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  1. The New Science of the Mind: From Extended Mind to Embodied Phenomenology.Mark Rowlands - 2010 - Bradford.
    There is a new way of thinking about the mind that does not locate mental processes exclusively "in the head." Some think that this expanded conception of the mind will be the basis of a new science of the mind. In this book, leading philosopher Mark Rowlands investigates the conceptual foundations of this new science of the mind. The new way of thinking about the mind emphasizes the ways in which mental processes are embodied, embedded, enacted, and extended. The new (...)
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  2.  75
    Body Language: Representation in Action.Mark Rowlands - 2006 - Cambridge MA: Bradford Book/MIT Press.
    This is not to say simply that these forms of acting can facilitate representation but that they are themselves representational.
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  3. The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes.Mark Rowlands - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Mark Rowlands challenges the Cartesian view of the mind as a self-contained monadic entity, and offers in its place a radical externalist or environmentalist model of cognitive processes. Cognition is not something done exclusively in the head, but fundamentally something done in the world. Drawing on both evolutionary theory and a detailed examination of the processes involved in perception, memory, thought and language use, Rowlands argues that cognition is, in part, a process whereby creatures manipulate and exploit (...)
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  4. Extended Cognition and the Mark of the Cognitive.Mark Rowlands - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (1):1 – 19.
    According to the thesis of the extended mind (EM) , at least some token cognitive processes extend into the cognizing subject's environment in the sense that they are (partly) composed of manipulative, exploitative, and transformative operations performed by that subject on suitable environmental structures. EM has attracted four ostensibly distinct types of objection. This paper has two goals. First, it argues that these objections all reduce to one basic sort: all the objections can be resolved by the provision of an (...)
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  5.  11
    The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes.Alan Millar & Mark Rowlands - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):621.
    Rowlands defends environmentalism, that is, the conjunction of the ontological claim that cognitive processes are not located exclusively inside the skin of cognizing organisms and the epistemological claim that it is not possible to understand the nature of cognitive processes by focusing exclusively on what is occurring inside the skin of cognizing organisms. Chapter 3 is devoted to explaining how environmentalism differs from other forms of externalism about the mental. The crucial points are that the arguments to be presented for (...)
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  6.  22
    Can Animals Be Moral?Mark Rowlands - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Can animals act morally? Philosophical tradition answers 'no,' and has apparently convincing arguments on its side. Cognitive ethology supplies a growing body of empirical evidence that suggests these arguments are wrong. This groundbreaking book assimilates both philosophical and ethological frameworks into a unified whole and argues for a qualified 'yes.'.
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  7.  17
    Externalism: Putting Mind and World Back Together Again.Mark Rowlands - 2003 - Routledge.
    It is commonly held that our thoughts, beliefs, desires and feelings - the mental phenomena that we instantiate - are constituted by states and processes that occur inside our head. The view known as externalism, however, denies that mental phenomena are internal in this sense. The mind is not purely in the head. Mental phenomena are hybrid entities that straddle both internal state and processes and things occurring in the outside world. The development of externalist conceptions of the mind is (...)
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  8. The Extended Mind.Mark Rowlands - 2009 - Zygon 44 (3):628-641.
    The extended mind is the thesis that some mental—typically cognitive—processes are partly composed of operations performed by cognizing organisms on the world around them. The operations in question are ones of manipulation, transformation, or exploitation of environmental structures. And the structures in question are ones that carry information pertinent to the success or efficacy of the cognitive process in question. This essay examines the thesis of the extended mind and evaluates the arguments for and against it.
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  9. Enactivism and the Extended Mind.Mark Rowlands - 2009 - Topoi 28 (1):53-62.
    According to the view that has become known as the extended mind , some token mental processes extend into the cognizing organism’s environment in that they are composed (partly) of manipulative, exploitative, and transformative operations performed by that subject on suitable environmental structures. Enactivist models understand mental processes as (partly) constituted by sensorimotor knowledge and by the organism’s ability to act, in appropriate ways, on environmental structures. Given the obvious similarities between the two views, it is both tempting and common (...)
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  10. Memory and the Self: Phenomenology, Science and Autobiography.Mark Rowlands - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Our memories, many believe, make us who we are. But most of our experiences have been forgotten, and the memories that remain are often wildly inaccurate. How, then, can memories play this person-making role? The answer lies in a largely unrecognized type of memory: Rilkean memory.
     
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  11.  99
    Arguing About Representation.Mark Rowlands - 2017 - Synthese 194 (11):4215-4232.
    The question of whether cognition requires representations has engendered heated discussion during the last two decades. I shall argue that the question is, in all likelihood, a spurious one. There may or may not be a fact of the matter concerning whether a given item qualifies as a representation. However, even if there is, attempts to establish whether cognition requires representation have neither practical nor theoretical utility.
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  12. Animal Rights: Moral Theory and Practice.Mark Rowlands - 2009 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Animal rights and moral theories -- Arguing for one's species -- Utilitarianism and animals : Peter Singer's case for animal liberation -- Tom Regan : animal rights as natural rights -- Virtue ethics and animals -- Contractarianism and animal rights -- Animal minds.
     
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  13. Contractarianism and Animal Rights.Mark Rowlands - 1997 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (3):235–247.
    It is widely accepted, by both friends and foes of animal rights, that contractarianism is the moral theory least likely to justify the assigning of direct moral status to non-human animals. These are not, it is generally supposed, rational agents, and contractarian approaches can grant direct moral status only to such agents. I shall argue that this widely accepted view is false. At least some forms of contractarianism, when properly understood, do, in fact, entail that non-human animals possess direct moral (...)
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  14.  44
    Science Journal Editors' Views on Publication Ethics: Results of an International Survey.E. Wager, S. Fiack, C. Graf, A. Robinson & I. Rowlands - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):348-353.
    Background: Breaches of publication ethics such as plagiarism, data fabrication and redundant publication are recognised as forms of research misconduct that can undermine the scientific literature. We surveyed journal editors to determine their views about a range of publication ethics issues. Methods: Questionnaire sent to 524 editors-in-chief of Wiley-Blackwell science journals asking about the severity and frequency of 16 ethical issues at their journals, their confidence in handling such issues, and their awareness and use of guidelines. Results: Responses were obtained (...)
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  15. The Body in Mind.Mark Rowlands - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):401-403.
     
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  16. The Nature of Consciousness.Mark Rowlands - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    In The Nature of Consciousness, Mark Rowlands develops an innovative account of the nature of phenomenal consciousness, one that has significant consequences for attempts to find a place for it in the natural order. The most significant feature of consciousness is its dual nature: consciousness can be both the directing of awareness and that upon which awareness is directed. Rowlands offers a clear and philosophically insightful discussion of the main positions in this fast-moving debate, and argues that the phenomenal aspects (...)
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  17. The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes.Mark Rowlands - 1999. - Mind 109 (435):644-647.
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  18. Externalism: Putting Mind and World Back Together Again.Mark Rowlands - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (2):487-490.
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  19. Animal Rights: A Philosophical Defence.Mark Rowlands - 1998 - St. Martin's Press.
    The question of the nature and extent of our moral obligations to non-human animals has featured prominently in recent moral debate. This book defends the novel position that a contradictarian moral theory can be used to justify the claim that animals possess a substantial and wide-ranging set of moral rights. Critiquing the rival accounts of Peter Singer and Tom Regan, this study shows how an influential form of the social contract idea can be extended to make sense of the concept (...)
     
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  20.  71
    Representing Without Representations.Mark Rowlands - 2012 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 3 (1):133-144.
    There is a problem of representation and an apparatus of representations that was devised to solve this problem. This paper has two purposes. First, it will show why the problem of representation outstrips the apparatus of representations in the sense that the problem survives the demise of the apparatus. Secondly, it will argue that the question of whether cognition does or not involve representations is a poorly defined question, and far too crude to be helpful in understanding the nature of (...)
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  21. Animals That Act for Moral Reasons.Mark Rowlands - unknown
    Non-human animals (henceforth, “animals”) are typically regarded as moral patients rather than moral agents. Let us define these terms as follows: 1) X is a moral patient if and only if X is a legitimate object of moral concern: that is, roughly, X is something whose interests should be taken into account when decisions are made concerning it or which otherwise impact on it. 2) X is a moral agent if and only if X can be morally evaluated–praised or blamed (...)
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  22.  74
    The Immortal, the Intrinsic and the Quasi Meaning of Life.Mark Rowlands - 2015 - The Journal of Ethics 19 (3-4):379-408.
    Through the examination of the lives of several immortal beings, this paper defends a version of Moritz Schlick’s claim that the meaning of life is play. More precisely: a person’s life has meaning to the extent it there are things in it that the person values intrinsically rather than merely instrumentally and above a certain threshold of intensity. This is a subjectivist account of meaning in life. I defend subjectivism about meaning in life from common objections by understanding statements about (...)
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  23. Teleological Semantics.Mark Rowlands - 1997 - Mind 106 (422):279-304.
    Teleological theories of content are thought to suffer from two related difficulties. According to the problem of indeterminacy, biological function is indeterminate in the sense that, in the case of two competing interpretations of the function of an evolved mechanism, there is often no fact of the matter capable of determining which function is the correct one. Therefore, any attempts to construct content out of biological function entail the indeterminacy of content. According to the problem of transparency, statements of biological (...)
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  24. Animals Like Us.Mark Rowlands - 2002 - Verso.
  25. The Nature of Consciousness.Mark Rowlands - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (3):745-748.
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  26.  19
    Catholic Social Teaching and the Firm.Geoff Moore, Ron Beadle & Anna Rowlands - 2014 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 88 (4):779-805.
  27. Sensorimotor Activity.Mark Rowlands - 2006 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 12.
    This paper explores the concept of _sensorimotor activity_ that is central to the enactive model of visual perception developed in Alva Noë’s book, _Action in Perception_. The appeal to sensorimotor activity is, I shall argue, subject to a dilemma. On one interpretation, such activity presupposes representational states, and therefore is unable to aid us in the project of understanding how an organism is able to represent the world. On the other interpretation, sensorimotor activity fails to accommodate the essential normativity of (...)
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  28.  24
    Teaching the Conceptual Revolutions in Geometry.Robert N. Carson & Stuart Rowlands - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (9-10):921-954.
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  29. The Philosopher at the End of the Universe: Philosophy Explained Through Science Fiction Films.Mark Rowlands - 2003 - T. Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press.
    The Philosopher at the End of the Universe demonstrates how anyone can grasp the basic concepts of philosophy while still holding a bucket of popcorn. Mark Rowlands makes philosophy utterly relevant to our everyday lives and reveals its most potent messages using nothing more than a little humor and the plotlines of some of the most spectacular, expensive, high-octane films on the planet. Learn about: The Nature of Reality from The Matrix, Good and Evil from Star Wars, Morality from Aliens, (...)
     
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  30.  64
    Consciousness and Higher-Order Thoughts.Mark Rowlands - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (3):290-310.
  31.  35
    In Nature’s Interests: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. [REVIEW]Mark Rowlands - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (4):598-601.
    This book seeks to undermine the widespread and tenacious idea that animal rights philosophies, being axiologically individualistic, are antithetical to the environmentalist agenda, commonly viewed as underwritten by a holistic meta-ethical framework. To this end, Varner defends a form of biocentric individualism, according to which all living organisms have interests, ones that generate prima facie entitlements, but which can be overridden in appropriate circumstances. He defends a sentientist principle that the lives of organisms with conscious desires have priority over those (...)
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  32. The Normativity of Action.Mark Rowlands - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):401-416.
    The concept of action is playing an increasingly prominent role in attempts to explain how subjects can represent the world. The idea is that at least some of the role traditionally assigned to internal representations can, in fact, be played by the ability of subjects to act on the world, and the exercise of that ability on appropriate occasions. This paper argues that the appeal to action faces a serious dilemma. If the concept of action employed is a representational one, (...)
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  33.  13
    Conceptual Change Through the Lens of Newtonian Mechanics.Stuart Rowlands, Ted Graham, John Berry & Peter Mcwilliam - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (1):21-42.
  34.  27
    Friendship and Animals: A Reply to Frööding and Peterson. Rowlands - 2011 - Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (1):70.
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  35.  11
    Consciousness Broadly Construed.Mark Rowlands - 2010 - In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press.
    This chapter begins with a presentation of Frege’s reflections on the concept of sense and how it has been misread as leading to a philosophy based on psychologism. This is helpful because the focus of this chapter is based on the psychological—specifically, conscious experiences defined by there being something it is like to have them. An extended account of states that are both conscious and intentional is also discussed, claiming that the intentional directedness of experiences consists in disclosing activity, and (...)
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  36. The Environmental Crisis Understanding the Value of Nature.Mark Rowlands - 2000
     
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  37.  15
    ¿Pueden los animales ser morales?Mark Rowlands - 2012 - Dilemata 9:1-32.
    La distinción dicotómica entre agentes y pacientes morales está ampliamente reconocida y bien asentada en filosofía moral. Los animales, en el caso de ser considerados como poseedores de estatuto moral alguno, son, casi invariablemente, reconocidos como pacientes morales más que como agentes. La tesis principal de este artículo sostiene que hay una tercera opción: mientras los animales son pacientes morales, en lugar de agentes morales, pueden ser también sujetos morales, donde: X es un sujeto moral si y solamente si X (...)
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  38.  88
    Against Methodological Solipsism: The Ecological Approach.Mark Rowlands - 1995 - Philosophical Psychology 8 (1):5-24.
    This paper argues that an ecological approach to psychology of the sort advanced by J. J. Gibson provides a coherent and powerful alternative to the computational, information-processing, paradigm. The paper argues for two principles. Firstly, one cannot begin to understand what internal information processing an organism must accomplish until one understands what information is available to the organism in its environment. Secondly, an organism can process information by acting on or manipulating physical structures in its environment. An attempt is made (...)
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  39. Situated Representation.Mark Rowlands - 2009 - In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 117--133.
  40.  96
    Consciousness: The Transcendalist Manifesto.Mark Rowlands - 2003 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 (3):205-21.
    Phenomenal consciousness, what it is like to have or undergo an experience, is typically understood as an empirical item – an actual or possible object of consciousness. Accordingly, the problem posed by phenomenal consciousness for materialist accounts of the mind is usually understood as an empirical problem: a problem of showing how one sort of empirical item – a conscious state – is produced or constituted by another – a neural process. The development of this problem, therefore, has usually consisted (...)
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  41. Two Dogmas of Consciousness.Mark Rowlands - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):158-80.
    Most recent discussions of phenomenal consciousness are predicated on two deeply entrenched assumptions. The first is objectualism, the claim that what it is like to undergo an experience is something of which we are or can be aware in the having of that experience. The second is internalism, the claim that what it is like to undergo an experience is constituted by states, events and processes that are located inside the skins of experiencing subjects. This paper argues that both assumptions (...)
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  42.  55
    Sartre, Consciousness, and Intentionality.Mark Rowlands - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (3):521-536.
  43. Jean-Paul Sartre’s Being and Nothingness.Mark Rowlands - 2011 - Topoi 30 (2):175-180.
  44. Understanding the "Active" in "Enactive".Mark Rowlands - 2007 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6 (4):427-443..
    Much recent work on cognition is characterized by an augmentation of the role of action coupled with an attenuation of the role of representation. This coupling is no accident. The appeal to action is seen either as a way of explaining representation or explaining it away. This paper argues that the appeal to action as a way of explaining, supplementing, or even supplanting, representation can lead to a serious dilemma. On the one hand, the concept of action to which we (...)
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  45.  60
    Hard Problems of Intentionality.Marc Rowlands - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (3):741-746.
    This paper argues that Hutto and Satne’s three-pronged attempt to solve the problem of intentionality – or, at least, to provide an outline of how this problem should be approached – suffers from two shortcomings. First, the idea of Ur-intentionality is problematic. Second, Hutto and Satne have not provided us with a way of getting from Ur-intentionality to content intentionality.
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  46.  7
    Consciousness Unbound.M. Rowlands - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (3-4):34-51.
    This paper argues that consciousness can, and often does, extend beyond the confines of the skull and skin. Conscious acts can extend to the extent they are intentional. Intentionality is revealing activity, and revealing activity often straddles processes occurring both inside and outside the subject’s body. What makes a conscious act extended is identical with what makes it intentional.
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  47.  80
    Enactivism, Intentionality, and Content.Mark Rowlands - 2013 - American Philosophical Quarterly 50 (3):303-316.
    Enactivism has, perhaps, come to mean different things to different people. The version of enactivism that I am going to build on in this paper is that defended in my book The New Science of the Mind (henceforth NSM). That view is, I think, recognizably enactivist. Others might disagree, and I myself not only characterized it in other terms but was careful to distinguish it from other views that fall under the rubric "enactivist." However, the view I defended is, I (...)
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  48. From the Inside: Consciousness and the First‐Person Perspective.Mark Rowlands - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):281 – 297.
    To adopt a first-person perspective on consciousness is typically understood as a matter of inwardly engaging one's awareness in such a way as to make one's conscious states and their properties into objects of awareness. When awareness is thus inwardly engaged, experience functions as both act and object of awareness. As objects of awareness, an experience-token and its various properties are items of which a subject is aware. As an act of awareness, an experience-token is that in virtue of which (...)
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  49.  10
    Mechanics as the Logical Point of Entry for the Enculturation Into Scientific Thinking.Robert Carson & Stuart Rowlands - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (3-5):473-492.
  50. Discussion of Jackson and Pettit, Functionalism and Broad Content.Mark Rowlands - 1989 - Mind 98 (April):269-275.
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