14 found
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  1.  87
    Computer Knows Best? The Need for Value-Flexibility in Medical AI.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):156-160.
    Artificial intelligence is increasingly being developed for use in medicine, including for diagnosis and in treatment decision making. The use of AI in medical treatment raises many ethical issues that are yet to be explored in depth by bioethicists. In this paper, I focus specifically on the relationship between the ethical ideal of shared decision making and AI systems that generate treatment recommendations, using the example of IBM’s Watson for Oncology. I argue that use of this type of system creates (...)
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  2.  54
    Overriding Parents’ Medical Decisions for Their Children: A Systematic Review of Normative Literature.Rosalind J. McDougall & Lauren Notini - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (7):448-452.
    This paper reviews the ethical literature on conflicts between health professionals and parents about medical decision-making for children. We present the results of a systematic review which addressed the question ‘when health professionals and parents disagree about the appropriate course of medical treatment for a child, under what circumstances is the health professional ethically justified in overriding the parents’ wishes?’ We identified nine different ethical frameworks that were put forward by their authors as applicable across various ages and clinical scenarios. (...)
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  3.  9
    Forever Young? The Ethics of Ongoing Puberty Suppression for Non-Binary Adults.Lauren Notini, Brian D. Earp, Lynn Gillam, Rosalind J. McDougall, Julian Savulescu, Michelle Telfer & Ken C. Pang - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (11):743-752.
    In this article, we analyse the novel case of Phoenix, a non-binary adult requesting ongoing puberty suppression to permanently prevent the development of secondary sex characteristics, as a way of affirming their gender identity. We argue that the aim of OPS is consistent with the proper goals of medicine to promote well-being, and therefore could ethically be offered to non-binary adults in principle; there are additional equity-based reasons to offer OPS to non-binary adults as a group; and the ethical defensibility (...)
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  4.  11
    Indeterminacy and the Normative Basis of the Harm Threshold for Overriding Parental Decisions: A Response to Birchley.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):119-120.
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  5.  23
    No We Shouldn’T Be Afraid of Medical AI; It Involves Risks and Opportunities.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (8):559-559.
    In contrast to Di Nucci’s characterisation, my argument is not a technoapocalyptic one. The view I put forward is that systems like IBM’s Watson for Oncology create both risks and opportunities from the perspective of shared decision-making. In this response, I address the issues that Di Nucci raises and highlight the importance of bioethicists engaging critically with these developing technologies.
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  6.  35
    Pandemic Medical Ethics.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Rosalind J. McDougall, John McMillan & Jesse Wall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):353-354.
    The COVID-19 pandemic will generate vexing ethical issues for the foreseeable future and many journals will be open to content that is relevant to our collective effort to meet this challenge. While the pandemic is clearly the critical issue of the moment, it’s important that other issues in medical ethics continue to be addressed as well. As can be seen in this issue, the Journal of Medical Ethics will uphold its commitment to publishing high quality papers on the full array (...)
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  7.  5
    What Kinds of Cases Do Paediatricians Refer to Clinical Ethics? Insights From 184 Case Referrals at an Australian Paediatric Hospital.Rosalind J. McDougall & Lauren Notini - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):586-591.
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  8.  15
    Making Concepts Work.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (9):569-570.
    The articles in this issue direct our attention to the role of concepts in medical ethics. The issue includes research that defines a concept,1 research that applies concepts to illuminate the moral aspects of various elements of medicine,2 3 and research investigating the appropriate set of concepts to teach medical students.4 In their in-depth exploration of the concept of disease in this issue, Powell and Scarffe argue that our understanding of a concept should be ‘tailored to the role that the (...)
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  9.  45
    Intrinsic Versus Contingent Claims About the Harmfulness of Prostitution.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (2):83-83.
    Moen targets a view about the intrinsic harmfulness of prostitution that he sees as widespread in healthcare, academia and public policy.1 He argues that the exchange of sex for money is not intrinsically harmful by systematically rejecting various possible proposed harms. He further suggests that it is the social context of discriminating laws and stigma that accounts for the harms experienced by prostitutes, rather than any intrinsic feature of exchanging sex for money.One striking aspect of his argument is the particular (...)
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  10.  17
    Ethics of Fertility Preservation for Prepubertal Children: Should Clinicians Offer Procedures Where Efficacy is Largely Unproven?Rosalind J. McDougall, Lynn Gillam, Clare Delany & Yasmin Jayasinghe - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):27-31.
    Young children with cancer are treated with interventions that can have a high risk of compromising their reproductive potential. ‘Fertility preservation’ for children who have not yet reached puberty involves surgically removing and cryopreserving reproductive tissue prior to treatment in the expectation that strategies for the use of this tissue will be developed in the future. Fertility preservation for prepubertal children is ethically complex because the techniques largely lack proven efficacy for this age group. There is professional difference of opinion (...)
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  11.  9
    Balancing Health Worker Well-Being and Duty to Care: An Ethical Approach to Staff Safety in COVID-19 and Beyond.Rosalind J. McDougall, Lynn Gillam, Danielle Ko, Isabella Holmes & Clare Delany - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):318-323.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the risks that can be involved in healthcare work. In this paper, we explore the issue of staff safety in clinical work using the example of personal protective equipment in the COVID-19 crisis. We articulate some of the specific ethical challenges around PPE currently being faced by front-line clinicians, and develop an approach to staff safety that involves balancing duty to care and personal well-being. We describe each of these values, and present a decision-making framework (...)
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  12.  12
    Diversity of Scholarship in Medical Ethics.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (10):655-656.
    In their essay arguing for ethical review of social research, Sheehan et al write: > Inquiry and human life are intertwined and interdependent. To be human is to be curious, to ask questions about yourself, the world, and your place in the world. This process of inquiry is undertaken individually, but is a social activity.1 As researchers in medical ethics, all the authors in this issue have chosen to ask a particular type of question about the world: questions about ethical (...)
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  13.  2
    Eligibility and Access to Voluntary Assisted Dying: A View From Victoria, Australia.Rosalind J. McDougall & Danielle Ko - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (10):676-677.
    In their analysis of the eligibility criteria for assisted dying in Canada, Downie and Schuklenk put forward a strong argument for the ethical defensibility of including mental illnesses and disabilities as underlying conditions driving a person’s request for assisted dying.1 In this commentary, we add a view on these debates from our home state of Victoria, Australia, where voluntary assisted dying has been legal since June 2019. We highlight the more conservative approach to eligibility in our setting compared with Canada, (...)
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  14.  2
    Navigating Difficult Decisions in Medical Care and Research.Rosalind J. McDougall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):351-352.
    The articles in this issue explore a number of difficult choices in medical care and research. They investigate ethical complexity in a range of decisions faced by policymakers and clinicians, and offer new evidence or normative approaches for navigating this complexity. In this issue’s feature article, Ford and colleagues engage with an ethical challenge faced by policymakers in relation to health research: should free text data contained in medical records be shared for research purposes?1 While some types of data from (...)
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