Depuis une vingtaine d’années, on assiste un peu partout à un regain d’intérêt pour les écrits socratiques de Xénophon. Que Xénophon ne nous donne pas davantage que Platon un portrait historiquement fiable de Socrate peut être considéré comme un acquis de la critique du XXe siècle. Laissant transparaître dans son témoignage des options profondément différentes de celles de Platon, Xénophon témoigne par là même, cependant, des tensions, voire des oppositions qui traversaient le milieu socratique autour du souvenir et de la (...) compréhension de la personne de Socrate : cette seule considération suffit à faire de Xénophon une source essentielle pour notre connaissance de l’immédiat « après Socrate » et, par delà, pour notre intelligence de l’histoire de la réception de Socrate dans les siècles ultérieurs.Le colloque dont sont issues les études rassemblées dans ce volume, organisé à l’Université de Provence du 6 au 9 novembre 2003, s’inscrit dans cette perspective. Plus qu’un bilan de la nouvelle orientation des études xénophontiennes, qu’il est encore trop tôt pour établir, on y verra l’illustration de la diversité d’approches dont est susceptible le témoignage de Xénophon sur Socrate. Due à Louis-André Dorion, une bibliographie des études sur les écrits socratiques de Xénophon publiées dans le dernier quart de siècle témoigne de la vitalité retrouvée de ce domaine de recherche. (shrink)
How do we thrive in our behaviors and experiences? Positive neuroscience research illuminates the brain mechanisms that enable human flourishing. Supported by the John Templeton Foundation's Positive Neuroscience Project, which Martin E. P. Seligman established in 2008, Positive Neuroscience provides an intersection between neuroscience and positive psychology.In this edited volume, leading researchers describe the neuroscience of social bonding, altruism, and the capacities for resilience and creativity. Part I describes the mechanisms that enable humans to connect with one another. Part II (...) focuses on the neural mechanisms underlying the human ability and willingness to confer costly benefits on others. Part III examines the mechanisms by which human brains overcome adversity, create, and discover. Specific topics include: a newly discovered nerve type that appears to be specialized for emotional communication; the effects of parenting on the male brain; how human altruism differs from that of other primates; the neural features of extraordinary altruists who have donated kidneys to strangers; and distinctive patterns of brain wiring that endow some people with exceptional musical abilities. Accessible to a broad academic audience, from advanced undergraduates to senior scholars, these subjects have generated a fascinating and highly convergent set of ideas and results, shaping our understanding of human nature. (shrink)
Plato's Euthyrphro, Apology, andCrito portray Socrates' words and deeds during his trial for disbelieving in the Gods of Athens and corrupting the Athenian youth, and constitute a defense of the man Socrates and of his way of life, the philosophic life. The twelve essays in the volume, written by leading classical philosophers, investigate various aspects of these works of Plato, including the significance of Plato's characters, Socrates's revolutionary religious ideas, and the relationship between historical events and Plato's texts.
Compelled by recent public and politicized cases in which withdrawal of nutrition and hydration were at issue, this essay examines recent Church statements and argues that the distinction between private and public forms of human life is being lost. Effacing the distinction between the sphere of the home (oikos), where the maintenance of life (zoē) occurs, and the city (polis), where political and public life (bios) occurs, may have unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Through their well-intentioned efforts to preserve the sanctity (...) of life, certain bishops and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith have unfortunately brought political considerations into the home, taking decision-making authority away from those most intimately related to the patient. Thus, the question of removing nutrition and hydration in the case of patients such as Schiavo and Englaro becomes politicized and abstract, in contrast with the Church's previous positions on the importance of proportionate means in the maintenance of life, local decision making, and its recognition of life as a penultimate end. (shrink)
In an attempt to gain some control over ever escalating health care cost, many organizations have moved to a managed care concept of health benefits. Managed care health benefit strategies account for well over 90 percent of all employer sponsored health benefit programs.In essence, managed care coverage usually demands, at a minimum, some form of utilization review in regard to provider services. Thus the privacy of the traditional doctor patient relationship must inevitably be modified when managed care enters the picture.
Dreaming in sleep must depend on the activity of the brain as does cognition and memory in wakefulness. Yet our understanding of the physiological subtleties of state differences may still be too primitive to guide theories adequately in these areas. One can state nonetheless unequivocally that the brain in REM is poorly equipped to practice for eventualities of wakefulness through dreaming, or for consolidating into memory the complex experiences of that state. [Hobson et al., Nielsen, Solms, Vertes & Eastman, Revonsuo].