Results for 'Ruth Irmgard Pinnau'

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  1.  41
    Cloning: Ruth F. Chadwick.Ruth F. Chadwick - 1982 - Philosophy 57 (220):201-209.
    Every body cell of an animal or human being contains the same complete set of genes. In theory any of these cells can be used to start a new embryo. The technique has been employed in the case of frogs. The nucleus is taken out of a body cell of a frog and implanted in an enucleated frog's egg. The resulting egg cell is stimulated to develop into a normal frog, and will be an exact copy of that frog which (...)
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  2. II—Ruth Garrett Millikan: Loosing the Word–Concept Tie.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 2011 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):125-143.
    Sainsbury and Tye (2011) propose that, in the case of names and other simple extensional terms, we should substitute for Frege's second level of content—for his senses—a second level of meaning vehicle—words in the language of thought. I agree. They also offer a theory of atomic concept reference—their ‘originalist’ theory—which implies that people knowing the same word have the ‘same concept’. This I reject, arguing for a symmetrical rather than an originalist theory of concept reference, claiming that individual concepts are (...)
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  3. Modality, Morality and Belief: Essays in Honor of Ruth Barcan Marcus.Ruth Barcan Marcus, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Diana Raffman & Nicholas Asher (eds.) - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Modality, morality and belief are among the most controversial topics in philosophy today, and few philosophers have shaped these debates as deeply as Ruth Barcan Marcus. Inspired by her work, a distinguished group of philosophers explore these issues, refine and sharpen arguments and develop new positions on such topics as possible worlds, moral dilemmas, essentialism, and the explanation of actions by beliefs. This 'state of the art' collection honours one of the most rigorous and iconoclastic of philosophical pioneers.
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  4.  39
    On the Paper of Ruth B. Marcus.Ruth B. Marcus - 1962 - Synthese 14 (2/3):132 - 143.
  5.  7
    Revisiting Kant's General Metaphysics: In Terms of a Completed Transcendental Psychology.Irmgard Scherer - 2001 - In Ralph Schumacher, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Volker Gerhardt (eds.), Kant und die Berliner Aufklaerung, Ninth International Kant-Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 424-432.
    In this paper I argue for the "incompleteness thesis" of Kant's General Metaphysics before completing a full analysis of the power of judgment which only occurred in the Critique of Judgment-Power. Kant scholars have argued that Kant's General Metaphysics was completed with the Critique of Pure Reason and the Third Critique added nothing significant to this quest. One of the issues in this paper is to understand Kant's various "transition problems" and their solution to unify knowledge under a metaphysics, all (...)
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  6. Discussion on the Paper of Ruth B. Marcus.Ruth B. Marcus - 1962 - Synthese 14 (2/3):132.
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  7.  14
    Ruth Sonderegger (Amsterdam): Über einige Neuerscheinungen zur Asthetik.Ruth Sonderegger - 2006 - Philosophische Rundschau 53 (4):289 - 302.
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  8. Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories.Ruth G. Millikan - 1984 - MIT Press.
    Preface by Daniel C. Dennett Beginning with a general theory of function applied to body organs, behaviors, customs, and both inner and outer representations, ...
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  9.  37
    Medical Imaging: Pictures, “as If” and the Power of Evidence. [REVIEW]Irmgard Müller & Heiner Fangerau - 2010 - Medicine Studies 2 (3):151-160.
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  10. Language: A Biological Model.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 2005 - Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Ruth Millikan is well known for having developed a strikingly original way for philosophers to seek understanding of mind and language, which she sees as biological phenomena. She now draws together a series of groundbreaking essays which set out her approach to language. Guiding the work of most linguists and philosophers of language today is the assumption that language is governed by prescriptive normative rules. Millikan offers a fundamentally different way of viewing the partial regularities that language displays, comparing (...)
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  11.  99
    On Clear and Confused Ideas: An Essay About Substance Concepts.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    Written by one of today's most creative and innovative philosophers, Ruth Garrett Millikan, this book examines basic empirical concepts; how they are acquired, how they function, and how they have been misrepresented in the traditional philosophical literature. Millikan places cognitive psychology in an evolutionary context where human cognition is assumed to be an outgrowth of primitive forms of mentality, and assumed to have 'functions' in the biological sense. Of particular interest are her discussions of the nature of abilities as (...)
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  12. Beyond Concepts: Unicepts, Language, and Natural Information.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Ruth Garrett Millikan presents a strikingly original account of how we get to grips with the world in thought. Her question is Kant's 'How is knowledge possible?', answered from a contemporary naturalist standpoint. We begin with an understanding of what the world is like prior to cognition, then develop a theory of cognition within that world.
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  13.  55
    Ruth Garrett Millikan, Review of Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature by Peter Godfrey-Smith. [REVIEW]Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):375-377.
  14. Varieties of Meaning: The 2002 Jean Nicod Lectures.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 2004 - MIT Press.
    How the various things that are said to have meaning—purpose, natural signs, linguistic signs, perceptions, and thoughts—are related to one another.
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  15. White Queen Psychology and Other Essays for Alice.Ruth G. Millikan - 1993 - MIT Press.
  16.  23
    Kant's Critique of Judgment and the Scientific Investigation of Matter.Daniel Rothbart & Irmgard Scherer - 1997 - Hyle 3 (1):65 - 80.
    Kant's theory of judgment establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the subtle relationships between the experimental scientist, the modern instrument, and nature's atomic particles. The principle of purposiveness which governs judgment has also a role in implicitly guiding modern experimental science. In Part 1 we explore Kant's philosophy of science as he shows how knowledge of material nature and unobservable entities is possible. In Part 2 we examine the way in which Kant's treatment of judgment, with its operating principle of (...)
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  17. The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality.Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2005 - MIT Press.
    A leading scholar in the psychology of thinking and reasoning argues that the counterfactual imagination—the creation of "if only" alternatives to ...
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  18. In Defense of Proper Functions.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (June):288-302.
    I defend the historical definition of "function" originally given in my Language, Thought and Other Biological Categories (1984a). The definition was not offered in the spirit of conceptual analysis but is more akin to a theoretical definition of "function". A major theme is that nonhistorical analyses of "function" fail to deal adequately with items that are not capable of performing their functions.
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  19.  53
    In Conversation: Ruth Macklin, Alison Reiheld, Robyn Bluhm, Sidney Callahan, and Frances Kissling Discuss the Marlise Munoz Case, Advance Directives, and Pregnant Women.Ruth Macklin, Alison Reiheld, Robyn Bluhm, Sidney Callahan & Frances Kissling - 2015 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (1):156-167.
    Feminist bioethicists of a variety of persuasions discuss the 2013 case of Marlise Munoz, a pregnant woman whose medical care was in dispute after she became brain dead.
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  20.  3
    National Styles? Jacques Loeb's Analysis of German and American Science Around 1900 in His Correspondence with Ernst Mach.Heiner Fangerau & Irmgard Muller - 2005 - Centaurus 47 (3):207-225.
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  21. Thoughts Without Laws: Cognitive Science with Content.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1986 - Philosophical Review 95 (January):47-80.
  22. Biosemantics.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (July):281-97.
  23.  43
    A Theory of Content and Other Essays.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1990 - Philosophical Review 101 (4):898-901.
  24. The Possibility of Parity.Ruth Chang - 2002 - Ethics 112 (4):659-688.
    This paper argues for the existence of a fourth positive generic value relation that can hold between two items beyond ‘better than’, ‘worse than’, and ‘equally good’: namely ‘on a par’.
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  25. Biosemantics.Ruth Millikan - 1989 - In Brian P. McLaughlin & Ansgar Beckerman (eds.), Journal of Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 281--297.
    " Biosemantics " was the title of a paper on mental representation originally printed in The Journal of Philosophy in 1989. It contained a much abbreviated version of the work on mental representation in Language Thought and Other Biological Categories. There I had presented a naturalist theory of intentional signs generally, including linguistic representations, graphs, charts and diagrams, road sign symbols, animal communications, the "chemical signals" that regulate the function of glands, and so forth. But the term " biosemantics " (...)
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  26.  46
    Presupposition and the Delimitation of Semantics.Ruth M. Kempson - 1975 - Cambridge University Press.
  27. Patterns of Culture.Ruth Benedict - 1946 - Philosophical Review 55:497.
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  28.  9
    Erfüllung und Entsagung. Die Leidenschaft der Gottesminne bei Mechthild von Magdeburg.Irmgard Rüsenberg - 2013 - In Martin Thurner & Christian Schäfer (eds.), Passiones Animae: Die "Leidenschaften der Seele" in der Mittelalterlichen Theologie Und Philosophie. Ein Handbuch. De Gruyter. pp. 197-206.
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  29.  4
    Biedermeierlicher Pietismus in Württemberg. Albert Knapps Christoterpe.Irmgard Scheitler - 2005 - In Udo Sträter (ed.), Interdisziplinäre Pietismusforschungen: Beiträge Zum Ersten Internationalen Kongress Für Pietismusforschung 2001. De Gruyter. pp. 509-520.
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  30.  19
    Hegel and Mallarmé.Irmgard B. Scherer - 1987 - Review of Metaphysics 41 (1):150-152.
    Janine Langan's Hegel and Mallarmé represents an analysis of Stéphane Mallarmé's pervasive, if "mysterious" Hegelianism which underlies, by the French symbolist's own admission, his total work. The author attempts to demystify the Hegelian substructure in Mallarmé by a careful examination and step-by-step description of the salient Hegelian elements. The latter task is accomplished by de voting a good part of the work to Mallarmé's longest poem "Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard," which has at times been considered the (...)
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  31.  40
    Irrationalism in Eighteenth Century Aesthetics.Irmgard Scherer - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 12:23-29.
    This essay deals with a particularly recalcitrant problem in the history of ideas, that of irrationalism. It emerged to full consciousness in mid-eighteenth century thought. Irrationalism was a logical consequence of individualism which in turn was a direct outcome of the Cartesian self-reflective subject. In time these tendencies produced the "critical" Zeitgeist and the "epoch of taste" during which Kant began thinking about such matters. Like Alfred Bäumler, I argue that irrationalism could not have arisen in ancient or medieval philosophical (...)
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  32.  12
    Irrationalism in Eighteenth Century Aesthetics: A Challenge for Kant.Irmgard Scherer - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 12:23-29.
    This essay deals with a particularly recalcitrant problem in the history of ideas, that of irrationalism. It emerged to full consciousness in mid-eighteenth century thought. Irrationalism was a logical consequence of individualism which in turn was a direct outcome of the Cartesian self-reflective subject. In time these tendencies produced the "critical" Zeitgeist and the "epoch of taste" during which Kant began thinking about such matters. Like Alfred Bäumler, I argue that irrationalism could not have arisen in ancient or medieval philosophical (...)
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  33.  19
    Kant’s Eschatology in Zum Ewigen Frieden.Irmgard Scherer - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 2:437-444.
  34.  17
    Kant’s Theory of a Priori Knowledge. [REVIEW]Irmgard Scherer - 2002 - Review of Metaphysics 55 (4):860-861.
    Robert Greenberg offers an intricate, highly original reading of Kant’s first Critique on what constitutes the possibility of a priori knowledge. One of the book’s main features, ambitious in scope, is the author’s extensive polemic against mainstream Anglophone approaches to Kant’s position on a priori knowledge. Many of them have, according to Greenberg, fundamentally misunderstood Kant’s theory of transcendental idealism. In particular, Greenberg sees Peter Strawson’s epochmaking classic, The Bounds of Sense—An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason as a (...)
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  35. Kant Und Die Berliner Aufklaerung, Ninth International Kant-Congress.Irmgard Scherer - 2001
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  36. Reflections on Kant's Transcendental Psychology: Can It Provide a Bridge to the Transcendent?Irmgard Scherer - 2008 - In Valerio Rohden, Ricardo R. Terra, Guido A. de Almeida & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Recht und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants, 10th International Kant Congress. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 87 - 97.
    I argue that once one holds (as Kant does) that the mind is equipped with innate, pre-existing, i.e. a priori structures, one can ask (as materialists or empiricists would), Is there an identifiable source of such structures and what does it imply? Already Schopenhauer, Moses Mendelssohn and others have taken that route of argument, without fully drawing the implications. In this paper I attempt to do so, posing the query: Is Kant's very explicit separation of the transcendent from the transcendental (...)
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  37.  40
    The Problem of the a Priori In Sensibility: Revisiting Kant’s and Hegel’s Theories of the Senses.Irmgard Scherer - 1998 - Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):341 - 367.
    KANT AND HEGEL FIND THEMSELVES ON SIMILAR PATHS toward their respective goals to give a total account of reality. They share a deep commitment to science, Wissenschaftlichkeit, and raise the question: Where does science begin? Similarly, they answer: It begins with sense knowledge yet it is not founded in the senses. This essay attempts to reflect on, with the aim of cautiously reassessing, the nonsensible, universal features of sense experience from an idealist perspective. A study of the “science of sensibility,” (...)
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  38.  21
    Deutsche Arbeit" – Arbeitskult im Nationalsozialismus.Irmgard Weyrather - 2004 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 56 (1):18-36.
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  39.  17
    Four Adaptations of Effort Theory in Research and TeachingModern European ArtMusic at the Crossroads.Yvette Bader, Irmgard Bartenieff, M. Davis, F. Paulay, Alan Bowness & Abram Chasins - 1972 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (2):275.
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  40. Conceptualising Meaningful Work as a Fundamental Human Need.Ruth Yeoman - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2):1-17.
    In liberal political theory, meaningful work is conceptualised as a preference in the market. Although this strategy avoids transgressing liberal neutrality, the subsequent constraint upon state intervention aimed at promoting the social and economic conditions for widespread meaningful work is normatively unsatisfactory. Instead, meaningful work can be understood to be a fundamental human need, which all persons require in order to satisfy their inescapable interests in freedom, autonomy, and dignity. To overcome the inadequate treatment of meaningful work by liberal political (...)
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  41.  50
    Charles Taylor.Ruth Abbey (ed.) - 2000 - Routledge.
    Charles Taylor is one of the most influential and prolific philosophers in the English-speaking world today. The breadth of his writings is unique, ranging from reflections on artificial intelligence to analyses of contemporary multicultural societies. This thought-provoking introduction to Taylor's work outlines his ideas in a coherent and accessible way without reducing their richness and depth. His contribution to many of the enduring debates within Western philosophy is examined and the arguments of his critics assessed. Taylor's reflections on the topics (...)
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  42. Truth, Rules, Hoverflies, and the Kripke-Wittgenstein Paradox.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1990 - Philosophical Review 99 (3):323-53.
  43. Are Hard Choices Cases of Incomparability?Ruth Chang - 2012 - Philosophical Issues 22 (1):106-126.
    This paper presents an argument against the widespread view that ‘hard choices’ are hard because of the incomparability of the alternatives. The argument has two parts. First, I argue that any plausible theory of practical reason must be ‘comparativist’ in form, that is, it must hold that a comparative relation between the alternatives with respect to what matters in the choice determines a justified choice in that situation. If comparativist views of practical reason are correct, however, the incomparabilist view of (...)
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  44. Pushmi-Pullyu Representations.Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1995 - Philosophical Perspectives 9:185-200.
    A list of groceries, Professor Anscombe once suggested, might be used as a shopping list, telling what to buy, or it might be used as an inventory list, telling what has been bought (Anscombe 1957). If used as a shopping list, the world is supposed to conform to the representation: if the list does not match what is in the grocery bag, it is what is in the bag that is at fault. But if used as an inventory list, the (...)
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  45. Moral Dilemmas and Consistency.Ruth Barcan Marcus - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (3):121-136.
    Marcus argues that moral dilemmas are real, but that they are not the result of inconsistent moral principles. Moral principles are consistent just in case there is some world where all principles are 'obeyable.' They are inconsistent just in case there is no world where all are 'obeyable.' What this logical point is meant to show is that moral dilemmas do not make moral codes inconsistent. She also discusses guilt, and argues that guilt is still appropriate even in cases of (...)
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  46. Exploitation: What It is and Why It's Wrong.Ruth J. Sample - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Exploitation locates what it is we recognize as bad when we judge a situation to be exploitative. Ideal for courses in social and political philosophy, public policy, or political science.
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  47. Feminist Approaches to Science.Ruth Bleier (ed.) - 1986 - Pergamon Press.
  48. Historical Kinds and the "Special Sciences".Ruth Garrett Millikan - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 95 (1-2):45-65.
    There are no "special sciences" in Fodor's sense. There is a large group of sciences, "historical sciences," that differ fundamentally from the physical sciences because they quantify over a different kind of natural or real kind, nor are the generalizations supported by these kinds exceptionless. Heterogeneity, however, is not characteristic of these kinds. That there could be an univocal empirical science that ranged over multiple realizations of a functional property is quite problematic. If psychological predicates name multiply realized functionalist properties, (...)
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  49. Introduction.Ruth Chang - 1997 - In Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Practical Reason. Harvard University Press. pp. 1-34.
    This paper is the introduction to the volume. It gives an argumentative view of the philosophical landscape concerning incommensurability and incomparability. It argues that incomparability, not incommensurability, is the important phenomenon on which philosophers should be focusing and that the arguments for the existence of incomparability are so far not compelling.
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  50. Sleeping Beauty: A Simple Solution.Ruth Weintraub - 2004 - Analysis 64 (1):8–10.
    I defend the suggestion that the rational probability in the Sleeping Beauty paradox is one third. The reasoning in its favour is familiar: for every heads-waking, there are two tails-wakings. To complete the defense, I rebut the reasoning which purports to justify the competing suggestion – that the correct probability is half – by undermining its premise, that no new information has been received.
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