It seems self-evident that people prefer painful experiences to be in the past and pleasurable experiences to lie in the future. Indeed, it has been claimed that, for hedonic goods, this preference is absolute (Sullivan, 2018). Yet very little is known about the extent to which people demonstrate explicit preferences regarding the temporal location of hedonic experiences, about the developmental trajectory of such preferences, and about whether such preferences are impervious to differences in the quantity of envisaged past and future (...) pain or pleasure. We find consistent evidence that, all else being equal, adults and children aged 7 and over prefer pleasure to lie in the future and pain in the past and believe that other people will too. They also predict that other people will be happier when pleasure is in the future rather than the past but sadder when pain is the future rather than the past. Younger children have the same temporal preferences as adults for their own painful experiences, but prefer their pleasure to lie in the past, and do not predict that others’ levels of happiness or sadness vary dependent on whether experiences lie in the past or the future. However, from the age of 7, temporal preferences were typically abandoned at the earliest opportunity when the quantity of past pain or pleasure was greater than the quantity located in the future. Past-future preferences for hedonic goods emerge early developmentally but are surprisingly flexible. (shrink)
Grimwade et al highlight the current lack of a universal, standardised approach to the payment of participants taking part in controlled human infection model studies.1 As they discuss, payment for these studies is controversial, with many voicing arguments for and against higher payments, particularly for those studies which involve significant burdens to the participant. The main concerns about overpayment relate to the concepts of undue inducement or coercion, whereas underpayment raises concern about exploitation and unfair treatment. In many healthy volunteer (...) trials compensation for travel, time and inconvenience are generally accepted as fair payment, but payment for risk is less accepted, with a belief that non-therapeutic studies should only incur minimal risks, so payment for risk should not be necessary.2 This paper argues that payment for risk should be included for CHIM studies. Their findings among members of the UK public and CHIM experts from a variety of centres suggest that there is support for greater risks being associated with higher payments for participants. The amount of compensation offered by a trial has to be approved by an ethics committee/institutional review board, and some research suggests that IRB members have concerns about higher payments being offered, with only approximately one-third agreeing that payment should be offered for risk.3 Without agreement and clear guidance for calculating compensation for these types of trial, there is bound to be …. (shrink)
Public health ethics, like the field of public health it addresses, traditionally has focused more on practice and particular cases than on theory, with the result that some concepts, methods, and boundaries remain largely undefined. This paper attempts to provide a rough conceptual map of the terrain of public health ethics. We begin by briefly defining public health and identifying general features of the field that are particularly relevant for a discussion of public health ethics.Public health is primarily concerned with (...) the health of the entire population, rather than the health of individuals. Its features include an emphasis on the promotion of health and the prevention of disease and disability; the collection and use of epidemiological data, population surveillance, and other forms of empirical quantitative assessment; a recognition of the multidimensional nature of the determinants of health; and a focus on the complex interactions of many factors—biological, behavioral, social, and environmental—in developing effective interventions. (shrink)
If stem cell-based therapies are developed, we will likely confront a difficult problem of justice: for biological reasons alone, the new therapies might benefit only a limited range of patients. In fact, they might benefit primarily white Americans, thereby exacerbating long-standing differences in health and health care.
In this chapter I will present, in a general way, Millikan's biosemantic theory of the phenomenon of intentionality. For this purpose, the text will take the following path. First, I will present the problem of intentionality and an overview of the dominant theories of intentional content during the twentieth century and part of the twenty-first century. Then, I will present a general version of Millikan's biosemantic theory, appearing in 1984, which will allow us to see what the relevance and originality (...) of his proposal consists in. Finally, in keeping with one of the central purposes of Las filósofas que nos formaron, I will share a brief interview that Millikan very kindly agreed to give for this publication, in which she tells us some non-theoretical aspects of her history as a philosopher. (shrink)
Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as (...) a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin. (shrink)
Recent studies have suggested that while both adults and children hold past-future hedonic preferences – preferring painful experiences to be in the past and pleasurable experiences to lie in the future – these preferences are abandoned when the quantity of pain or pleasure under consideration is greater in the past than in the future. We examined whether such preferences might be affected by the utility people assign to experiential memories, since the recollection of events can itself be pleasurable or aversive, (...) and we examined the developmental trajectory of the value that people assign to experiential memories of past painful experiences. Using a task in which we manipulated hypothetical memory loss in a series of brief vignettes, we found that for some adults, but not for children, the disutility attached to the recollection of painful past events outweighed the disutility of living through future painful events. Between middle childhood and adulthood, experiential memory appears to assume a more important role in determining the value that people assign to past experiences and in mitigating bias toward the future. (shrink)
What I learned from you and what helped me in the ensuing years to find my way around in reality without selling my soul to it the way people in earlier times sold their souls to the devil is that the only thing of importance is not philosophies but the truth, that one has to live and think in the open and not in one's own little shell, no matter how comfortably furnished it is, and that necessity in whatever form (...) is only a will-o'-the-wisp that tries to lure us into playing a role instead of attempting to be a human being.On YouTube, you can find a recording of Flannery O'Connor reading "A Good Man Is Hard to Find." It is fun to hear the audience erupt in laughter when O'Connor, in her thick southern accent, has... (shrink)
This paper explores how emotions are expressed in the endangered Gunwinyguan language Kunbarlang and compares these expressions to those in the neighbouring Gunwinyguan language Bininj Kunwok, and neighbouring languages from other language families, Mawng and Ndjébbana. As well as considering body-based emotion expressions and the tropes they instantiate, we consider the range of other expressions and tropes available in each language. These provide an important point of comparison with the body-part expressions, which are limited to expressions based on noun incorporation (...) in the Gunwinyguan languages and, correspondingly, a more limited range of tropes. By outlining and comparing the linguistic tropes used to express emotions in these four languages in the highly multilingual yet socioculturally unified context of western Arnhem Land, we aim to shed further light on the relationships between linguistic figurative features and conceptual representations of emotions. (shrink)
Distinguished contributors take up eminent scholar Daniel R. Schwarz’s reading of modern fiction and poetry as mediating between human desire and human action. The essayists follow Schwarz’s advice, “always the text, always historicize,” thus making this book relevant to current debates about the relationships between literature, ethics, aesthetics, and historical contexts.
O sentido ontológico do trabalho e o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores: considerações preliminares Resumo: O presente estudo tem por objetivo demonstrar de que forma o trabalho auxilia no processo de hominização do homem. Trata-se de um estudo de natureza teórica, realizado mediante pesquisa bibliográfica, sendo dividido em três momentos principais. No primeiro, apresenta-se como o trabalho é concebido por Marx e apropriado por Lukács e os representantes da Escola de Vigotski. No segundo, trata-se das tensões entre a importância conferida (...) aos aspectos biológicos e aos aspectos sociais para o processo de desenvolvimento do gênero humano, demonstrando de que maneira a produção de instrumentos gesta o progressivo afastamento da barreira natural, ao passo que propicia o desenvolvimento cada vez mais social do homem. Tal reflexão servirá de base para sinalizar como a teoria de Vigotski destaca em seu edifício categorial a relação entre os instrumentos e as funções psicológicas superiores no processo de humanização do homem. Palavras Chave: Trabalho. Instrumento. Funções psicológicas superiores. The ontological meaning of work and the development of higher mental functions: preliminary considerations: This study we aim to demonstrate how the work supports in the humanization process of the individuals. This is a theoretical study conducted by bibliographic research and divided into three main sessions. In the first moment, we present how the work is conceived by Marx and appropriated by Lukács and the representatives from Vygotsky’s school. In the second, we bring the tensions between the importance attached to the biological aspects and social aspects in the humankind’s development process, demonstrating how the tools’ production manage the progressive separation from the natural barrier, whereas it provides the increasingly social development of individuals. Further consideration will serve as a basis to indicate how Vygotsky’s theory underscore in its categorical building the relationship between the tools and the higher mental functions in the humanizing process of the individuals. Keywords: Work. Tools. Higher.mental functions. El sentido ontológico del trabajo y el desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores: consideraciones preliminares Resumen: El presente estudio tiene por objetivo demostrar de qué forma el trabajo auxilia en el proceso de hominización del hombre. Se trata de un estudio de naturaleza teórica, realizado mediante investigación bibliográfica, siendo dividido en tres momentos principales. En el primero, presentamos cómo el trabajo es concebido por Marx y apropiado por Lukács y los representantes de la escuela de Vigotski. En el segundo, traemos las tensiones entre la importancia conferida a los aspectos biológicos ya los aspectos sociales para el proceso de desarrollo del género humano, demostrando de qué manera la producción de instrumentos gesta el progresivo alejamiento de la barrera natural, mientras que propicia el desarrollo cada vez más social del hombre. Tal reflexión servirá de base para señalar cómo la teoría de Vigotski destaca en su edificio categorial la relación entre los instrumentos y las funciones psicológicas superiores en el proceso de humanización del hombre. Financiamento: CNPq Palabras clave: Trabajo. Instrumento. Funciones psicológicas superiores. Data de registro: 09/01/2019 Data de aceite: 25/10/2019. (shrink)
Although absent from early Christian iconography, Ruth has been a popular figure in both Christian and Jewish art from the medieval period onward. In depicting scenes from the Book of Ruth, artists have been sensitive to the nuances and subtleties of the biblical narrative and have interpreted her story visually in many original and distinctive ways.
This collection of new essays on the systematic thought and intellectual legacy of the American philosopher Wilfrid Sellars (1912–1989) comes at a time when Sellars’s influence on contemporary debates about mind, meaning, knowledge, and metaphysics has never been greater. Sellars was among the most important philosophers of the twentieth century, and many of his central ideas have become philosophical stock-in-trade: for example, his conceptions of the ‘myth of the given’, the ‘logical space of reasons’, and the ‘clash’ between the ‘manifest (...) and scientific images of man-in-the-world’. This volume of well-known contemporary philosophers who have been strongly influenced by Sellars – Robert Brandom, Willem deVries, Robert Kraut, Rebecca Kukla, Mark Lance, John McDowell, Ruth Millikan, James O’Shea, David Rosenthal, Johanna Seibt, and Michael Williams – critically examines the groundbreaking ideas by means of which Sellars sought to integrate our thought, perception, and rational agency within a naturalistic outlook on reality. Topics include Sellars’s inferentialist semantics and normative functionalist view of the mind; his attempted reconciliations of internalist and externalist aspects of thought, meaning, and knowledge; his novel nominalist account of abstract entities; and a speculative ‘pure process’ metaphysics of consciousness. Of particular interest is how this volume exhibits the ongoing fruitful dialogue between so-called ‘left-wing Sellarsians’, who stress Sellars’s various Kantian and pragmatist defenses of the irreducibility of normativity and rationality within the space of reasons, and ‘right-wing Sellarsians’ who defend the plausibility of Sellars’s highly ambitious and systematic scientific naturalism. (shrink)
A través de una reconstrucción histórica y análisis de conceptos básicos, que da cuenta de la importancia de la historia y filosofía de la física, este libro resume un arduo trabajo de investigación en torno a la significación de la noción de simetría en física abordando tres problemas: 1) la existencia o no del término simetría en la antigüedad, 2) la posición kantiana en referencia a la comprensión del problema inercial y sus repercusiones y 3) la naturaleza de la noción (...) de simetría en la física contemporánea, es decir, si la simetría es un principio o un argumento. Es un libro dirigido tanto a filósofos como a físicos ya que se adapta a la exigencia que demanda el lenguaje científico -filosófico. El resultado de la investigación lleva importante consecuencias, tanto para la física como para la filosofía, brindando nuevos e innovadores desafíos. (shrink)