Moral identity has been touted as a foundation for understanding moral agency in organizations. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding moral identity and highlight several promising avenues for advancing current understandings of moral actions in organizational contexts. The article begins with a brief overview of two distinct conceptual perspectives on moral identity—the character perspective and the social-cognitive perspective—that dominate extant literature. It then discusses varying approaches that have been taken in attempting to (...) measure moral identity. The final two sectionsof the article review empirical findings regarding the antecedents and consequences of moral identity, respectively. Mechanisms and situational factors that are pertinent to moral agency in organizations are emphasized in both sections. (shrink)
This editorial outlines the articles included in the special thematic symposium on corporate social responsibility and employees and highlights their contributions to the literature. In doing so, it highlights the novel theoretical and empirical insights provided by the articles, how the articles inform and expand the methods and research designs researchers can use to study phenomena in this area, and identifies promising directions for future research.
The Yijing/Binary System Episode involved Leibniz' discovery of a de facto representation of the binary number system in the sixty-four-hexagram Fu Xi "Yijing." Scholars have left the match unexplained, since they have found no evidence of a forgotten binary number system in ancient China. The interesting similarities and differences are discussed between the thought of Leibniz and that of Shao Yong, both of whom, it is argued, understood and recognized the importance of the double geometric progression in the diagram.
Sydney Shoemaker argues that a certain class of self-ascriptions is immune to error through misidentification relative to the first-person pronouns. In their “Self-Consciousness and Immunity,” Timothy Lane and Caleb Liang question Shoemaker’s view. Lang and Liang present a clinical case and an experiment and argue that they are counterexamples to Shoemaker’s view. This paper is a response to Lane and Liang’s challenge. I identify the desiderata that a counterexample to Shoemaker’s view must meet and show that somatoparaphrenia and the Body (...) Swap Illusion fail to meet those desiderata. Thus, despite being puzzling phenomena, somatoparaphrenia and the Body Swap Illusion are not counterexamples to Shoemaker’s view. (shrink)
The Shao Lin Chronicles: The Wisdom of Bodhidharma is a fictional book based on the pseudo-historical account of Bodhidharma, who brought Chan Buddhism to China, and his student Hui-k'o, nicknamed "Te" in this book. Specifically, Bodhidharma takes up residence in a cave near the famous Shao Lin Monastery. Te finds Bodhidharma and begins to visit him on a regular basis, along with maintaining his regular duties as a monk, including teaching the local students about the life of Buddha. (...) Eventually Bodhidharma sends Te on a quest to retrieve living water flowing from the Mt. Niu-t'ou. On three separate ventures, young Te returns, only to have Bodhidharma scold him for not fulfilling his request, yet instruct him on the finer points of Buddhist philosophy and practice. However, on his adventures, Te encounters a young lady whose town is being controlled by an evil tyrant, a wizard and an eight-headed dragon, and a peaceful hermit. Eventually, Te must face the fact that even after learning so much and growing spiritually, he has not fulfilled Bodhidharma's request, and as a result, he has not attained enlightenment. The way in which Te's quest finally reaches its climactic conclusion is recognized in the Buddhist tradition as one of the most desperate, yet selfless acts on record. Eventually, Te paves the way for Bodhidharma to be introduced to the masters at Shao Lin. And Shao Lin, based on the teachings of Bodhidharma, eventually becomes the birthplace of martial arts and chi kung. (shrink)
From the perspective of the integrative model of organizational trust, this study proposes a multi-level model for whether, how, and when differentiated empowering leadership influences followers’ trust in leaders and their work outcomes. Drawing on a sample of 372 followers from 97 teams in China, it was found that the negative effect of differentiated empowering leadership on followers’ trust in leaders became salient when followers’ Chinese traditionality was low. Moreover, followers’ trust in leaders mediated the effect of differentiated empowering leadership (...) and Chinese traditionality on followers’ in-role performance, extra-role performance, and counterproductive work behaviors toward the organization. These findings have implications for managerial theory and practice in the domains of trust and differentiated empowering leadership. (shrink)
With outstanding geographical location and rich natural resources, coastal cities have become concentrated and active areas of human social and economic production. Furthermore, a large number of human activities have posed a great deal of ecological environmental pressure to coastal ecological areas. The emergy analysis method is selected to construct an index system with a total of nine indicators at five levels, including emergy source structure, social subsystem, economic subsystem, environmental subsystem, and comprehensive evaluation of sustainable development. The development level (...) of subsystems and the sustainable development ability of ecosystem in Shenzhen, Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, and Xiamen were evaluated. The emergy sustainable index of the five cities is 0.10, 0.23, 0.31, 0.49, and 0.93, respectively. According to the evaluation results, coastal cities should comprehensively optimize the population structure, reasonably develop natural resources, make efficient use of marine resources, attach importance to the source control of pollutants, and strive to build a modern economy, so as to realize the sustainable development of coastal urban ecosystem. (shrink)
We present a unified look at myopic stability concepts for hedonic games, and discuss the status of the existence problems of stable coalition structures. In particular, we show that contractual strictly core stable coalition structures always exist, and present a sufficient condition for the existence of contractually Nash stable coalition structures on the class of separable games.
In the recent years, along with the development of artificial intelligence and man-machine interaction technology, speech recognition and production have been asked to adapt to the rapid development of AI and man-machine technology, which need to improve recognition accuracy through adding novel features, fusing the feature, and improving recognition methods. Aiming at developing novel recognition feature and application to speech recognition, this paper presents a new method for articulatory-to-acoustic conversion. In the study, we have converted articulatory features into acoustic features. (...) By considering the graphical representation of the articulators’ motion, this study combined Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory with convolution neural network and adopted the idea of word attention in Mandarin to extract semantic features. In this paper, we used the electromagnetic articulography database designed by Taiyuan University of Technology, which contains ten speakers’ 299 disyllables and sentences of Mandarin, and extracted 8-dimensional articulatory features and 1-dimensional semantic feature relying on the word-attention layer; we then trained 200 samples and tested 99 samples for the articulatory-to-acoustic conversion. Finally, Root Mean Square Error, Mean Mel-Cepstral Distortion, and correlation coefficient have been used to evaluate the conversion effect and for comparison with Gaussian Mixture Model and BiLSTM of recurrent neural network. The results illustrated that the MMCD of Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient was 1.467 dB, and the RMSE of F2 was 22.10 Hz. The research results of this study can be used in the features fusion and speech recognition to improve the accuracy of recognition. (shrink)
The effective controlling and monitoring of an industrial process through the integration of statistical process control and engineering process control has been widely addressed in recent years. However, because the mixture types of disturbances are often embedded in underlying processes, mixture control chart patterns are very difficult for an SPC-EPC process to identify. This can result in problems when attempting to determine the underlying root causes of process faults. Additionally, a large number of categories of disturbances may be present in (...) a process, but typical single-stage classifiers have difficulty in identifying large numbers of categories of disturbances in an SPC-EPC process. Therefore, we propose a two-stage neural network based scheme to enhance the accurate identification rate for MCCPs by performing dimension reduction on disturbance categories. The two-stage scheme includes a combination of a NN, support vector machine, and multivariate adaptive regression splines. Experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme achieves a satisfactory AIR for identifying MCCPs in an SPC-EPC system. (shrink)
Background As noise brings great error in the analysis of metallographic images, an adaptive weighted mean filtering method proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the standard mean filtering method. Methods The method used to detect the pulse noise points in the image, and then the modified mean method used to filter out the detected noise points. Patents on metallographic image processing have discussed for the development of the proposed methodology. Results It is shown that filter window can be filtered in (...) comparison with the conventional 3×3, 5×5 and 7×7 filt window to reduce noise detection and reduce the complexity of the weight calculation. Conclusion It can be concluded that this method can better protect the details of the image, has better filtering effect than the standard mean filtering, and its processing speed is faster than the median filtering of the large window, which has profound significance for the edge detection and processing of the metallographic image. (shrink)
In 20th century, many philosophers were excited by new discoveries in natural science, and held some kind of thoughts of indeterminacy. The trend is opposite to the traditional pursuit of certainty with a dogmatic character. However, through analyzing Quine’s theory of indeterminacy of translation, as well as the ideas of indeterminacy what Rorty and Putnam have developed forward, the article will argue that: their conclusions of indeterminacy inferred from the observationsentences are questionable; indeterminacy perhaps is materialized so that they similarly (...) maintain, in another way, an ontological custom about which they have made a great effort to criticize; therefore, their some philosophical statements maybe have also implied a dogmatic inclination; indeterminacy has possibly become another ‘unempirical dogma of empiricists’. (shrink)
This is an ethnographic exploration into the meanings of contaminated blood. Intense commercial harvesting of human plasma, a blood component, in rural central China during the 1990s resulted in extensive HIV infection among donors. The lack of viral diversity among these infected donors, as revealed by research in molecular epidemiology, confirms that this epidemic took hold and spread rapidly with deadly efficiency through unsanitary plasmapheresis. The distinction in viral strains between this epidemic and the spread of HIV via other routes (...) of transmission in other parts of China serves also to promote claims to victimhood by infected rural commercial donors in the ambiguous geography of moral ambivalence towards carriers of the virus. Through a series of vignettes from field research among rural plasma donors in China, this article examines the tensions between solidarity and distinction, victimhood and responsibility, alliance and strife as they play out in meanings derived from contaminated blood, within their everyday experience and also within their participation in the broader HIV/aids activism, in which their distinction is inevitably challenged. (shrink)
We have developed two new approaches for improving the efficiency and robostness of 2D and 3D inversion processing and interpretation from nuclear magnetic resonance logging data. The first improved method consists of a dual-step inversion method to obtain [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] maps independently, rather than deriving one from the other. The second approach is an inversion-forward modeling-inversion technique for obtaining [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] maps using the same acquired data used for deriving [Formula: (...) see text] and [Formula: see text] maps. Simulation results were evaluated to determine the improvement of the fluid typing interpretation and the robustness of the processing methods. Three actual wells of NMR logging data processing examples were also included to illustrate the utility of these methods for improving fluid typing involving various different combinations of reservoir fluids and mud filtrates. (shrink)
The late Cretaceous to early Oligocene strata in the northern continental margin of the South China Sea are significant for understanding the contemporaneous continental rifting of the margin prior to the opening of the central SCS oceanic basin. Using new seismic and drilling data, combined with previous results, we have identified three episodes of rifting from the late Cretaceous to early Oligocene based on analyses of major unconformities, tectonostratigraphic units, and sedimentary facies. The first episode of rifting that occurred only (...) in the Pearl River Mouth basin during the late Cretaceous to Paleocene is observed. During the early to middle Eocene, littoral-shallow lacustrine and fan-delta facies were distributed in some faulted half-grabens in the Qiongdongnan basin, while deep lacustrine deposits widely developed in the PRM basin. During the late Eocene to early Oligocene, marine transgression propagated from the southeast into the QDN, southern PRM, and Taixinan basins. We have inferred that late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene rifting is characterized by uniform lithospheric stretching related to the retreat of the paleo-Pacific subduction zone, whereas the late Eocene to the early Oligocene rifting controlled by multiple factors is characterized by depth-dependent lithospheric extension. It is the differential rifting process that led to the differentiation in the types and distribution of source rocks in the basins of northern SCS margin. (shrink)
People can discriminate the synchrony between audio-visual scenes. However, the sensitivity of audio-visual synchrony perception can be affected by many factors. Using a simultaneity judgment task, the present study investigated whether the synchrony perception of complex audio-visual stimuli was affected by audio-visual causality and stimulus reliability. In Experiment 1, the results showed that audio-visual causality could increase one's sensitivity to audio-visual onset asynchrony of both action stimuli and speech stimuli. Moreover, participants were more tolerant of AVOA of speech stimuli than (...) that of action stimuli in the high causality condition, whereas no significant difference between these two kinds of stimuli was found in the low causality condition. In Experiment 2, the speech stimuli were manipulated with either high or low stimulus reliability. The results revealed a significant interaction between audio-visual causality and stimulus reliability. Under the low causality condition, the percentage of “synchronous” responses of audio-visual intact stimuli was significantly higher than that of visual_intact/auditory_blurred stimuli and audio-visual blurred stimuli. In contrast, no significant difference among all levels of stimulus reliability was observed under the high causality condition. Our study supported the synergistic effect of top-down processing and bottom-up processing in audio-visual synchrony perception. (shrink)
In the paper we construct a new kind of fractional dynamical model, i.e. the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model, and explore its dynamical behaviors. We will find that the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model possesses Lie algebraic structure and satisfies generalized Poisson conservation law. We will also give the Poisson conserved quantities of the model. Further, the relation between conserved quantities and integral invariants of the model is studied and it is proved that, by using the Poisson conserved quantities, we (...) can construct integral invariants of the model. Finally, the stability of the manifold of equilibrium states of the fractional relativistic Yamaleev oscillator model is studied. The paper provides a general method, i.e. fractional generalized Hamiltonian method, for constructing a family of fractional dynamical models of an actual dynamical system. (shrink)
Characterizing heavy oil viscosity by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time measurements is much more challenging than characterizing light oil viscosities. Crude oils contain a wide range of hydrocarbons, resulting in broad [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions that vary with the oil composition. Most often, a single geometric mean value [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is correlated with the crude oil viscosity, which cannot accurately account for the inherent complexity of the oil constituent information. Furthermore, as (...) the viscosity increases, some of the protons in the oil relax too quickly to be observable by logging or laboratory NMR instruments. This results in deficiencies of relaxation time and signal amplitude that give rise to apparent [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions and apparent hydrogen index. Using [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions in NMR viscosity models could produce erroneous heavy oil viscosity estimations. Several attempts have been made to overcome these challenges by taking into account [Formula: see text] at a fixed interecho time, or a TE-dependent [Formula: see text]. We have developed a new radial-basis-function-based heavy oil viscosity model using the entire [Formula: see text] distribution, rather than [Formula: see text], with an option of including the NMR-derived [Formula: see text]. Because both of these quantities are TE dependent, it is desirable to include multiple TE data to develop the model. In addition, the principal component analysis method was applied to extract major variations of features embedded in the [Formula: see text] distributions, while discarding distribution features that are derived from random noise. The coefficients of the RBFs were derived using laboratory NMR [Formula: see text] measurements at ambient and elevated temperatures between 23.5°C and 39.5°C and corresponding viscosity measurements on 50 oil samples. These oil samples were collected from different parts of a shallow viscous oil reservoir in Kuwait. It was observed that the use of this newly developed RBF method showed significant improvement in terms of the reliability of the viscosity prediction compared to some recently published heavy oil viscosity correlations. (shrink)
The convenience of transportation brings the diversity of individuals’ travelling modes; in this paper, we present an improved epidemic diffusion model in a multilayer metapopulation network. Firstly, we construct the metapopulation network with different travelling ways, and then, the epidemic spreading threshold is calculated by means of the mean-field method. Taking the periodicity of individuals’ travelling into account, we further explore the epidemic diffusion model with individuals’ periodic travelling and deduce the epidemic spreading threshold using the Perron–Frobenius theorem. Our results (...) show that if all individuals in each area decide to move, the epidemic threshold can be effectively raised while each individual chooses an unbiased region to arrive. In addition, with the increase of individuals’ mobility rate or regional heterogeneous infection coefficient, the fluctuation range of the density of infected becomes larger, while the fluctuation period is almost unchanged. However, the change of individuals’ periodic motion could cause the change of the fluctuation period of infected density. We try to provide a new perspective for the research of metapopulation. (shrink)