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Ryan Jenkins
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
  1. Autonomous Machines, Moral Judgment, and Acting for the Right Reasons.Duncan Purves, Ryan Jenkins & Bradley J. Strawser - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):851-872.
    We propose that the prevalent moral aversion to AWS is supported by a pair of compelling objections. First, we argue that even a sophisticated robot is not the kind of thing that is capable of replicating human moral judgment. This conclusion follows if human moral judgment is not codifiable, i.e., it cannot be captured by a list of rules. Moral judgment requires either the ability to engage in wide reflective equilibrium, the ability to perceive certain facts as moral considerations, moral (...)
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  2. Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Moral Equality of Combatants.Michael Skerker, Duncan Purves & Ryan Jenkins - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (6).
    To many, the idea of autonomous weapons systems (AWS) killing human beings is grotesque. Yet critics have had difficulty explaining why it should make a significant moral difference if a human combatant is killed by an AWS as opposed to being killed by a human combatant. The purpose of this paper is to explore the roots of various deontological concerns with AWS and to consider whether these concerns are distinct from any concerns that also apply to long- distance, human-guided weaponry. (...)
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  3.  25
    Autonomous Weapons Systems and the Moral Equality of Combatants.Michael Skerker, Duncan Purves & Ryan Jenkins - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):197-209.
    To many, the idea of autonomous weapons systems killing human beings is grotesque. Yet critics have had difficulty explaining why it should make a significant moral difference if a human combatant is killed by an AWS as opposed to being killed by a human combatant. The purpose of this paper is to explore the roots of various deontological concerns with AWS and to consider whether these concerns are distinct from any concerns that also apply to long-distance, human-guided weaponry. We suggest (...)
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  4. Robot Ethics 2. 0: New Challenges in Philosophy, Law, and Society.Patrick Lin, Keith Abney & Ryan Jenkins (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    As robots slip into more domains of human life-from the operating room to the bedroom-they take on our morally important tasks and decisions, as well as create new risks from psychological to physical. This book answers the urgent call to study their ethical, legal, and policy impacts.
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  5.  23
    Right Intention and the Ends of War.Duncan Purves & Ryan Jenkins - 2016 - Journal of Military Ethics 15 (1):18-35.
    ABSTRACTThe jus ad bellum criterion of right intention is a central guiding principle of just war theory. It asserts that a country’s resort to war is just only if that country resorts to war for the right reasons. However, there is significant confusion, and little consensus, about how to specify the CRI. We seek to clear up this confusion by evaluating several distinct ways of understanding the criterion. On one understanding, a state’s resort to war is just only if it (...)
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  6.  26
    Robots and Respect: A Response to Robert Sparrow.Ryan Jenkins & Duncan Purves - 2016 - Ethics and International Affairs 30 (3):391-400.
    Robert Sparrow argues that several initially plausible arguments in favor of the deployment of autonomous weapons systems (AWS) in warfare fail, and that their deployment faces a serious moral objection: deploying AWS fails to express the respect for the casualties of war that morality requires. We critically discuss Sparrow’s argument from respect and respond on behalf of some objections he considers. Sparrow’s argument against AWS relies on the claim that they are distinct from accepted weapons of war in that they (...)
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  7. A Dilemma for Moral Deliberation in AI in Advance.Ryan Jenkins & Duncan Purves - forthcoming - International Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Many social trends are conspiring to drive the adoption of greater automation in society, and we will certainly see a greater offloading of human decisionmaking to robots in the future. Many of these decisions are morally salient, including decisions about how benefits and burdens are distributed. Roboticists and ethicists have begun to think carefully about the moral decision making apparatus for machines. Their concerns often center around the plausible claim that robots will lack many of the mental capacities that are (...)
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  8.  42
    Is Stuxnet Physical? Does It Matter?Ryan Jenkins - 2013 - Journal of Military Ethics 12 (1):68-79.
    Cyberweapons are software and software, at least intuitively, is nonphysical. Several authors have noted that this potentially renders problematic the application of normative frameworks like UN Charter Article 2(4) to cyberweapons. If Article 2(4) only proscribes the use of physical force, and if cyberweapons are nonphysical, then cyberweapons fall outside the purview of Article 2(4). This article explores the physicality of software, examining Stuxnet in particular. First, I show that with a few relatively uncontroversial metaphysical claims we can secure the (...)
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  9.  38
    A Dilemma for Moral Deliberation in AI.Ryan Jenkins & Duncan Purves - 2016 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (2):313-335.
    Many social trends are conspiring to drive the adoption of greater automation in society, and we will certainly see a greater offloading of human decisionmaking to robots in the future. Many of these decisions are morally salient, including decisions about how benefits and burdens are distributed. Roboticists and ethicists have begun to think carefully about the moral decision making apparatus for machines. Their concerns often center around the plausible claim that robots will lack many of the mental capacities that are (...)
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  10.  4
    Separating facts and evaluation: motivation, account, and learnings from a novel approach to evaluating the human impacts of machine learning.Ryan Jenkins, Kristian Hammond, Sarah Spurlock & Leilani Gilpin - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    In this paper, we outline a new method for evaluating the human impact of machine-learning applications. In partnership with Underwriters Laboratories Inc., we have developed a framework to evaluate the impacts of a particular use of machine learning that is based on the goals and values of the domain in which that application is deployed. By examining the use of artificial intelligence in particular domains, such as journalism, criminal justice, or law, we can develop more nuanced and practically relevant understandings (...)
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  11.  16
    Big Brother Goes to School.Ryan Jenkins, Zachary I. Rentz & Keith Abney - 2021 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 25 (1):162-183.
    Few sectors are more affected by COVID-19 than higher education. There is growing recognition that reopening the densely populated communities of higher education will require surveillance technologies, but many of these technologies pose threats to the privacy of the very students, faculty, and staff they are meant to protect. The authors have a history of working with our institution’s governing bodies to provide ethical guidance on the use of technologies, especially including those with significant implications for privacy. Here, we draw (...)
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  12.  35
    Shaw, William R. Utilitarianism and the Ethics of War. New York: Routledge, 2016. Pp. 196. $155.00 ; $44.95.Ryan Jenkins - 2017 - Ethics 127 (4):963-967.
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  13.  44
    Rule Consequentialism and Moral Relativism in Advance.Ryan Jenkins - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Research.
    Rule consequentialism is usually taken to recommend a single ideal code for all moral agents. Here I argue that, depending on their theoretical mo- tivations, some rule consequentialists have good reasons to be relativists. Rule consequentialists who are moved by consequentialist considerations ought to support a scheme of multiple relativized moral codes because we could expect such a scheme to have better consequences in terms of impartial aggregate well- being than a single universal code. Rule consequentialists who nd compelling the (...)
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  14.  9
    You’Ve Earned It!: A Criticism of Sher’s Account of Desert in Wages.Ryan Jenkins - 2011 - Social Philosophy Today 27:75-86.
    Desert is a notion ubiquitous in our moral discourse, and the importance of its dictates is perhaps clearest when dealing with the distribution of material resources. George Sher has provided one account of desert in wages, answering the question, “How do workers deserve their wage?” Sher relies on the violation of preexisting “independent standards” that dictate how much of a certain good we think people are entitled to in general. When these standards are violated, they call for an offsetting response (...)
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  15.  5
    Autonomous Vehicle Ethics: The Trolley Problem and Beyond.Ryan Jenkins, David Cerny & Tomas Hribek (eds.) - 2022 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    "A runaway trolley is speeding down a track" So begins what is perhaps the most fecund thought experiment of the past several decades since its invention by Philippa Foot. Since then, moral philosophers have applied the "trolley problem" as a thought experiment to study many different ethical conflicts - and chief among them is the programming of autonomous vehicles. Nowadays, however, very few philosophers accept that the trolley problem is a perfect analogy for driverless cars or that the situations autonomous (...)
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  16.  5
    Who Should Die? The Ethics of Killing in War.Ryan Jenkins & Bradley Strawser (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume collects influential and groundbreaking philosophical work on killing in war. A " of contemporary scholars, this volume serves as a convenient and authoritative collection uniquely suited for university-level teaching and as a reference for ethicists, policymakers, stakeholders, and any student of the morality of war.
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  17.  21
    Ethics and Cyber Warfare: The Quest for Responsible Security in the Age of Digital Warfare, George Lucas , 208 Pp., $36.95 Cloth. [REVIEW]Ryan Jenkins - 2017 - Ethics and International Affairs 31 (4):515-518.
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    Winning the Battle, Losing the War.Ryan Jenkins - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 89:69-75.
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    Rule Consequentialism and Moral Relativism.Ryan Jenkins - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Research 41:527-537.
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  20.  18
    You’Ve Earned It!: A Criticism of Sher’s Account of Desert in Wages.Ryan Jenkins - 2011 - Social Philosophy Today 27:75-86.
    Desert is a notion ubiquitous in our moral discourse, and the importance of its dictates is perhaps clearest when dealing with the distribution of material resources. George Sher has provided one account of desert in wages, answering the question, “How do workers deserve their wage?” Sher relies on the violation of preexisting “independent standards” that dictate how much of a certain good we think people are entitled to in general. When these standards are violated, they call for an offsetting response (...)
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  21.  4
    You’Ve Earned It!: A Criticism of Sher’s Account of Desert in Wages.Ryan Jenkins - 2011 - Social Philosophy Today 27:75-86.
    Desert is a notion ubiquitous in our moral discourse, and the importance of its dictates is perhaps clearest when dealing with the distribution of material resources. George Sher has provided one account of desert in wages, answering the question, “How do workers deserve their wage?” Sher relies on the violation of preexisting “independent standards” that dictate how much of a certain good we think people are entitled to in general. When these standards are violated, they call for an offsetting response (...)
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