The oriental culture has generally been known to bloom in China in regional framework, and established the form of a country in ancient times, and continuously develop as Yu (虞) / Xia (夏) / Yin (殷) [Shang=商] / Zhou (周) in periodical framework. There are several documents to discover the origin along with archaeological and cultural configuration related to prehistory tales or the history of tribal settlement in ancient times. Unfortunately, however, there were few outputs that unveiled the original source (...) in cultural or theoretical angles. Generally, a certain race and a local culture can be a good resource to be considered, the base of ideology, and further, the root of philosophy in a country. It can be found that, in comparison with pre-history legends and archaeological research results, the source of Chinese philosophy is mainly composed of exterior cultures from foreign settlers rather than its own one. In short, it is possible to setup the preposition or hypothesis that the source of Chinese philosophy and thoughts was not from Han (漢) race, but from old Dongyi (東夷) race. Thus, it is necessary to study deeply on that point as a key clue, linking the characteristics of Zhouyi (周易) philosophy' which is the origin of Chinese philosophy to Dongyi culture. As mentioned in the passages above, it was demonstrated that the fundamental issue of Yi philosophy lies in the principle of time operation in Tiantao (天道), and the formulation of Yi philosophy, and through the analysis of fourteen saints in the process of review of Shengtong, (聖統) the stream of old saints by the principle of Lishu (曆數) more than half of saints were from Dongyi family. In addition, the historical fact that the Dongyi tribe had raised the Yin (Shang) culturewhich mainly formed the base of Chinese cultures as a ancient dynasty shows the deep relation between Zhouyi and the Dongyi culture, and further, it seems that the relation was from the tribe's realization of the principle of time operation of Heaven which had been accumulated for a long time as the culture of agricultural settlement, the conceptual characteristics in the Dongyi culture, and it can be found that the cultural characteristics are in connection with Yi philosophy which considers the principle of time operation in Tiantao as the fundamental ground. It also can be detected that they have connection with the original meaning ofseveral concepts in Yixue (易學) and the culture which emphasize the bottom line of the nature of time. This study focused on questioning issues of these findings as a preliminary research in order to prepare for the formal works which will scrutinize the details of circumstances. In brief, the fact that the fundamental issue of Yi philosophy which is the source of Chinese philosophy lies in the nature of time in the operation of Tiantao should be demonstrated, and the matter that the root was from the Dongyi family who had lived in the north-eastern area in the ancient period and had raised the culture which stressed the principle of time operation as the agricultural settlement culture, and moved to the central area of old China should be unveiled through the trace, which, in the future, might be able to enlighten roots of thoughts in Chinese philosophy in the right course, and make them realize that the work process which is being operated in the north-eastern part would be of no use in the after all. (shrink)
Advertising and Consumption: Advertising and Social Change by Ronald Berman, Beverley Hills and London: Sage, , 1981, pp 159, £11.95 and £5.50 The Hidden Persuaders by Vance Packard, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981 pp 248, £1.75 Conspicuous Consumption by Roger S Mason, Farnbrough: Gower, 1981, pp x + 156, £9.50 Channels of Desire by Stuart Ewen and Elizabeth Ewen, New York and London: McGraw-Hill, 1982, pp viii + 312, $7.95.
Die nach den Konventionen der Alten Geschichte gemeinhin mit dem Beginn der Regierungszeit des Kaisers Diokletian einsetzende Epoche der Spätantike zeitigte eine Fülle von administrativen und fiskalischen Reformen, die sich auch in Änderungen der Zeitrechnung in den Provinzen des Reiches niederschlugen. Am besten studieren lassen sich diese Auswirkungen in der Provinz Ägypten, wo mit den Papyri eine Fülle von datierten administrativen Aufzeichnungen sowie öffentlichen und privaten Urkunden zur Verfügung steht. Hier manifestiert sich in diesen Phänomenen zugleich die zunehmende Angleichung Ägyptens (...) an die administrativen und fiskalischen Strukturen in den anderen Provinzen des Reiches, wenn man so will die „Romanisierung“ Ägyptens, deren Ergebnis das Verschwinden zahlreicher Besonderheiten war, durch welche sich in der frühen und hohen Kaiserzeit die Verhältnisse in Ägypten von denen in den übrigen Teilen des Reiches signifikant unterschieden haben, wenngleich dieser Umstand es nach der Auffassung des Rez. keinesfalls rechtfertigt, der Provinz als solcher einen Sonderstatus im römischen Reichsverband zuzuschreiben, wie dies eine traditionelle Richtung der althistorischen Forschung lange Zeit getan hat und teilweise immer noch tut. Die weltweit besten Kenner der diversen chronologischen Systeme des byzantinischen Ägypten und der mit ihnen zusammenhängenden, z. T. äußerst verwickelten Probleme sind zweifellos Roger S. Bagnall und Klaas A. Worp , die bereits vor 27 Jahren mit den „Chronological systems of Byzantine Egypt“ eine Summe der aus ihrer Editionstätigkeit erwachsenden intensiven Beschäftigung mit den chronologischen Problemen byzantinischer Urkunden aus Ägypten vorgelegt und nicht nur dem Editor solcher Dokumente im besonderen, sondern auch der historischen und papyrologischen Forschung im allgemeinen ein unentbehrliches Hilfsmittel an die Hand gegeben haben. Schon ein Jahr später folgten mit den aus ihrer Feder stammenden „Regnal Formulas in Byzantine Egypt“ und 1987 mit den zusammen mit A. Cameron und S. Schwartz verfaßten „Consuls of the Later Roman Empire“ zwei weitere solcher unverzichtbaren Hilfsmittel, die den auf dem Gebiet der epigraphischen und papyrologischen Hinterlassenschaft der Spätantike tätigen Forschern die Arbeit beträchtlich erleichtern. In Anbetracht des in der seit dem Erscheinen von CSBE vestrichenen Zeit enorm angewachsenen Quellenmaterials, welches nicht nur vielfältige neue chronologische Probleme aufwarf, sondern auch bereits bekannte in neuem Licht erscheinen ließ – einen Prozeß, den B&W mit zahlreichen Artikeln zur Chronologie der Papyrusdokumente des byzantinischen Ägypten gewissermaßen kommentierend begleitet haben – bedarf diese Neuauflage der CSBE sicherlich keiner Rechtfertigung. Auch wenn mit der Volltextdatenbank der „Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri“ sowie mit dem „Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens“ nunmehr – zum Zeitpunkt der Erstauflage der CSBE noch nicht existente – äußerst nützliche digitale Ressourcen zur Verfügung stehen, die die Sammlung und chronologische Auswertung der Dokumente bedeutend erleichtern , so ist dies zweifellos immer noch eine mühe- und entsagungsvolle Kärrnerarbeit, für die den beiden Autoren nicht hoch genug gedankt werden kann. Hinzu kommt, daß sich diese Arbeit nicht nur auf die Sammlung der Dokumente und der ggfs. seit ihrer Edition erfolgten Berichtigungen beschränkt, sondern B&W in zahlreichen Fällen auch selbst Lesungen überprüft und berichtigt haben. (shrink)
The purpose of this review is to bring to the attention to a wider, specialised audience a special issue of the UK journal, Ethnographic Studies. The special issue, compiled and edited by Andrew Carlin and Roger Slack, is a Festschrift in honour of Egon Bittner (1921–2011). The readership of Human Studies might be aware of Egon Bittner as one of the circle surrounding Harold Garfinkel and Harvey Sacks in the early and preparatory days of ethnomethodology between 1955 and 1965.This (...) collection of papers can be divided into three sets. The introduction, biographical, and “contribution pieces,” give an account of parts of Bittner’s life, his work with others and the contribution he made within the various collaborations and seminars which he attended and where his contributions were recorded. The second set, probably most valuable to the ethnomethodological reader, are the papers which could be described as Bittner’s contributions to sociological method and methodology. Contained within th .. (shrink)
According to the Imprecise Credence Framework (ICF), a rational believer's doxastic state should be modelled by a set of probability functions rather than a single probability function, namely, the set of probability functions allowed by the evidence ( Joyce  ). Roger White (  ) has recently given an arresting argument against the ICF, which has garnered a number of responses. In this article, I attempt to cast doubt on his argument. First, I point out that it's not (...) an argument against the ICF per se , but an argument for the Principle of Indifference. Second, I present an argument that's analogous to White's. I argue that if White's premises are true, the premises of this argument are too. But the premises of my argument entail something obviously false. Therefore, White's premises must not all be true. (shrink)
ROGER SCRUTON’s An Intelligent Person’s Guide to Philosophy takes a personal and provocative look at the subject—those abstract, but nevertheless practical, problems that concern anyone who has reflected on his or her life. Of special delight is his discussion of sex and music. I make some brief critical comments on this based on new economic approaches.
Nam-In Lee’s impressive study of “instinct” in Husserl1 gives a new sense to Husserl’s self-description of his work as a preoccupation with beginnings (see p. x) because it seeks not only to integrate the theme of instinct systematically into Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology but to demonstrate that it has a fundamental position. I believe the author has successfully demonstrated his contention that other students of Husserl who have treated the theme of instinct as a marginal consideration failed to see that Husserl’s (...) genetic phenomenology requires the theory of instinct as its fundamental ingredient (Urstück, 10). The theme of instinct therefore informs the sense of Husserl’s later understanding of transcendental subjectivity and monadology. The book is so packed with discussions that the inevitable omissions of a review run the risk of distorting the merits of the work. (shrink)
"The Emperor's New Mind" by Roger Penrose has received a great deal of both praise and criticism. This review discusses philosophical aspects of the book that form an attack on the "strong" AI thesis. Eight different versions of this thesis are distinguished, and sources of ambiguity diagnosed, including different requirements for relationships between program and behaviour. Excessively strong versions attacked by Penrose (and Searle) are not worth defending or attacking, whereas weaker versions remain problematic. Penrose (like Searle) regards the (...) notion of an algorithm as central to AI, whereas it is argued here that for the purpose of explaining mental capabilities the architecture of an intelligent system is more important than the concept of an algorithm, using the premise that what makes something intelligent is not what it does but how it does it. What needs to be explained is also unclear: Penrose thinks we all know what consciousness is and claims that the ability to judge Go "del's formula to be true depends on it. He also suggests that quantum phenomena underly consciousness. This is rebutted by arguing that our existing concept of "consciousness" is too vague and muddled to be of use in science. This and related concepts will gradually be replaced by a more powerful theory-based taxonomy of types of mental states and processes. The central argument offered by Penrose against the strong AI thesis depends on a tempting but unjustified interpretation of Goedel's incompleteness theorem. Some critics are shown to have missed the point of his argument. A stronger criticism is mounted, and the relevance of mathematical Platonism analysed. Architectural requirements for intelligence are discussed and differences between serial and parallel implementations analysed. (shrink)
In his book Shadows of the Mind: A search for the missing science of con- sciousness [SM below], Roger Penrose has turned in another bravura perfor- mance, the kind we have come to expect ever since The Emperor’s New Mind [ENM ] appeared. In the service of advancing his deep convictions and daring conjectures about the nature of human thought and consciousness, Penrose has once more drawn a wide swath through such topics as logic, computa- tion, artiﬁcial intelligence, quantum (...) physics and the neuro-physiology of the brain, and has produced along the way many gems of exposition of diﬃcult mathematical and scientiﬁc ideas, without condescension, yet which should be broadly appealing.1 While the aims and a number of the topics in SM are the same as in ENM , the focus now is much more on the two axes that Pen- rose grinds in earnest. Namely, in the ﬁrst part of SM he argues anew and at great length against computational models of the mind and more speciﬁ- cally against any account of mathematical thought in computational terms. Then in the second part, he argues that there must be a scientiﬁc account of consciousness but that will require a (still to be found) non-computational extension or modiﬁcation of present-day quantum physics. (shrink)
Roger North's The Musicall Grammarian 1728 is a treatise on musical eloquence in all its branches. Of its five parts, I and II, on the orthoepy, orthography and syntax of music, constitute a grammar; III and IV, on the arts of invention and communication, form a rhetoric; and V, on etymology, consists of a history. Two substantial chapters of commentary introduce the text, which is edited here for the first time in its entirety: Jamie Kassler places his treatise within (...) the broader context not only of North's musical and non-musical writings but also their relation to the intellectual ferment of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and Mary Chan describes physical and textual aspects of the treatise as evidence for North's processes of thinking about musical thinking. (shrink)
In the 1330s Roger Swyneshed formulated a solution to semantic paradoxes based on the distinction between correspondence with reality and self-falsification as truth-making factors. Since Swyneshed states that some valid inferences are not truth-preserving, his view implies the question of the general definition of validity which he does not address explicitly. Logical works attributed to Paul of Venice contain developments of Swyneshed's contextualist semantics substantially modified by the assumption that sentential meanings are objective propositional entities. The main goals of (...) this paper are to show the correlations between the ontological and logical developments of Swyneshed's semantics in the works of Paul of Venice and to outline a context-sensitive formal semantics that could serve as a model of this family of semantic theories. (shrink)
This is a critical review of Roger Crisp's The Cosmos of Duty. The review praises the book but, among other things, takes issue with some of Crisp's criticisms of Sidgwick's view that resolution of the free will problem is of limited significance to ethics and with Crisp's claim that in Methods III.xiii Sidgwick defends an axiom of prudence that undergirds rational egoism.
Comments on Roger Ariew’s “Descartes and Leibniz as Readers of Suarez," presented at Franscico Suarez, S.J.: Last Medieval or First Early Modern?, London, Ontario, University of Western Ontario, September 2008.
In [Dutilh Novaes, Medieval-obligations as logical Games of Consistency maintenance, synthese, (2004)], I proposed a reconstruction of Walter Burley’s theory of obligationes, based on the idea that Burley’s theory of obligationes could be seen as a logical game of consistency maintenance. In the present paper, I intend to test the game hypothesis on another important theory of obligationes, namely Roger Swyneshed’s theory. In his treatise on obligationes [edited by P.V. Spade, cf. Spade History and philosophy of Logic 3(1982) 1-32], (...) Swyneshed introduced significant modifications to the general framework of obligationes. To compare the two theories, I apply the same formal apparatus used in the previous paper. It will become patent that Swyneshed’s theory is considerably different from Burley’s, among other reasons because the dynamic aspects that play a major role in the latter are simply not present in the former. My conclusion is that Swyneshed’s version of obligationes is not directed towards consistency maintenance, but rather towards inference recognition, and that it is, from a game-theoretical perspective, less interesting a theory than Burley’s. (shrink)
Apart from being a prolific philosopher, Roger Scruton is also an accomplished writer of novels, poems, short stories, libretti and literary memoirs. In this article I will explore how Scruton's literary writings relate to his philosophy. I shall argue that one concept, pivotal to Scruton's philosophy, is also a main Leitmotiv of his literary work: home. The longing to be at home in the world is integral to our human nature. Several phenomena, as Scruton shows in his philosophy and (...) literary works, are indispensable in order for us to be able to fulfil the desire to belong: beauty, oikophilia, and the ability to engage with each other as persons. (shrink)
In [Dutilh Novaes, Medieval-obligations as logical Games of Consistency maintenance, synthese, ], I proposed a reconstruction of Walter Burley's theory of "obligationes", based on the idea that Burley's theory of obligationes could be seen as a logical game of consistency maintenance. In the present paper, I intend to test the game hypothesis on another important theory of "obligationes", namely Roger Swyneshed's theory. In his treatise on "obligationes" [edited by P.V. Spade, cf. Spade History and philosophy of Logic 3 1-32], (...) Swyneshed introduced significant modifications to the general framework of "obligationes". To compare the two theories, I apply the same formal apparatus used in the previous paper. It will become patent that Swyneshed's theory is considerably different from Burley's, among other reasons because the dynamic aspects that play a major role in the latter are simply not present in the former. My conclusion is that Swyneshed's version of "obligationes" is not directed towards consistency maintenance, but rather towards inference recognition, and that it is, from a game-theoretical perspective, less interesting a theory than Burley's. (shrink)
Robert Corrington's ever-emerging theory of ecstatic naturalism is dense with possibilities for secondary studies. The task of attending to the rich theoretical territory of Corrington's philosophical world is in itself deserving of many monograph-length treatments. Nam T. Nguyen's Natures Primal Self not only takes on this task but also triples the workload by attempting to compare and contrast Corrington's ideas with the philosophies of Charles Peirce and Karl Jaspers, who are notably difficult to penetrate in their own right and conspicuously (...) disparate from one another. As would be expected, Nguyen's study brings a plethora of interesting philosophical questions to the foreground with respect to these three .. (shrink)
The aesthetic spirit in Paik Nam June’s video art, TV Buddha, originated in the aesthetics of Zen Buddhism, and the parameters that established Paik’s aesthetic comprised the indigenous Eastern aesthetic idea of dongjing 動靜. Yi 逸 is the paramount aesthetic in Zen Buddhism, suggesting the transcendence of preexisting tracks and conventions. Paik’s behavioral music, to which he was dedicated before pioneering video art in earnest, was related to yi in terms of the complete aspects of forms, themes, and so on, (...) evidently under the influence of avant-garde musical composer John Cage. The Zen Buddhist aesthetic—and Paik’s artistic motto—is to capture the essence of the self and the world through the destruction of stereotypes. Paik’s artistic uniqueness lies in his attempts to combine his traditional culture and spirit—the culture and ideas of Korea and Eastern Asia—with cutting-edge technology. The hallmark of Paik’s video art can be understood as a suggestion of philosophical subjects guided by the interrelation between a graphical presentation on a TV screen and the whole installation setup. The philosophical subject in TV Buddha is Zen Buddhist meditation symbolized in the structure of dongjing. (shrink)
Roger Bacon’s On the Multiplication of Species is an attempt to analyze efficient causality in terms of forces that are multiplied from agent to patient. This essay argues that this has significant implications for the traditional distinction between appearance and reality in that Bacon refuses to think efficient cause in terms of some other reality that does not appear and yet is the ground of appearance.
The title Descartes and the First Cartesians only partly reflects the scope of the research presented in Roger Ariew's latest book. To be sure, this study does offer a new and extensive account of the work of the first Cartesians and thus a new perspective on the historical phenomenon that was seventeenth century Cartesianism. Yet it does so on the basis of a vast survey of the Scholastic context from which the new philosophy emerged. The investigation of Cartesianism is (...) thus given shape by the inquiry into Scholasticism. From this point of view, Descartes and the First Cartesians takes up and completes the research Ariew presented in... (shrink)
If one looks at the controversial premises of analytical approaches to fascism according to Roger Griffin, it is not surprising that a yawning distance has opened up between Marxist and non-Marxist schools of interpretation. In this situation whereby two camps are mutually ignorant of one another, it is certainly suggestive that the liberal British theoretician of fascism should put himself forward to play the role of a ‘mediator’, even if he faces the danger of significant criticism from both schools (...) of interpretation. But Griffin’s attempt takes place on a predominantly theoretical level. The author of this essay instead places the notion of revolution in historical-empirical perspective, in order to distinguish it from the account associated with (liberal) representatives of the ‘new consensus’. He then examines, in particular, whether National Socialism represented a utopia which satisfied revolutionary aspirations. The author further asks whether fascism could separate itself from its (early) conservative support to an extent that would permit commentators to meaningfully identify a revolutionary breakthrough. And finally he clarifies what the modernizing achievements of fascism during its time in power actually were. Against this background, there does seem at least the possibility of a dialogue between the two approaches that would advance each of them. (shrink)
İslam'daki manevi hayatın ve ahlaki değerlerin ismi olan tasavvuf, İslam düşünce tarihinde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Yerel ve evrensel birçok unsuru içinde barındıran bu akım, dinin maneviyat boyutunu ön olanda tutar. İslam toplumu, ruhi ve manevi değerlerin birçoğunu tasavvufa ve onun kurumsal ifadesi olan tarikatlara borçlu olduğu görülmektedir. Tasavvufun en önemli özelliklerinde birisi, bireyin gündelik hayatının akışına müdahil olmasıdır. Dinin bireyin dünyasına nüfuzu anlamına gelen dindarlık ise bireyin günlük dünyasının duygusal yönlerinde Sufizmin etkisiyle güçlü değişiklikler meydana getirmektedir. Bununla beraber tasavvuf, (...) bireysel dinginliğin yanı sıra toplumsal alanda kendini gerçekleştiren bir maneviyat hareketi olma özelliği taşır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kendini dindar olarak tanımlayan öğrencilerin dine tasavvufa, tarikatlara ve rabıta olgusuna bakışını sosyolojik olarak analiz etmektir. Bundan dolayı, kendini dindar olarak tanımlayan bireylerin tasavvuf, tarikat ve rabıta olgularına yaklaşımlarına odaklanılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın temel tezi hem tasavvufun bireyin hayatını değiştirdiği hem de bazı olumsuzluklarına rağmen dindar öğrencilerin tasavvufa olumlu yaklaştıklarıdır. Tasavvuf, bireyin dünyasında dinin derinleşmesine katkı sunmaktadır. Nitel verilere dayanarak yapılan, Tekirdağ Namık Kemal Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi’nde okuyan ve kendini dindar olarak tanımlayan öğrencilerle gerçekleştirilen mülakat verilerinin analizine dayanan bu makale, tasavvufun gündelik hayat içindeki varlığını tartışmayı amaçlamaktadır. İki ana bölümden oluşan bu makalenin ilk bölümünde toplumsal bir aktör olarak tasavvuf ile beraber gündelik hayatın sosyolojisine, ikinci bölümde de Tekirdağ Namık Kemal Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi dördüncü sınıfta okuyan dindar öğrencilerle yapılan mülakat verilerine odaklanılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde ise tasavvuf, tarikat, rabıta ile beraber tasavvufi yaşamın gündelik hayata etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak yerel ve evrensel unsurları içinde barındıran tasavvuf, hem dinin etkisini artırarak bireyin dindarlaşmasına hem de ahlaklı bir toplumun oluşmasına katkı sunmaktadır. Tasavvuf kökenli dini grupların bazı ritüellerine karşı çıkmakla beraber tasavvuf olgusuna olumlu yaklaşan öğrencilere göre tasavvufun bireyin gündelik hayatında sağlamış olduğu temel katkı, dinin pratik ve ritüel boyutunu da içeren ahlak alanındadır. Bundan dolayı tasavvuf, ahlaki eylemler üzerinden toplumsal ve bireysel hayata etki etmekte ve bireyin eylem dünyasını biçimlendirmektedir. Bu bağlamda öğrencilerin nazarında tasavvuf merkezli dini grupların etkili ve meşru olmalarının sebebi, ahlakın merkezde olduğu bir dinselliği görünür kılmalarıdır. Bunun yanı sıra hem eğitim-öğretim sistemi hem de İlahiyat fakültelerindeki eğitim, sadece öğretimi esas aldığı ve pratiği dışarıda bıraktığı için eleştirilmektedir. Bu bağlamda bilgi ile eylemi harmanlayan yeni bir eğitim anlayışına olan ihtiyacın varlığı ortaya çıkmıştır. (shrink)
Roger W. Sperry received the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1981 for his outstanding scientific achievements in connection with the study of people with severed brain commissures. Sperry linked the results of his research to philosophical considerations pertaining to the conscious mind of human beings and its place in the natural sciences. He was interested in the philosophical question of whether or not the severing of the cerebral hemispheres constituted a violation of the unity of consciousness. Sperry’s explanatory account (...) of mind-body interaction forms part of a broadly construed theory of emergent interactionism – one that also purports to guarantee the unity of consciousness. In this article, I first present an intellectual profile of Sperry, outlining the evolution of his philosophical-scientific analyses. I then outline the emergence and flourishing of theories of emergence, along with the elements essentially associated with them. Using this as a basis, I go on to consider Sperry’s account of emergent interaction more closely, focusing on his understanding of downward causation. In conclusion, I show how his theory corresponds to a version of emergent interactionism, and seek to address some criticisms leveled against it. I also aim to establish how far this theory can be said to answer the question of the conscious character of mental states. (shrink)
Roger Haight's Christology is an instance of distinctively modern Vermittlungstheologie, to be distinguished from biblical or traditional versions of mediation because it employs an apologetic method to restore putatively lost Christological immediacies. In so far as such a theology seek to communicate Christian doctrine “in a language of commonly shared principles”, it cannot do justice to Jesus Christ's singularity—although the best way to further criticize any mediating Christology would be by developing an alternative neither traditionalist, modernist, or mediating.
The paper examines the different uses of and responses to Aristotle’s account of science in the first wave of interpretation of Aristotle’s theory of science and works in natural science and metaphysics in the early 13th century in Roger Bacon and Albert the Great. The author argues that Bacon reduces all the disciplines to mathematics as the most scientific discipline, even as he argues that experimentum is at the center of scientific evidence and conclusions. Albert the Great, by contrast, (...) gives a more strongly analogical account of science, with broader differences between different disciplines as operating according to different intellectual ‘lights’ and methods. Albert champions experimentum in physics in a special way, rejecting a mathematical physics. (shrink)
This article considers the relationship between subjectivity and representational form. More specifically, it discusses the transformation in self-representation between life and death by the artist Roger de la Fresnaye, reflecting his modernist articulations of life to pre-modern, classicist figurations of death. For the artist, modernity could not bear the demands that dying made upon representation, as unable to fully accord death a sign. Modernity's dissolution of the subject annihilated the very permanence of identity and presence that death guaranteed, but (...) without its covenant of ritual and history. Instead, classicism provided a coherent anterior body, another face from which he could speak after death: “one” would always be present to speak for him. The face therefore addresses culture through its specific appeal to, and demand of, time, space, and history. (shrink)
This paper argues that in attempting to protect the religious life from the sullying influence of worldly affairs, Roger Williams participated, albeit unintentionally, in creating the economic conditions that led to the birth of American capitalism. Although Williams argued for a separation of church and state, he did so not in the interest of defending economic liberty, but instead to preserve the sanctity of the church against the frequent immorality that seemed to him required in worldly governance. Questions of (...) pricing and wages, lending and interest—issues that would until Williams’s intervention have been handled by the church in terms of Aquinas’ just price theory—fell outside of the church’s purview according to the new model described by Williams. The result was the creation of an “amoral” public space where the effective separation between spiritual and material concerns led to a kind of free-by-default economic marketplace. This paper traces the development and inadvertent consequences of this essentially theological idea as it took shape in the colonial era. (shrink)
This article considers the relationship between subjectivity and representational form. More specifically, it discusses the transformation in self-representation between life and death by the artist Roger de la Fresnaye, reflecting his modernist articulations of life to pre-modern, classicist figurations of death. For the artist, modernity could not bear the demands that dying made upon representation, as unable to fully accord death a sign. Modernity's dissolution of the subject annihilated the very permanence of identity and presence that death guaranteed, but (...) without its covenant of ritual and history. Instead, classicism provided a coherent anterior body, another face from which he could speak after death: ?one? would always be present to speak for him. The face therefore addresses culture through its specific appeal to, and demand of, time, space, and history. (shrink)