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Ruth Macklin [112]Ruth Chimacoff Macklin [1]Ruth R. Macklin [1]
  1. Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine.Ruth Macklin - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    This book provides an analysis of the debate surrounding cultural diversity, and attempts to reconcile the seemingly opposing views of "ethical imperialism," the belief that each individual is entitled to fundamental human rights, and cultural relativism, the belief that ethics must be relative to particular cultures and societies. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments. Key issues in health and medicine are explored in the context of cultural diversity: the physician-patient (...)
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  2.  85
    Bioethics, Vulnerability, and Protection.Ruth Macklin - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (5-6):472--486.
    What makes individuals, groups, or even entire countries vulnerable? And why is vulnerability a concern in bioethics? A simple answer to both questions is that vulnerable individuals and groups are subject to exploitation, and exploitation is morally wrong. This analysis is limited to two areas. First is the context of multinational research, in which vulnerable people can be exploited even if they are not harmed, and harmed even if they are not exploited. Second is the situation of women, who are (...)
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  3.  15
    Informed Consent and Standard of Care: What Must Be Disclosed.Ruth Macklin & Lois Shepherd - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):9-13.
    The Office for Human Research Protections was correct in determining that the consent forms for the National Institutes of Health -sponsored SUPPORT study were seriously flawed. Several articles defended the consent forms and criticized the OHRP's actions. Disagreement focuses on three central issues: how risks and benefits should be described in informed consent documents; the meaning and application of the concept of “standard of care” in the context of research; and the proper role of OHRP. Examination of the consent forms (...)
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  4.  5
    Misrepresenting “Usual Care” in Research: An Ethical and Scientific Error.Ruth Macklin & Charles Natanson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (1):31-39.
    ABSTRACTComparative effectiveness studies, referred to here as “usual-care” trials, seek to compare current medical practices for the same medical condition. Such studies are presumed to be safe and involve only minimal risks. However, that presumption may be flawed if the trial design contains “unusual” care, resulting in potential risks to subjects and inaccurately informed consent. Three case studies described here did not rely on clinical evidence to ascertain contemporaneous practice. As a result, the investigators drew inaccurate conclusions, misinformed research participants, (...)
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  5.  8
    Common Morality and Medical Ethics: Not so Different After All.Ruth Macklin - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):780-781.
    Rhodes seeks to defend her ‘conclusion that everyday ethics and medical ethics [are] incompatible’.1 She challenges ‘views that medical ethics is nothing more than common morality applied to clinical matters’.1 Beauchamp and Childress explicate the term ‘common morality’ at length.2 Nowhere do they claim that medical ethics is ‘nothing more than common morality applied to clinical matters’. Here is what they do say: “The origin of the norms of the common morality is no different in principle from the origin of (...)
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  6.  28
    After Helsinki: Unresolved Issues in International Research.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (1):17-36.
    : Following a long process of revision, a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki was approved by the World Medical Association in 2000. Two provisions of the Declaration address ongoing international controversies regarding research sponsored by industrialized countries and conducted in developing countries. Despite the issuance of the final version of the Declaration, opponents remain locked in debate. Moreover, the Declaration remained silent on other prominent controversies concerning international research. An analysis of these current controversies reveals reasons why they (...)
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  7.  5
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Misrepresenting ‘Usual Care’ in Research: An Ethical and Scientific Error”.Ruth Macklin & Charles Natanson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (1):W12-W14.
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  8.  53
    The New Conservatives in Bioethics: Who Are They and What Do They Seek?Ruth Macklin - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (1):34-43.
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  9. Moral Progress.Ruth Macklin - 1977 - Ethics 87 (4):370-382.
  10.  12
    Erosion of Informed Consent in U.S. Research.Lois Shepherd & Ruth Macklin - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):4-12.
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  11.  38
    The Paradoxical Case of Payment as Benefit to Research Subjects.Ruth Macklin - 1989 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 11 (6):1.
  12.  52
    A Global Ethics Approach to Vulnerability.Ruth Macklin - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):64-81.
    In exploring the concept of vulnerability, we do not begin with a blank slate. In research involving human subjects, ethics guidelines typically provide a rough definition of the concept. For example, the commentary on Guideline 13 in the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, issued by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), says that "vulnerable persons are those who are relatively (or absolutely) incapable of protecting their own interests. More formally, they may have insufficient (...)
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  13.  3
    Can One Do Good Medical Ethics Without Principles?Ruth Macklin - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):75-78.
  14. Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society.Ruth Macklin - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):1-22.
    : The multicultural composition of the United States can pose problems for physicians and patients who come from diverse backgrounds. Although respect for cultural diversity mandates tolerance of the beliefs and practices of others, in some situations excessive tolerance can produce harm to patients. Careful analysis is needed to determine which values are culturally relative and which rest on an underlying universal ethical principle. A conception of justice as equality challenges the notion that it is always necessary to respect all (...)
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  15. Mental Health and Mental Illness: Some Problems of Definition and Concept Formation.Ruth Macklin - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (3):341-365.
  16.  26
    Ethical Challenges in HIV Microbicide Research: What Protections Do Women Need?Ruth Macklin - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):124-143.
    As the HIV epidemic continues unabated, among the people most at risk are women and girls in developing countries. Condom distribution, adopted as a public health measure early in the epidemic, has had only marginal success. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), “Young girls and women are regularly and repeatedly denied information about, and access to, condoms. Often they do not have the power to negotiate the use of condoms. In many social contexts, men are resistant (...)
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  17.  16
    The Inner Workings of an Ethics Committee: Latest Battle Over Jehovah's Witnesses.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (1):15-20.
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  18.  14
    The Self and its Brain.Ruth Macklin - 1979 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 40 (2):290-292.
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  19.  78
    The Death of Bioethics.Ruth Macklin - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (5):211-217.
    ABSTRACTFast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and necroethics. (...)
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  20.  8
    Splitting Embryos on the Slippery Slope: Ethics and Public Policy.Ruth Macklin - 1994 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 4 (3):209-225.
  21.  7
    AIDS Research: The Ethics of Clinical Trials.Ruth Macklin & Gerald Friedland - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (5-6):273-280.
  22.  6
    AIDS Research: The Ethics of Clinical Trials.Ruth Macklin & Gerald Friedland - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (5-6):273-280.
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  23.  16
    Fair Benefits in Developing Countries: Maximin as a Good Start.Ruth Macklin - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):36-37.
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  24. Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
  25.  14
    A Defense of Fundamental Principles and Human Rights: A Reply to Robert Baker.Ruth Macklin - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):403-422.
  26.  10
    Cloning and Public Policy.Ruth Macklin - 2002 - In Justine Burley & John Harris (eds.), A companion to genethics. Blackwell. pp. 206-215.
    It seemed like only minutes after a team of Scottish scientists announced, in late February 1997, that they had successfully cloned a sheep, that governmental officials and private citizens throughout the world called for a ban on cloning human beings. The rush to legislate or issue executive orders was so swift, it is reasonable to wonder why the news that a mammal had been cloned ignited such a stampede to prohibit, even criminalize, attempts to clone humans. These events raise a (...)
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  27.  13
    NIDA's Pharmacologic Calvinism.Ruth Macklin - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (4):48-49.
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  28.  21
    Special Supplement: The XYY Controversy: Researching Violence and Genetics.Diane Bauer, Ronald Bayer, Jonathan Beckwith, Gordon Bermant, Digamber S. Borgaonkar, Daniel Callahan, Arthur Caplan, John Conrad, Charles M. Culver, Gerald Dworkin, Harold Edgar, Willard Gaylin, Park Gerald, Clarence Harris, Johnathan King, Ruth Macklin, Allan Mazur, Robert Michels, Carola Mone, Rosalind Petchesky, Tabitha M. Powledge, Reed E. Pyeritz, Arthur Robinson, Thomas Scanlon, Saleem A. Shah, Thomas A. Shannon, Margaret Steinfels, Judith P. Swazey, Paul Wachtel & Stanley Walzer - 1980 - Hastings Center Report 10 (4):1.
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  29.  12
    Man, Mind and Morality: The Ethics of Behavior Control.Ruth Macklin - 1984 - Philosophical Review 93 (1):104-106.
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  30.  6
    Changing the Presumption: Providing ART to Vaccine Research Participants.Ruth Macklin - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):W1-W5.
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  31.  2
    Cluster Randomized Trials:Another Look.Ruth Macklin - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (1):37-43.
  32.  15
    Bioethics and Public Policy in the Next Millennium: Presidential Address.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (5-6):373-381.
  33.  29
    Artificial Means of Reproduction and Our Understanding of the Family.Ruth Macklin - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (1):5-11.
  34. Which Way Down the Slippery Slope? Nazi Medical Killing and Euthanaisa Today.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - In John Harris (ed.), Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
     
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  35.  10
    Teaching Bioethics to Future Health Professionals: A Case‐Based Clinical Model.Ruth Macklin - 1993 - Bioethics 7 (2-3):200-206.
  36.  12
    [Book Review] Surrogates & Other Mothers, the Debates Over Assisted Reproduction. [REVIEW]Ruth Macklin - 1996 - Ethics 106 (2):476-477.
  37.  21
    Enemies of Patients.Ruth Macklin - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    A young man, terminally ill and in extreme suffering, asks to be removed from life support, requesting morphine first so he'll be asleep when the machine stops. His physician agrees, but the hospital's chief administrator intervenes, arguing that the morphine might itself cause death, leaving the physician open to criminal indictment for murder. To placate the administrator, the doctor and patient reach a grim compromise: life support will be disconnected first, and only after manifest signs of suffering appear will the (...)
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  38.  23
    Some Questionable Premises About Research Ethics.Ruth Macklin - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):29 – 31.
  39.  23
    Consent, Coercion, and Conflicts of Rights.Ruth Macklin - 1977 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 20 (3):360-371.
  40.  41
    Four Forward-Looking Guidance Points.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - Developing World Bioethics 1 (2):121–134.
    Four key guidance points in the UNAIDS guidance document, Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research, are compared wit.
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  41.  4
    Moral Concerns and Appeals to Rights and Duties.Ruth Macklin - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (5):31-38.
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  42.  3
    Making Policy by Committee.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (4):26-26.
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  43.  14
    Good in Theory: Can It Work in Practice?Ruth Macklin - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):55-56.
  44.  7
    Essentialism, Absolutism, and Moral Relativism.Ruth Macklin - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (2):39-40.
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  45.  13
    Ethics in HIV Prevention Research: Clarifying the Complexities.Ruth Macklin - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):31-32.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 6, Page 31-32, June 2012.
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  46. Action, Causality, and Teleology.Ruth Macklin - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (4):301-316.
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  47.  11
    Global Health.Ruth Macklin - 2009 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on the access of people in developing countries to medications and medical services that are readily available to inhabitants of industrialized countries. There are, of course, other critical dimensions of public health that require action on a global scale. These include relief for large numbers of people who are starving or living at nearly subsistence levels; provision of a supply of clean, potable water for populations deprived of that essential resource; and the consequences for local agricultural production (...)
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  48.  25
    No Shortage of Dilemmas: Comment on “They Call It ‘Patient Selection’ in Khayelitsha”.Ruth Macklin - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (3):313-321.
    Any program seeking to provide antiretroviral treatment to the many patients in need is bound to confront ethical dilemmas. Dilemmas, as we know, are situations in which decisionmakers are faced with a choice between equally unsatisfactory alternatives. Yet those in charge must make a decision or establish a policy that takes one pathway to the exclusion of another. Reasonable people may disagree over the choice, arguing that an alternative selection would have been ethically superior.
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  49.  4
    Aesthetic Enhancement? Or Human Rights Violation?Ruth Macklin - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 42 (6):28-29.
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  50.  89
    Explanation and Action: Recent Issues and Controversies.Ruth Macklin - 1969 - Synthese 20:388-415.
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