Since psychiatry remains a descriptive discipline, it is essential for its practitioners to understand how the language of psychiatry came to be formed. This important book, written by a psychiatrist-historian, traces the genesis of the descriptive categories of psychopathology and examines their interaction with the psychological and philosophical context within which they arose. The author explores particularly the language and ideas that have characterised descriptive psychopathology from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. He presents a masterful survey of the (...) history of the main psychiatric symptoms, from the metaphysics of classical antiquity to the operational criteria of today. Tracing the evolution of concepts such as memory, consciousness, will and personality, and of symptoms ranging from catalepsy and aboulia to anxiety and self-harm, this book provides fascinating insights into the subjective nature of mental illness, and into the ideas of British, Continental and American authorities who sought to clarify and define it. (shrink)
Este livro é o resultado do II Encontro Nacional de Pesquisadores em Filosofia e Psicanálise, realizado em 2006 na Universidade de São Paulo, e reúne vários pesquisadores em torno de três temas - a filosofia após Freud, os problemas ...
The idea that reasoning is a singular accomplishment of the human species has an ancient pedigree.Yet this idea remains as controversial as it is ancient. Those who would deny reasoning to nonhuman animals typically hold a language-based conception of inference which places it beyond the reach of languageless creatures. Others reject such an anthropocentric conception of reasoning on the basis of similar performance by humans and animals in some reasoning tasks, such as transitive inference. Here, building on the modal similarity (...) theory of Vigo [J Exp Theor Artif Intell, 2008 (in press)], we offer an account in which reasoning depends on a core suite of subsymbolic processes for similarity assessment, discrimination, and categorization. We argue that premise-based inference operates through these subsymbolic processes, even in humans. Given the robust discrimination and categorization abilities of some species of nonhuman animals, we believe that they should also be regarded as capable of simple forms of inference. Finally, we explain how this account of reasoning applies to the kinds of transitive inferences that many nonhuman animals display. (shrink)
Watsuji Tetsurô’s Ethics is one of the most important works in Japanese ethical thought. But scholarly research in English has largely focused on the first of three volumes of Ethics, leaving the latter two oft-neglected. In order to balance out the views of Watsuji’s ethics, this paper focuses on the contributions of the second and third volumes of Ethics. These volumes are essential for any concrete understanding of Watsuji’s ‘ethics of emptiness’. The second volume develops the ideas of the first, (...) particularly how the dual-structure is concretely realized through the various stages of ethical organization. The third volume develops the notions of space and time from the first volume into a theory of climate and history. By analyzing these, we can understand Watsuji’s system as a whole and clarify Watsuji’s unique contribution to ethical theory. (shrink)
Watsuji Tetsurô is famous for having constructed a systematic socio-political ethics on the basis of the idea of emptiness. This essay examines his 1938 essay “The Concept of ‘Dharma’ and the Dialectics of Emptiness in Buddhist Philosophy” and the posthumously published The History of Buddhist Ethical Thought, in order to clarify the Buddhist roots of his ethics. It aims to answer two main questions which are fundamentally linked: “Which way does Watsuji's legacy turn: toward totalitarianism or toward a balanced theory (...) of selflessness?” and “Is Watsuji's systematic ethics Buddhist?” In order to answer these questions, this essay discusses Watsuji's view of dharma, dependent arising, and morality in Hīnayāna Buddhism. It then proceeds to Watsuji's fine-tuning of the concept of emptiness in Mādhyamika and Yogācāra Buddhism. Finally, this essay shows how Watsuji's modernist Buddhist theory connects to his own systematic ethical theory. These two theories share a focus on non-duality, negation, and emptiness. But they differ in their accounts of the relations between the individual and the community, between the “is” and the “ought,” and between hermeneutics and transcendence. These findings give us hints as to Watsuji's origins, pitfalls, and possibilities. (shrink)
O texto apresenta algumas reflexões sobre qual o papel do erudito nas sociedades humanas. De maneira mais específica procura-se verificar o que os eruditos podem fazer em momentos de crise política como a que a sociedade brasileira atravessa por exemplo. A obra chave para este texto é O destino do erudito de Fichte, articulada com algumas considerações históricas sobre a universidade e qual o estatuto do erudito na sua evolução.
El artículo reflexiona sobre las fases de la introducción en el pensamiento español de la Teoría Crítica. (1) En los años sesenta, las traducciones de Adorno o Marcuse coinciden con la influencia de otros elementos de la historia efectual del pensamiento de Marx. (2) En un segundo periodo, que abarca la transición y los primeros gobiernos socialdemócratas, las otras formas de marxismo se repliegan y se normaliza la producción española de tesis doctorales, artículos y libros sobre la Escuela de Frankfurt (...) y desde sus postulados. (3) Después de 1989, la crisis de una forma de marxismo influye en las otras, y asistimos a la normalización académica que coexiste con la necesidad de una reformulación profunda del paradigma crítico. (shrink)
Suplemento a / Some Additions to: Jose M. Sevilla, "Bibliografía viquiana en español", Cuadernos sobre Vico, 1, 1991, pp. 179-196 ; ID., "Añadido a la bibliografía viquiana en español", Cuadernos sobre Vico, 3, 1993, pp. 199-205 ; ID., "Nuevo añadido a la Bibliografía Viquiana en español", Cuadernos sobre Vico, 5/6, 1995-1996, pp. 419-422 ; ID., "Tercer añadido a la Bibliografía Viquiana en español", Cuadernos sobre Vico, 7/8, 1997, pp. 451-455 . 307 nuevas entradas / 307 new entries nn. 500 (...) - 807. (shrink)
Suplemento a / Some Additions to: José M. Sevilla, "Bibliografía viquiana en español" entradas / entries 1-266; ID., "Añadido a la Bibliografía viquiana en español" , entradas / entries 267-364. Ahora 62 nuevas entradas / 62 new entries now: 365-426.
RESUMO O tema do artigo é a relação arte e cidade, mediante o qual busca-se estudar a conformação do valor da arte numa sociedade de classes. Sua estrutura parte de um recorte da pesquisa em curso no âmbito do estágio sênior na Faculdade de Filosofia e Letras da Universidade de Buenos Aires entre 2013 e 2014. O texto se desenvolve em tópicos de temáticas complementares onde são analisadas as categorias estatuto social da cidade, a mercadoria arte, a alienação e a (...) banalização da criatividade com as dimensões econômico-política, estético-ideológica e moral-educativa da arte que se encontram engendradas historicamente na totalidade das relações sociais de produção configuradas na cidade. ABSTRACT The theme of this paper is the relationship between art and city, through which we seek to study the conformation of the value of art in a society of classes. Its structure is a piece of a research in progress under the senior stage in the College of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires between 2013 and 2014. The text develops into topics where additional subjects are analysed categories of city bylaws, merchandise art, alienation and the banalization of creativity with the aesthetic-ideological, economic-political and moral educational dimensions of art that are historically engendered in the totality of social relations of production set in the city. (shrink)
The term “Contemplative sciences” refers to an interdisciplinary approach to mind that aims at a better understanding of alternative states of consciousness, like those obtained trough deep concentration and meditation, mindfulness and other “superior” or “spiritual” mental states. There is, however, a key discipline missing: artificial intelligence. AI has forgotten its original aims to create intelligent machines that could help us to understand better what intelligence is and is more worried about pragmatical stuff, so almost nobody in the field seems (...) to be interested to join this new effort of contemplative science. In this paper, I would like to accomplish the following: (1) To give a brief description of the field of “contemplative sciences;” (2) To argue why AI should actively join this new paradigm on the study of the mind; and (3) To set up a research program on artificial wisdom: that is to design computational systems that can model at least some relevant aspects of human wisdom. (shrink)
Ruben Berrios Queen’s University Belfast Anti-realism and Aesthetic Cognition Abstract At the core of the debate between scientific realism and anti-realism is the question of the relation between scientific theory and the world. The realist possesses a mimetic conception of the relation between theory and reality. For the realist, scientific theories represent reality. The anti-realist, in contrast, seeks to understand the relations between theory and world in non-mimetic terms. We will examine Cartwright’s simulacrum account of explanation in order to (...) illuminate the anti-realist position. Science consists of phenomenological and theoretical laws. The former are concerned with appearances, or those phenomena that can be directly observed; the latter involve the unobservable reality that is alleged to underlie appearances, and are capable only of indirect confirmation. Phenomenological laws are said to be descriptive, whilst theoretical laws are understood as explanatory. Cartwright is concerned with the theoretical. She claims that the standard realist account of the explanatory efficacy of theoretical laws is faulty. The explanatory power of theoretical laws consists in their ability to provide an explanation of physical phenomena. According to Cartwright, the realist claims that laws explain phenomena by providing an abstract description of them, in terms of their micro-structural features, that is alleged to be true. On this view, explanatory power is entirely dependent on descriptive adequacy. As phenomenological laws describe appearances, so theoretical laws describe the fundamental reality that governs appearances. Cartwright rejects the preceding view and in its place proposes a simulacrum account of explanation. According to Cartwright, the explanatory power of theoretical laws is related not to descriptive adequacy, but rather to the construction of adequate models. To explain a phenomenon is to construct a model which best or most adequately accommodates the phenomenon to a theory. The model will consist of various posited objects that serve to explain the phenomena in terms that are consistent with a set of theoretical laws. Cartwright claims that theoretical laws are true of, or describe, the objects of the model. The objects of the model, however, are not descriptive of reality. They are simulacra. They have, that is, the form or appearance of things, without possessing their substance or proper qualities. In light of the foregoing account we can summarise the distinction between scientific realism and anti-realism as follows. The realist claims that theoretical laws literally represent real objects. The anti-realist claims that laws represent objects of a model that are simulacra of reality. Anti-realism has an aesthetic dimension. The movement from realism to anti-realism is also the movement from the mimetic conception of the scientist as holding a mirror to nature to the constructionist view of the scientist as engaging with nature through invention. There is a lot of the artist in the anti-realist’s view of the scientist. This is true for Cartwright as well as, for example, Van Fraassen in his doctrine of constructive empiricism. It would appear, then, that the philosophy of science has absorbed some concepts that are ordinarily housed in aesthetics. And it has done so profitably. The aim of this paper is to reverse the direction of disciplinary influence. Can art, in relation to its status as a cognitive enterprise, be illuminated by scientific anti-realism? I will argue that it can. In an unexpected reference to the Nicomachean Ethics, Cartwright draws a suggestive parallel between theoretical laws and general moral principles, on the one hand, and physical phenomena and everyday moral conduct, on the other hand. If we add to this the claim that a central component of art’s value is cognitive, then we have the basic materials with which to flesh out a broadly anti-realist view of art. In the production of art, artists can construct models that mediate between everyday ethical phenomena and general ethical tendencies. These models reveal the ways in which there are implicit consistencies or inconsistencies, conflicts or congruences and so forth, between the phenomena and the tendencies. On this basis art can contribute to the reflective understanding of ethical life. This constitutes to a large degree art’s status as a cognitive enterprise. To apprehend art cognitively as artist or critic is to engage in aesthetic cognition. (shrink)
Peer review is a widely accepted instrument for raising the quality of science. Peer review limits the enormous unstructured influx of information and the sheer amount of dubious data, which in its absence would plunge science into chaos. In particular, peer review offers the benefit of eliminating papers that suffer from poor craftsmanship or methodological shortcomings, especially in the experimental sciences. However, we believe that peer review is not always appropriate for the evaluation of controversial hypothetical science. We argue that (...) the process of peer review can be prone to bias towards ideas that affirm the prior convictions of reviewers and against innovation and radical new ideas. Innovative hypotheses are thus highly vulnerable to being “filtered out” or made to accord with conventional wisdom by the peer review process. Consequently, having introduced peer review, the Elsevier journal Medical Hypotheses may be unable to continue its tradition as a radical journal allowing discussion of improbable or unconventional ideas. Hence we conclude by asking the publisher to consider re-introducing the system of editorial review to Medical Hypotheses. (shrink)
Resumo: a fenomenologia, como se sabe, foi uns dos movimentos centrais da filosofia do século XX, tendo como ponto fundamental o método de suspensão de toda e qualquer crença sobre a existência do mundo, uma redução fenomenológica como denominou Husserl. O primeiro movimento deste texto apresenta o que Husserl elabora sobre essa redução guiada por um dos seus livros fundamentais: Ideias para uma fenomenologia pura e para uma filosofia fenomenológica. O outro movimento do texto levanta questionamentos tanto sobre seu método (...) quanto sua efetiva aplicação: Husserl teria sido efetivamente tão radical quanto exige o seu método? A linguagem não estaria incluída na exigência desta radicalidade? (shrink)
This article discuss two different approaches used to think historical a priori . On the one hand, when Husserl speaks about historical a priori , he refers to the tradition – one way of stating that history of thought is continuous and follows a common spirit. It implies, at the same time, that the tradition, despite being a discourse that precedes the subject, clearly to exist depends on a discursive subject at his present activity. On other, in Foucault’s proposal, historical (...) a priori will be saw from what would make possible the appearance of multiple statements in a given era . Therefore, it is all about a history not guided by subjectivity, but by the discourse itself. What remains of these two conceptions is to know the status of mathematics and physical sciences: they would be a model or an exception? (shrink)
Following text places in dialogue or applies to a certain conception of aesthetic experience a vast set of experimental evidences extracted from the inquiry of other mental phenomena, in particular the subjective experience of emotions and feelings. Comimg from António Damásio the beam master, the skeleton, the base, the structure of all my argument. My main hypothesis is that certain objects and situations activate cerebral dispositional hyper-spaces associated to the ocurrence of phenomena like sensation of beauty, pleasure and joy. I (...) consider that the emergency of an aesthetic experience must be understood as resulted of a sensible perception that set in motion a somatic-cognitive routine function of the detonation of a pattern of dispositionals neural patterns.O texto a seguir apresenta em diálogo ou aplica a uma certa concepção de experiência estética um amplo conjunto de evidências experimentais retirado da investigação de outros fenômenos mentais, em particular a experiência subjetiva de emoções e sentimentos. Provém de António Damásio a viga mestra, o esqueleto, a base, a estrutura de toda a minha argumentação. Minha principal hipótese é a de que certos objetos e situações ativam hiper-espaços dispositivos cerebrais associados à ocorrência de fenômenos como sensação de beleza, prazer e alegria. Proponho que a emergência de uma experiência estética deve ser compreendida como resultado de uma percepção sensível que aciona uma rotina somático-cognitiva, função do disparo de um padrão de padrões neurais dispositivos. (shrink)
O texto busca questionar a posição do filósofo Badiou quando ele afirma que a ontologia é as matemáticas. Badiou parte de uma concepção de que teríamos duas vozes sobre o ser. Por um lado, poderíamos pensar como Heidegger: para se fazer uma ontologia seria preciso buscar a essência da linguagem; por outro, poderíamos pensar como Badiou que concebe as matemáticas sendo a própria ontologia. O texto não pretende desenvolver a concepção de Badiou, mas questioná-la. Para isso, busco retomar o pensamento (...) heideggeriano e mostrar como sua concepção parte de um questionamento sobre o espírito matemático ao contrário de Badiou que assume como verdadeiro o axioma: “matemáticas = ontologia”. (shrink)
Este nuevo repertorio bibliográfico continúa la bibliografía viquiana en español que acrecienta y actualiza anteriores contribuciones del autor. A su anterior repertorio, "Bibliografía viquiana en español" , base con 266 referencias, se añaden ahora 98 nuevas entradas más, constituyendo en conjunto un imprescindible instrumento de acercamiento e investigacion a la cuestión de Vico en español.This new bibliography catalogue continues the bibliography of Vico in Spanish, expanding and bringing up-to-date previous contributions of the author. To his existing works "Bibliografía viquiana en (...) español" ninety-five new references are added, which together constitute an invaluable instrument in the approach to and research of the question of Vico in Spanish. (shrink)
We examined how the cultural dimension of universalism–particularism influences managers’ attitudes toward relational favoritism. Paradoxically, we found in a survey study that Brazilian and Chinese managers perceived more negative consequences of relational favoritism than did American managers—even though the Brazilians and the Chinese perceived stronger particularistic cultural norms in their countries than Americans did in the United States. We attribute this pattern of results to “cultural reflexivity”—the ability of people from transforming economies to be culturally self-critical during a period of (...) dramatic societal change. This pattern of results also emerged in a scenario study in which we asked these same Brazilian, Chinese, and American participants to assess managerial succession decisions made by a General Manager. We varied the scenarios so that the promoted manager was either a colleague with no pre-existing relation with the GM or a colleague who was a relative, a close friend, from the same town, or from the same school. Consistent with the results of the survey study, we found that perceived cultural norms of particularism were negatively related to perceptions of fairness. In other words, Brazilians and Chinese, even while living in more particularistic cultures, were more harsh in judging relational favoritism. We conclude with a discussion on the implications of these paradoxical relationships. (shrink)
A teoria literária ofereceu uma contribuição definitiva ao conhecimento histórico, sobretudo se coadunada com uma discussão propriamente epistemológica sobre o seu papel enquanto representação literária. Partindo desta assertiva concordamos que o texto literário cobra um lugar de primeira importância para o conhecimento histórico, pois todo o conhecimento possível do “passado”, enquanto testemunho escrito, nele se constitui enquanto representação e dele emerge para ser de novo reapresentado. Daqui partiremos, ao propor um modus operandi por meio do qual uma fonte literária medieval (...) pode ser apreendida como fonte histórica, ao considerar precisamente conceitos literários, como o individuo e o autor. (shrink)
o presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir a relação entre a aprendizagem histórica e sua função pública na sociedade. Partindo da premissa de que há um embate entre diferentes culturas históricas existentes na sociedade brasileira contemporânea, o texto discute a importância que a ciência histórica e seu repertório cognitivo têm para a formação do pensamento histórico, seja no âmbito acadêmico, seja no contexto da educação básica, pois fornece instrumentos de conhecimento importantes para que professores e estudantes possam refletir, autonomamente, a (...) respeito de sua própria História e da História da sociedade em que estão inseridos. Nesse sentido, o desafio do ensino de História é continuar provendo os meios científicos de possibilitar aos estudantes o conhecimento dessas diferentes narrativas, por meio da diversidade da produção cultural apropriada como fonte histórica, com vistas à construção e desenvolvimento do pensamento histórico, bem como de sua função pública de fortalecimento da democracia, cidadania, autonomia crítica, respeito e acolhimento da alteridade, enfim, de plena humanização da sociedade. (shrink)
O texto a seguir apresenta em diálogo ou aplica a uma certa concepção de experiência estética um amplo conjunto de evidências experimentais retirado da investigação de outros fenômenos mentais, em particular a experiência subjetiva de emoções e sentimentos. Provém de António Damásio a viga mestra, o esqueleto, a base, a estrutura de toda a minha argumentação. Minha principal hipótese é a de que certos objetos e situações ativam hiper-espaços dispositivos cerebrais associados à ocorrência de fenômenos como sensação de beleza, prazer (...) e alegria. Proponho que a emergência de uma experiência estética deve ser compreendida como resultado de uma percepção sensível que aciona uma rotina somático-cognitiva, função do disparo de um padrão de padrões neurais dispositivos. (shrink)
Our goal is to begin a comparative analysis of the symbolic dimension of tango and samba understood as phenomena used in the "construction" of identities in Argentina and Brazil. For this, we take as a starting point the key moments considered fundamentals in the "official" stories of these musical genres: the respective beginnings of samba song and tango song which were the songs “Pelo Telefone” and “Mi Noche Triste. Tango and samba are music genres that built in Argentina and Brazil (...) a significant dimension of their national identities. They share three important characteristics from its origins: a) they were born in the marginal or popular strata of society, that is to say, they emerged from the periphery or from the lower strata of society, and arose to the more refined strata almost in the same period and b) they are related to cities that were, or still are, capitals of countries and, in different ways, dealt in the early twentieth century with problems of unity and national identity. However, the initial similarities are not sustained after an analytical analysis. In fact, we suspect that there are few things in common between the tango "Mi Noche Triste" and the samba "Pelo Telefone", considered the founders of the genres. (shrink)
Os trabalhos acadêmicos em Comunicação no Brasil que enfocam o Esporte possuem tradicionalmente uma abordagem ligada à sociologia clássica, tratando normalmente de representações sociais e teorias jornalísticas, tendo como método principal a análise do discurso midiático. No presente artigo, rompendo com esse paradigma, investigamos as formas de apropriação do Instagram, aplicativo de compartilhamento de imagens, por torcedores de futebol. A partir de algumas tags referentes à final da Libertadores 2012, efetuamos uma investigação acerca da produção de presença nas fotos postadas.
Resumo: Como escolher um exemplo? O que se passa como um simples dado pode ser o mais complexo: o critério de escolha. Alguns casos servem de exemplo e outros não. Por quê? O objetivo deste texto é tentar dar algum critério para esse tipo de escolha. O caminho escolhido para tal foi tomar um caso da psicopatologia freudiana: o caso Dora. Por que esse caso é considerado o exemplo de histeria? Para responder a essa questão, recorre-se ao pensamento de Agamben, (...) principalmente quando se diferencia o exemplo da exceção; além de outros pensadores contemporâneos, recorre-se também a Foucault, quando este nos mostra o que seria o pensamento do exterior. O texto busca determinar por que o exemplo recai no caso de singularidade - algo que nem é particular e nem universal. Há um paradigma em dar um exemplo: nem todos valem. Por quê?: How to choose an example? What happens in dealing with simple data could in fact be the most complex of things: the criterion of choice. Some cases are examples and others are not. Why? The purpose of this text is to try to give some criteria for this sort of choice. The path chosen for this was to take a case of Freudian psychopathology: the case of Dora. Why is this case considered an example of hysteria? To answer this question, we recurr to Agamben’s ideas, especially his distinction between example and exception. Foucault’s “thought from outside” is also discussed, along with the ideas of other thinkers. The text seeks to determine why an example lies in a case of singularity - something that is neither particular nor universal. There is a paradigm in providing an example: not all are worthwhile. Why? (shrink)
In this article, we intend to show how Merleau-Ponty’s reflections originated in Husserlian phenomenology without, however, being restricted by its general outline. This is due to his assimilation of the contemporaneous works of the Gestalt theorists, and to his original analysis of Husserl’s work, an analysis which draws its inspiration from a certain tradition that endeavors to think the concrete. We will begin with Merleau-Ponty’s definition of phenomenology and the necessity of retrieving a “lived world”, a discussion that will allow (...) us to enter into his debate with the Gestalt theorists. In turn, this will enable us to see how he restructured his reading of Husserl, leading him to think the subject of perception in bodily terms. (shrink)
Em 1963, Derrida criticatrês páginas da A história da loucura naidade clássica (1961) de Foucault. Trata-se da interpretação de Foucault deuma passagem da Primeira Meditação deDescartes. Segundo Derrida, a leitura de Foucault está mergulhada no que eledenomina metafísica da presença. Istoé, apesar de se tratarem apenas de três páginas, para Derrida, Foucault não étão radical em sua obra ao pensar na noção de episteme, não vendo certa continuidade na tradição filosófica noque concerne ao seu fundamento: a presença viva. O que (...) isto significa; comoFoucault busca responder a este tipo de crítica; e, em que medida podemospensar que Foucault ainda estaria preso às amarras da filosofia da presença é oque buscamos investigar nesse texto. (shrink)
Through the application of machine learning techniques, this paper aims to estimate the importance of messages with ideological load during the elections held in Spain on May 24th, 2015 posted by Twitter’s users, as well as other variables associated with the publication of these types of messages. Our study collected and analysed 24,900 tweets associated to two of the main trending topics’ hashtags used in the election day and build a predictive model to infer the ideological orientation for the messages (...) which made use of these hashtags during Election Day. This approach allows us to classify the ideological orientation of all collected tweets, instead of only tweets that explicitly express their ideological or partisan preferences in the messages. Using the ideological orientation for all tweets predicted by our model, it was possible to identify how messages with a defined ideological load were pushed forward by users with leftist tendencies. We also observed a relationship between these messages and the partisan orientation of those who published them. (shrink)
This paper argues that the different ways of facing Hegel's system, as an impossible attempt to harmonize tradition and openness to novelty, respond to an underlying malaise: that provoked by the disturbing question of “the actuality of philosophy” after Hegel. That question insistently arises with respect to different paradigms of contemporary philosophy, and is found in critical theory, in analytical philosophy of action, in Žižek's materialism, and in Derrida's deconstructive reading. Adorno's interpretation introduces the tension between universal concepts and laws, (...) transmitted by the cultural tradition, and particular elements that the subject of the action must always take into account. As a consequence, the subject must include what is not reducible to a concept, which enables the construction of a language of experience that transcends the identifying thinking of the concept and makes negative dialectics possible as a theory of action. (shrink)
En noviembre de 2010 se celebró la 100a Asamblea Plenaria de la Conferencia Episcopal de Chile. Con ocasión de este simbólico acontecimiento, el presente texto ofrece los resultados de un estudio sobre el contenido de las declaraciones emanadas de estas asambleas episcopales. Primero se da una mirada histórica de conjunto a los textos, ordenados por décadas, para en un segundo momento destacar y analizar brevemente sus principales claves teológicas. Finalmente, a modo de conclusión, se reflexiona sobre algunas perspectivas eclesiales a (...) partir de las lecciones de la historia y los desafíos del presente a la Iglesia. (shrink)
Over the last few years a growing body of literature on Soviet-Third World relations has become available. The two books under discussion here represent valuable contributions to the understanding of East-South relations. Both books deal with changing Soviet approaches to the Third World. They trace Soviet interest in the developing countries and associate it with the post-Stalin leadership. Both books challenge prevailing views on Soviet behavior in the Third World and provide an excellent overview of Soviet scholarly works on development (...) issues. Of the two, Valkenier's book is the more interesting because it is more concise and rich. It offers a thorough review of the Soviet literature on academic research and policy decisions regarding their position with the Third World over the last 30 years. (shrink)