Results for 'Ruth Brownlee Johnson'

998 found
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  1.  29
    Innovation in Education.James L. Wattenbarger, Marvin S. Alkin, Jean Dredsen Gramrs, Paul L. Dressel, Rita S. Saslaw, T. Barr Greenfield, Russell Thornton, Donald M. Scott, William Duffy, Mario D. Fantini, Alan H. Jones & Ruth Brownlee Johnson - 1972 - Educational Studies: A Jrnl of the American Educ. Studies Assoc 3 (3):174-183.
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  2.  15
    Innovation in Education.James L. Wattenbarger, Marvin S. Alkin, Jean Dredsen Gramrs, Paul L. Dressel, Rita S. Saslaw, T. Barr Greenfield, Russell Thornton, Donald M. Scott, William Duffy, Mario D. Fantini, Alan H. Jones & Ruth Brownlee Johnson - 1972 - Educational Studies 3 (3):174-183.
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  3.  26
    Conditionals and possibilities.Ruth Mj Byrne, Philip N. Johnson-Laird, M. Oaksford & N. Chater - 2010 - In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press.
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  4.  34
    Deduction.Philip Nicholas Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1991 - Psychology Press.
    In this study on deduction, the authors argue that people reason by imagining the relevant state of affairs, ie building an internal model of it, formulating a tentative conclusion based on this model and then searching for alternative models.
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  5.  21
    Reasoning from Suppositions.Ruth M. J. Byrne, Simon J. Handley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (4):915-944.
    Two experiments investigated inferences based on suppositions. In Experiment 1, the subjects decided whether suppositions about individuals' veracity were consistent with their assertions—for example, whether the supposition “Ann is telling the truth and Beth is telling a lie”, is consistent with the premises: “Ann asserts: I am telling the truth and Beth is telling the truth. Beth asserts: Ann is telling the truth”. It showed that these inferences are more difficult than ones based on factual premises: “Ann asserts: I live (...)
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  6.  34
    Propositional reasoning by model.Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. Byrne & Walter Schaeken - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (3):418-439.
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  7.  8
    Models of Possibilities Instead of Logic as the Basis of Human Reasoning.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Sangeet S. Khemlani - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (3):1-22.
    The theory of mental models and its computer implementations have led to crucial experiments showing that no standard logic—the sentential calculus and all logics that include it—can underlie human reasoning. The theory replaces the logical concept of validity (the conclusion is true in all cases in which the premises are true) with necessity (conclusions describe no more than possibilities to which the premises refer). Many inferences are both necessary and valid. But experiments show that individuals make necessary inferences that are (...)
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  8.  18
    Reasoning by model: The case of multiple quantification.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Patrizia Tabossi - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (4):658-673.
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  9.  59
    Conditionals: A theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference.Philip Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):646-678.
    The authors outline a theory of conditionals of the form If A then C and If A then possibly C. The 2 sorts of conditional have separate core meanings that refer to sets of possibilities. Knowledge, pragmatics, and semantics can modulate these meanings. Modulation can add information about temporal and other relations between antecedent and consequent. It can also prevent the construction of possibilities to yield 10 distinct sets of possibilities to which conditionals can refer. The mental representation of a (...)
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  10.  95
    A debate between a theist and a santa clausist.Ruth Tallman & David Kyle Johnson - 2015 - Think 14 (40):27-41.
    Many claim that belief in God is like belief in Santa Claus have it out belief in God, or belief in Santa – is rational, and a direct parallel between the reasoning of the two sides is demonstrated. Many important arguments regarding theistic belief are discussed in some form. The article is intended for use in an introduction to philosophy, or an introductory philosophy of religion course, as a humorous way to foster discussion and expose students to criticisms of theistic (...)
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  11.  28
    Why models rather than rules give a better account of propositional reasoning: A reply to Bonatti and to O'Brien, Braine, and Yang.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Walter Schaeken - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (4):734-739.
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  12.  47
    Meta-logical problems: Knights, knaves, and rips.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1990 - Cognition 36 (1):69-84.
  13.  34
    Modal reasoning, models, and Manktelow and Over.Philip N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1992 - Cognition 43 (2):173-182.
  14.  28
    In defense of reasoning: A reply to Greene (1992).P. N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. Byrne & Patrizia Tabossi - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (1):188-190.
  15.  50
    A model point of view.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1995 - Thinking and Reasoning 1 (4):339 – 350.
  16.  76
    Précis of Deduction.Philip N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):323-333.
    How do people make deductions? The orthodox view in psychology is that they use formal rules of inference like those of a “natural deduction” system.Deductionargues that their logical competence depends, not on formal rules, but on mental models. They construct models of the situation described by the premises, using their linguistic knowledge and their general knowledge. They try to formulate a conclusion based on these models that maintains semantic information, that expresses it parsimoniously, and that makes explicit something not directly (...)
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  17.  42
    Mental models or formal rules?Philip N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):368-380.
  18.  61
    Models rule, OK? A reply to Fetzer.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (1):111-118.
  19.  22
    Models, necessity, and the search for counterexamples.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):775-777.
  20.  33
    Mental models and syllogisms.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):543-546.
    We resolve the two problems that Hardman raises. The first problem arises from a misunderstanding: the crucial distinction is between one-model and multiple-model problems. The second problem illuminates a deeper principle: conclusions depend on the procedures for interpreting models. We describe an algorithm that obviates the problem and empirical work that reveals a new view of syllogistic reasoning.
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  21.  48
    Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
    This article presents a fundamental advance in the theory of mental models as an explanation of reasoning about facts, possibilities, and probabilities. It postulates that the meanings of compound assertions, such as conditionals (if) and disjunctions (or), unlike those in logic, refer to conjunctions of epistemic possibilities that hold in default of information to the contrary. Various factors such as general knowledge can modulate these interpretations. New information can always override sentential inferences; that is, reasoning in daily life is defeasible (...)
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  22. Ex 0.Paul Bertelson, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Stanislas Dehaene, Ruma Falk, Gerd Gigerenzer, Klaus Hug, Phillip N. Johnson-Laird, Susan Jones, Peter W. Jusczyk & Barbara Landau - 1992 - Cognition 43:2.
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  23.  41
    Mental models and pragmatics.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (2):284-285.
    Van der Henst argues that the theory of mental models lacks a pragmatic component. He fills the gap with the notion that reasoners draw the most relevant conclusions. We agree, but argue that theories need an element of “nondeterminism.” It is often impossible to predict either what will be most relevant or which particular conclusion an individual will draw.
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  24. Conditionals and possibilities.Ruth Byrne & Johnson-Laird & Phil - 2010 - In Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking. Oxford University Press.
     
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  25. The Mental Model Theory of Conditionals: A Reply to Guy Politzer. [REVIEW]Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Vittorio Girotto - 2009 - Topoi 28 (1):75-80.
    This paper replies to Politzer’s (2007) criticisms of the mental model theory of conditionals. It argues that the theory provides a correct account of negation of conditionals, that it does not provide a truth-functional account of their meaning, though it predicts that certain interpretations of conditionals yield acceptable versions of the ‘paradoxes’ of material implication, and that it postulates three main strategies for estimating the probabilities of conditionals.
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  26.  44
    Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism.Navras Jaat Aafreedi, Raihanah Abdullah, Zuraidah Abdullah, Iqbal S. Akhtar, Blain Auer, Jehan Bagli, Parvez M. Bajan, Carole A. Barnsley, Michael Bednar, Clinton Bennett, Purushottama Bilimoria, Leila Chamankhah, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Golam Dastagir, Albert De Jong, Amanullah De Sondy, Arthur Dudney, Janis Esots, Ilyse R. Morgenstein Fuerst, Jonathan Goldstein, Rebecca Ruth Gould, Thomas K. Gugler, Vivek Gupta, Andrew Halladay, Sowkot Hossain, A. R. M. Imtiyaz, Brannon Ingram, Ayesha A. Irani, Barbara C. Johnson, Ramiyar P. Karanjia, Pasha M. Khan, Shenila Khoja-Moolji, Søren Christian Lassen, Riyaz Latif, Bruce B. Lawrence, Joel Lee, Matthew Long, Iik A. Mansurnoor, Anubhuti Maurya, Sharmina Mawani, Seyed Mohamed Mohamed Mazahir, Mohamed Mihlar, Colin P. Mitchell, Yasien Mohamed, A. Azfar Moin, Rafiqul Islam Molla, Anjoom Mukadam, Faiza Mushtaq, Sajjad Nejatie, James R. Newell, Moin Ahmad Nizami, Michael O’Neal, Erik S. Ohlander, Jesse S. Palsetia, Farid Panjwani & Rooyintan Pesh Peer - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    The earlier volume in this series dealt with two religions of Indian origin, namely, Buddhism and Jainism. The Indian religious scene, however, is characterized by not only religions which originated in India but also by religions which entered India from outside India and made their home here. Thus religious life in India has been enlivened throughout its history by the presence of religions of foreign origin on its soil almost from the very time they came into existence. This volume covers (...)
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  27.  19
    Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism.Navras Jaat Aafreedi, Raihanah Abdullah, Zuraidah Abdullah, Iqbal S. Akhtar, Blain Auer, Jehan Bagli, Parvez M. Bajan, Carole A. Barnsley, Michael Bednar, Clinton Bennett, Purushottama Bilimoria, Leila Chamankhah, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Golam Dastagir, Albert De Jong, Amanullah De Sondy, Arthur Dudney, Janis Esots, Ilyse R. Morgenstein Fuerst, Jonathan Goldstein, Rebecca Ruth Gould, Thomas K. Gugler, Vivek Gupta, Andrew Halladay, Sowkot Hossain, A. R. M. Imtiyaz, Brannon Ingram, Ayesha A. Irani, Barbara C. Johnson, Ramiyar P. Karanjia, Pasha M. Khan, Shenila Khoja-Moolji, Søren Christian Lassen, Riyaz Latif, Bruce B. Lawrence, Joel Lee, Matthew Long, Iik A. Mansurnoor, Anubhuti Maurya, Sharmina Mawani, Seyed Mohamed Mohamed Mazahir, Mohamed Mihlar, Colin P. Mitchell, Yasien Mohamed, A. Azfar Moin, Rafiqul Islam Molla, Anjoom Mukadam, Faiza Mushtaq, Sajjad Nejatie, James R. Newell, Moin Ahmad Nizami, Michael O’Neal, Erik S. Ohlander, Jesse S. Palsetia, Farid Panjwani & Rooyintan Pesh Peer - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    The earlier volume in this series dealt with two religions of Indian origin, namely, Buddhism and Jainism. The Indian religious scene, however, is characterized by not only religions which originated in India but also by religions which entered India from outside India and made their home here. Thus religious life in India has been enlivened throughout its history by the presence of religions of foreign origin on its soil almost from the very time they came into existence. This volume covers (...)
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  28.  33
    Gender, assets, and market-oriented agriculture: learning from high-value crop and livestock projects in Africa and Asia.Agnes R. Quisumbing, Deborah Rubin, Cristina Manfre, Elizabeth Waithanji, Mara van den Bold, Deanna Olney, Nancy Johnson & Ruth Meinzen-Dick - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (4):705-725.
    Strengthening the abilities of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly women farmers, to produce for both home and the market is currently a development priority. In many contexts, ownership of assets is strongly gendered, reflecting existing gender norms and limiting women’s ability to invest in more profitable livelihood strategies such as market-oriented agriculture. Yet the intersection between women’s asset endowments and their ability to participate in and benefit from agricultural interventions receives minimal attention. This paper explores changes in gender relations (...)
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  29.  45
    Sweet-cheeks vs. pea-brain: embodiment, valence, and task all influence the emotional salience of language.Erik M. Benau, Sabrina C. Gregersen, Paul D. Siakaluk, Aminda J. O'Hare, Eric K. Johnson & Ruth Ann Atchley - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (4):691-708.
    Previous research has found that more embodied insults are identified faster and more accurately than less embodied insults. The linguistic processing of embodied compliments has not been well explored. In the present study, participants completed two tasks where they identified insults and compliments, respectively. Half of the stimuli were more embodied than the other half. We examined the late positive potential component of event-related potentials in early, middle, and late time windows. Increased embodiment resulted in improved response accuracy to compliments (...)
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  30.  30
    JME Referees in 1992.Barbara Applebaum, Lyn Brown, Don Cochrane, Mike Cross, Deborah Deemer, Janet Edwards, Ruth Hayhoe, Marilyn Johnson, Patricia King & Romulo Magsino - 1993 - Journal of Moral Education 22 (2):183.
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  31.  41
    Book Review Section 4. [REVIEW]Cyril O. Houle, Douglas E. Foley, Theodore A. Koschler, Donald F. Gerdy, John R. Shea, Lawrence D. Haskew, William E. Barron, Robert J. Nash, Ruth B. Johnson, Carl R. Ashbaugh, John H. Walker, A. C. Murphy, Earl J. Mcgrath, Jack C. Willers, William E. Drake, James E. Wagener, Billy F. Cowart, William Jefferson Mathis, Samuel E. Kellams, Ira S. Steinberg, Willis H. Griffin, Eugene E. Grollmes & Allan W. Purdy - 1972 - Educational Studies 3 (1):53-67.
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  32.  40
    Nietzsche’s Anti-Darwinism. By Dirk R. Johnson[REVIEW]Ruth Burch - 2014 - The European Legacy 19 (1):99-100.
    Nietzsche’s Anti-Darwinism. By Dirk R. Johnson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) In this substantial and incisive monograph, Dirk R. Johnson traces in minute detail Nietzsche’s stance towards Darwin at the various stages of his intellectually productive life. Johnson’s book is in two principal parts: Part 1 is on Nietzsche’s early Darwinism, which turned into anti-Darwinism, and Part 2 is a close reading of all three essays of Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals in their historical context since together they (...)
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  33.  37
    Western Classical Music and General Education.Estelle Ruth Jorgensen - 2003 - Philosophy of Music Education Review 11 (2):130-140.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Philosophy of Music Education Review 11.2 (2003) 130-140 [Access article in PDF] Western Classical Music and General Education Estelle R. Jorgensen Indiana University Thinking about transforming music, I address issues relating to the role of musicians in higher education and Western classical music in general education. I am concerned about this music because it is marginalized in general education and the civic spaces of public life. Where once it (...)
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  34.  11
    Fatemen Ebtehaj, Jonathan Herring, Martin H Johnson and Martin Richards : Birth Rites and Rights: Oxford, Hart, 2011, ISBN: 978-1-84946-188-7. [REVIEW]Ruth Cain - 2014 - Feminist Legal Studies 22 (1):101-104.
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  35.  65
    Western Classical Music and General Education.Estelle Ruth Jorgensen - 2003 - Philosophy of Music Education Review 11 (2):130-140.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Philosophy of Music Education Review 11.2 (2003) 130-140 [Access article in PDF] Western Classical Music and General Education Estelle R. Jorgensen Indiana University Thinking about transforming music, I address issues relating to the role of musicians in higher education and Western classical music in general education. I am concerned about this music because it is marginalized in general education and the civic spaces of public life. Where once it (...)
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  36. OCk, athryn, 163 Byrne, Ruth MJ, 61 Cosmides, Leda, 187 Garnham, Alan, 45, 117.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Jane Oakhill, Josef Perner, Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini, Lance J. Rips, Jennifer A. Sanderson, Michael Siegal & Yohtaro Takano - 1989 - Cognition 31:295.
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  37.  24
    Proper Function and Ethical Judgment Towards A Biosemantic Theory of Ethical Thought and Discourse.Drew Johnson - 2023 - Erkenntnis 88 (7):2867-2891.
    This paper employs Ruth Millikan’s biosemantic theory of representation to develop a proposal about the function of ethical claims and judgments. I propose that ethical claims and judgments (or ethical ‘affirmations’) have the function of simultaneously tracking the morally salient features of social situations and directing behavior that coordinates in a collectively beneficial way around those features. Thus, ethical affirmations count as a species of what Millikan labels ‘Pushmi-Pullyu’ representations that simultaneously have a descriptive and a directive direction of (...)
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  38.  13
    Pursuing justice in Africa: competing imaginaries and contested practices.Jessica Johnson & George Hamandishe Karekwaivanane (eds.) - 2018 - Athens: Ohio University Press.
    Pursuing Justice in Africa focuses on the many actors pursuing many visions of justice across the African continent--their aspirations, divergent practices, and articulations of international and vernacular idioms of justice. The essays selected by editors Jessica Johnson and George H. Karekwaivanane engage with topics at the cutting edge of contemporary scholarship across a wide range of disciplines. These include activism, land tenure, international legal institutions, and post-conflict reconciliation. Building on recent work in sociolegal studies that foregrounds justice over and (...)
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  39.  20
    Proper Function and Ethical Judgment Towards A Biosemantic Theory of Ethical Thought and Discourse.Drew Johnson - 2023 - Erkenntnis 88 (7):2867-2891.
    This paper employs Ruth Millikan’s biosemantic theory of representation to develop a proposal about the function of ethical claims and judgments. I propose that ethical claims and judgments (or ethical ‘affirmations’) have the function of simultaneously tracking the morally salient features of social situations and directing behavior that coordinates in a collectively beneficial way around those features. Thus, ethical affirmations count as a species of what Millikan labels ‘Pushmi-Pullyu’ representations that simultaneously have a descriptive and a directive direction of (...)
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  40. Skepticism about Induction.Ruth Weintraub - 2008 - In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford handbook of skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 129.
    This article considers two arguments that purport to show that inductive reasoning is unjustified: the argument adduced by Sextus Empiricus and the (better known and more formidable) argument given by Hume in the Treatise. While Sextus’ argument can quite easily be rebutted, a close examination of the premises of Hume’s argument shows that they are seemingly cogent. Because the sceptical claim is very unintuitive, the sceptical argument constitutes a paradox. And since attributions of justification are theoretical, and the claim that (...)
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  41.  61
    Causal Networks or Causal Islands? The Representation of Mechanisms and the Transitivity of Causal Judgment.Samuel G. B. Johnson & Woo-Kyoung Ahn - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1468-1503.
    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge—an interconnected causal network, where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms—causal islands—such that events in different mechanisms are not thought to be related even when they belong to the same causal chain. To distinguish these possibilities, we tested whether people make transitive judgments about causal chains by inferring, given A causes B and B causes C, (...)
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  42.  74
    Was Kant a virtue ethicist?Robert N. Johnson - 2008 - In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. De Gruyter. pp. 61-76.
    You might think a simple “No” would suffice as an answer. But there are features of Kant’s ethics that appear to be strikingly similar to virtue oriented views, so striking that some Kantians themselves have argued that Kant’s ethics in fact shares these features with virtue ethics. In what follows, I will argue against this view, though along the way I will acknowledge the features of Kant’s view that make it appear more like a kind of virtue ethics than it (...)
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  43. On mentalese orthography.Ruth G. Millikan - 1993 - In B. Dahlbom (ed.), Dennett and His Critics: Demystifying Mind. Cambridge: Blackwell.
  44. The communicative aspects of civil disobedience and lawful punishment.Kimberley Brownlee - 2007 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 1 (2):179-192.
    A parallel may be drawn between the communicative aspect of civil disobedience and the communicative aspect of lawful punishment by the state. In punishing an offender, the state seeks to communicate both its condemnation of the crime committed and its desire for repentance and reformation on the part of the offender. Similarly, in civilly disobeying the law, a disobedient seeks to convey both her condemnation of a certain law or policy and her desire for recognition that a lasting change in (...)
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  45. Moral imagination: implications of cognitive science for ethics.Mark Johnson - 1993 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Using path-breaking discoveries of cognitive science, Mark Johnson argues that humans are fundamentally imaginative moral animals, challenging the view that morality is simply a system of universal laws dictated by reason. According to the Western moral tradition, we make ethical decisions by applying universal laws to concrete situations. But Johnson shows how research in cognitive science undermines this view and reveals that imagination has an essential role in ethical deliberation. Expanding his innovative studies of human reason in Metaphors (...)
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  46. What a Home Does.David Jenkins & Kimberley Brownlee - 2022 - Law and Philosophy 41 (4):441-468.
    Analytic philosophy has largely neglected the topic of homelessness. The few notable exceptions, including work by Jeremy Waldron and Christopher Essert, focus on our interests in shelter, housing, and property rights, but ignore the key social functions that a home performs as a place in which we are welcomed, accepted, and respected. This paper identifies a ladder of home-related concepts which begins with the minimal notion of temporary shelter, then moves to persistent shelter and housing, and finally to the rich (...)
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  47.  46
    Beyond Concepts: Unicepts, Language, and Natural Information.Ruth Millikan - 2017 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Ruth Garrett Millikan presents a strikingly original account of how we get to grips with the world in thought. Her question is Kant's 'How is knowledge possible?', answered from a contemporary naturalist standpoint. We begin with an understanding of what the world is like prior to cognition, then develop a theory of cognition within that world.
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  48. Moral Obligation and Epistemic Risk.Zoe Johnson King & Boris Babic - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 10:81-105.
  49. Shifting the Moral Burden: Expanding Moral Status and Moral Agency.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2021 - Health and Human Rights Journal 2 (23):63-73.
    Two problems are considered here. One relates to who has moral status, and the other relates to who has moral responsibility. The criteria for mattering morally have long been disputed, and many humans and nonhuman animals have been considered “marginal cases,” on the contested edges of moral considerability and concern. The marginalization of humans and other species is frequently the pretext for denying their rights, including the rights to health care, to reproductive freedom, and to bodily autonomy. There is broad (...)
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  50.  70
    INTERVIEW: Gedacht wird in der Welt, nicht im Kopf.Ruth G. Millikan, Markus Wild & Martin Lenz - 2010 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 58 (6):981-1000.
    This interview deals with the major themes in the work of Ruth Millikan. Her most fundamental idea is that the intentionality of inner and outer representations can be understood in analogy to biological functions. Another innovative feature is the view that thought and language stand parallel to each other. Thirdly, the basic ideas concerning the ontology and the epistemology of concepts are explained. Millikan aims at clarifying her position by contrasting it with Dretske, Fodor, Sellars, and Brandom. Finally, the (...)
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