It may seem to their opponents that they are trying to have their cake and eat it too. Postmodernists admit that their own paradigm must be and will be placed into question by future thinkers. But if they can anticipate an eventual reaffirmation of their paradoxical stand in an ongoing oscillating debate, then cannot it be said that they have arrived at a truth that transcends their time and place in history? And, if so, is not their fallibilist stance in (...) fact self-referentially inconsistent? The response of postmodernists is the claim that each reaffirmation of a fallibilist epistemology and ethics throughout history is in fact sui generis. And this is the case because each reaffirmation has its own unique context within which it is made. Modernists will of course argue that these contextual differences are nonessential and irrelevant. And the debate over the problem of the One and the Many is once again launched in a new context. Thus far from running away from the paradoxical position that what they assert is both true and false, postmodernists revel in such inconsistencies.But does not such an ethical stance resemble the Sisyphean nightmare of being condemned to roll a heavy stone up a cliff only to have it keep falling back to the bottom ad infinitum? If no decision is innocent of doing some harm in the world, why should we bother to play the moral game at all? Indeed, what possible help is a postmodernist ethics when it comes to making some of the complex and crucial decisions we face today if it refuses to say anything substantial beyond the recommendations that we be cautious and balanced?And the postmodernist can only reply that we are letting our neurotic need for solid foundations frighten us. For ethics is an art not a science. There are no absolute rules. If we do not like the way the game is set up, then we are simply revealing our ultimate hubris in the face of a mystery requiring deep humility. (shrink)
Despite a long period of neglect, research on emotion in organizational behavior has developed into a major field over the past 15 years, and is now seen to be part of an affective revolution in the organization sciences. In this article, we review current research on emotion in the organizational behavior field based on five levels of analysis: within person, between persons, dyadic interactions, leadership and teams, and organization-wide. Specific topics we cover include affective events theory, state and trait affect (...) and mood, emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional contagion, emotions and leadership, and building a healthy emotional climate. We conclude with suggestions for future research. (shrink)
Adrian Furnham, The Protestant Work Ethic. The Psychology of Work‐related Beliefs and Behaviour, Routledge, Chapman & Hall, London and New York, 1990, pp. xv + 305, pb, £13.99, ISBN 0‐425‐01705‐X.Carl‐Henric Grenholm, Protestant Work Ethics: A Study of Work Ethical Theories in Contemporary Protestant Theology, Uppsala Studies in Social Ethics 15, Uppsala, 1993, pp. 350, np.
This article explores the relevance of the thought of Ignatius of Loyola regarding moral discernment of the magis for adjudicating the debate between traditionalists and proportionalists in contemporary Catholic ethical theory. The Ignatian criteria for discerning the magis have ceteris paribus qualifiers attached. The relevance of this type of qualifier for ethical theory in general is assessed by examining contemporary analytic philosophy’s quest to interpret what W. D. Ross means by prima facie obligations. The similarity between his thought and that (...) of Ignatius is explored, as well as the resulting paradoxical implications for resolving the debate between traditionalists and proportionalists. (shrink)
Stone argues that religion must be understood in its connections with world politics for the successful conduct of foreign policy. Without peace among religions, there can be no peace, and without understanding the role of religion in politics, there can be neither peace nor successful foreign policy.
Many of the ten practices to abolish war of just peacemaking theory can be appropriated by classical realist thinkers to illumine possibilities of more peace for the post-cold war situation. The optimism of just peacemaking theory about abolishing war, however, does not need to be appropriated. Realist participation in the just peacemaking project can proceed but only with reservations about what seems to be a mixture of optimism and Kantian idealism about the future peacefulness of a capitalist world, and the (...) illusion that war will disappear from the world. Realism, grounded more in the prophets than the just peacemaking project and more in the prophets' moral critique than in Thucydides' cynicism, provides a stronger foundation for policy advice than the Sermon on the Mount which did not focus on international relations. The striking lack of attention by Jesus to questions of the management of the Roman Empire and the ethics of war and peace permits Christians to consult books of the Bible where international relations and foreign policy are prominent for moral wisdom on the subject. (shrink)
In spite of Stein and Glasier's justifiable conclusion that initial optimism concerning the immediate clinical applicability of neural transplantation was premature, there exists much experimental evidence to support the potential for incorporating this procedure into a therapeutic arsenal in the future. To realize this potential will require continued evolution of our knowledge at multiple levels of the clinical and basic neurosciences.