One does not have to be an ethical non-cognitivist to find that moral guidance sometimes is totally absent. The agent may be confronted by a new kind of problem, or he may feel that the rules presented are too unclear to give any guidance, or he may quite simply regard established morality as without foundation. 1. Total ignorance; 2. Synthesis; 3. Towards solution; 4. Universal validity; 5; Ethical agnosticism.
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