Hume's Theory Explained * Is Existence a Predicate? * Proof of an External World (...)
     
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  35. Intelligence Without Representation.Rodney A. Brooks - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 47 (1--3):139-159.
    Artificial intelligence research has foundered on the issue of representation. When intelligence is approached in an incremental manner, with strict reliance on interfacing to the real world through perception and action, reliance on representation disappears. In this paper we outline our approach to incrementally building complete intelligent Creatures. The fundamental decomposition of the intelligent system is not into independent information processing units which must interface with each other via representations. Instead, the intelligent system is decomposed into independent and parallel activity (...)
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  36.  4
    Belief, Language, and Experience.Rodney Needham - 1972 - Blackwell.
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  37.  26
    Hauntings, Homeopathy, and the Hopkinsville Goblins: Using Pseudoscience to Teach Scientific Thinking.Rodney Schmaltz & Scott O. Lilienfeld - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  38.  60
    Neurodemocracy: Self-Organization of the Embodied Mind.Linus Huang - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Sydney
    This thesis contributes to a better conceptual understanding of how self-organized control works. I begin by analyzing the control problem and its solution space. I argue that the two prominent solutions offered by classical cognitive science (centralized control with rich commands, e.g., the Fodorian central systems) and embodied cognitive science (distributed control with simple commands, such as the subsumption architecture by Rodney Brooks) are merely two positions in a two-dimensional solution space. I outline two alternative positions: one is distributed (...)
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  39.  37
    The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance.Rodney Bruce Hall & Thomas J. Biersteker (eds.) - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    The emergence of private authority has become a feature of the post-Cold War world. The contributors to this volume examine the implications of this erosion of the power of the state for global governance. They analyse actors as diverse as financial institutions, multinational corporations, religious terrorists and organised criminals. The themes of the book relate directly to debates concerning globalization and the role of international law, and will be of interest to scholars and students of international relations, politics, sociology and (...)
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  40. Economics, Ethics, and Religion: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Economic Thought.Rodney Wilson - 1997 - New York University Press.
    "Written in a racy, persuasive style, the book impresses the reader as a work of significant scholarship...I encourage students of comparative religions- and especially those of Islamic economics- to read it with great care."&$151; Islamic Studies The worlds of economics and theology rarely intersect. The former appears occupied exclusively with the concrete equations of supply and demand, while the latter revolves largely around the less tangible concerns of the soul and spirit. Intended as an interfaith clarification of the relationship between (...)
     
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  41.  22
    Models of Brain Function.Rodney M. J. Cotterill (ed.) - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is an exciting time for brain science. Recent progress has been such that it now seems realistic to look toward an explanation of mind in terms of the brain's anatomy and physiology. Models based on artificially symmetrical arrays of idealized neurons are now being superseded by ones which properly take into account the brain's actual circuitry. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the current state of brain modeling, containing contributions from many leading researchers in this field. It will (...)
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  42.  3
    Holistic Transformation Leading to Sustainable Development in China.Chan Kei Thong - 2015 - Creative and Knowledge Society 5 (1):6-15.
    China’s phenomenal economic development since 1979 has caught the attention and envy of the rest of the world. 500 million Chinese have been lifted out of poverty since then.1 Yet, it has come with a huge price which threatens not only China but the rest of the world. These challenges include corruption, environmental issues, social inequalities and a rapidly aging population. If China is not able to overcome any of these, then its development will not be sustainable and the impact (...)
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  43. Belief, Language and Experience.Rodney Needham - 1974 - Mind 83 (332):634-635.
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  44. New Approaches to Robotics.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    In order to build autonomous robots that can carry out useful work in unstructured environments new approaches have been developed to building intelligent systems. The relationship to traditional academic robotics and traditional artificial intelligence is examined. In the new approaches a tight coupling of sensing to action produces architectures for intelligence that are networks of simple computational elements which are quite broad, but not very deep. Recent work within this approach has demonstrated the use of representations, expectations, plans, goals, and (...)
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  45.  61
    A Robot That Walks; Emergent Behaviors From a Carefully Evolved Network.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    Most animals have significant behavioral expertise built in without having to explicitly learn it all from scratch. This expertise is a product of evolution of the organism; it can be viewed as a very long term form of learning which provides a structured system within which individuals might learn more specialized skills or abilities. This paper suggests one possible mechanism for analagous robot evolution by describing a carefully designed series of networks, each one being a strict augmentation of the previous (...)
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  46.  94
    Marxism, Morality, and Social Justice.Rodney G. Peffer - 1990 - Princeton University Press.
    In this book R. G. Peffer tackles the challenges of finding in Marx's work an implicit moral theory, of answering claims that Marxism is incompatible with morality, and of developing the outlines of an adequate Marxist moral and social ...
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  47.  27
    Exploring the Ethics and Economics of Global Labor Standards: A Challenge to Integrated Social Contract Theory.Rodney Stevenson - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):193-220.
    The challenge that confronts corporate decision-makers in connection with global labor conditions is often in identifying the standardsby which they should govern themselves. In an effort to provide greater direction in the face of possible global cultural conflicts, ethicistsThomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee draw on social contract theory to develop a method for identifying basic human rights: Integrated Social Contract Theory (ISCT). In this paper, we apply ISCT to the challenge of global labor standards, attempting to identify labor rights that (...)
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  48.  20
    Enchanted Looms: Conscious Networks in Brains and Computers.Rodney M. J. Cotterill - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    The title of this book was inspired by a passage in Charles Sherrington's Man on his Nature.
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  49.  40
    Micro Foundations of Religion: A Revised Theory.Rodney Stark - 1999 - Sociological Theory 17 (3):264-289.
    In a major revision of my earlier theoretical work on religion, I attempt to identify and connect the basic micro elements and processes underlying religious expression. I show that all primary aspects of religion-belief, emotion, ritual, prayer, sacrifice, mysticism, and miracle-can be understood on the basis of exchange relations between humans and supernatural beings. Although I utilize a cognitive definition of religion, this new version of the theory is especially concerned with the emotional and expressive aspects of religion. Along the (...)
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  50.  30
    History and Class-Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics.Rodney Livingstone - 1974 - Philosophical Review 83 (3):419-424.
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