In addition to active wake, emotions are generated and experienced in a variety of functionally different states such as those of sleep, during which external stimulation and cognitive control are lacking. The neural basis of emotions can be specified by regarding the multitude of emotion-related brain states, as well as the distinct neuro- and psychodynamic stages (generation and regulation) of emotional experience.
Cramer et al.'s network approach reconceptualizes mental comorbidity on the basis of symptom space originating from psychometric signatures. We argue that the advantages of this approach need to be regarded in the context of the multi-level functional organization of the neural substrate, ranging from neurogenetic to psychometric. Neuroelectric oscillations are proposed as a level-integrating principle.
Sleep disturbances are common for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are of great clinical significance. Brain dopamine plays an important role for both ADHD symptoms and sleep-wake regulation. We therefore suggest that one basic aspect of integrative brain-behavior relationship such as the sleep-wake cycle may certainly be addressed in a dynamic developmental theory of ADHD.
The role of brain monoamines may be important for the neurobiology of the alterations of visual alertness in recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH). This is evidenced by sleep research, neurophysiologic, and clinical data. Hence, the mechanisms of RCVH may not be simply explained by acetylcholine underactivity only.
A large number of experimental results clearly indicate that sleep has an important role for human intelligence. Sleep-wake stages and their specific patterns of brain activation and neuromodulation subserve human memory, states of consciousness, and modes of information processing that strongly relate to intelligence. Therefore, human intelligence should be explained in a broader framework than is implicated by neuroimaging data alone.
There is a spectrum of child psychiatric and neurological disorders, in all of which a comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive disorder and ritualized behavior is very common. Therefore, they may appear as a basis for the rituals in children that cross into adolescence and adulthood. Resolving the nature of these disorders may help us to better understand “Why ritualized behavior?” (Published Online February 8 2007).