134 found
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  1.  47
    Doctors, Patients, and Nudging in the Clinical Context—Four Views on Nudging and Informed Consent.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):28-38.
    In an analysis of recent work on nudging we distinguish three positions on the relationship between nudging founded in libertarian paternalism and the protection of personal autonomy through informed consent. We argue that all three positions fail to provide adequate protection of personal autonomy in the clinical context. Acknowledging that nudging may be beneficial, we suggest a fourth position according to which nudging and informed consent are valuable in different domains of interaction.
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  2.  34
    Meta Consent – A Flexible Solution to the Problem of Secondary Use of Health Data.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):721-732.
    In this article we provide an in-depth description of a new model of informed consent called ‘meta consent’ and consider its practical implementation. We explore justifications for preferring meta consent over alternative models of consent as a solution to the problem of secondary use of health data for research. We finally argue that meta consent strikes an appropriate balance between enabling valuable research and protecting the individual.
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  3.  1
    The ‘Expiry Problem’ of Broad Consent for Biobank Research - And Why a Meta Consent Model Solves It.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):629-631.
    In this response to Neil Manson’s latest intervention in our debate about the best consent model for biobank research we show, contra Manson that the ‘expiry problem’ that affects broad consent models because of changes over time in methods, purposes, types of data used and governance structures is a real and significant problem. We further show that our preferred implementation of meta consent as a national consent platform solves this problem and is not subject to the cost and burden objections (...)
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  4.  28
    “Nudging” and Informed Consent Revisited: Why “Nudging” Fails in the Clinical Context.Søren Holm & Thomas Ploug - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):29 - 31.
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  5.  6
    Going Beyond the False Dichotomy of Broad or Specific Consent: A Meta-Perspective on Participant Choice in Research Using Human Tissue.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (9):44-46.
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  6.  4
    Roles, Professions and Ethics: A Tale of Doctors, Patients, Butchers, Bakers and Candlestick Makers.Søren Holm - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):782-783.
    In her paper ‘Why Not Common Morality?’, Rosamond Rhodes argues that medical ethics cannot and should not be derived from common morality and that medical ethics should instead be conceptualised as professional ethics and the content left to the medical profession to develop and decide.1 I have considerable sympathy with the first claim and have myself argued along somewhat similar lines.2 I am, however, very sceptical about elements of the second claim and will briefly explain why. The first part of (...)
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  7. Scientific Dishonesty—a Nationwide Survey of Doctoral Students in Norway.Bjørn Hofmann, Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Søren Holm - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):3-.
    Background: The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities.MethodAnonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results: 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%). 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed (...)
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  8.  13
    The Right to Refuse Diagnostics and Treatment Planning by Artificial Intelligence.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):107-114.
    In an analysis of artificially intelligent systems for medical diagnostics and treatment planning we argue that patients should be able to exercise a right to withdraw from AI diagnostics and treatment planning for reasons related to the physician’s role in the patients’ formation of and acting on personal preferences and values, the bias and opacity problem of AI systems, and rational concerns about the future societal effects of introducing AI systems in the health care sector.
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  9.  16
    Conflict of Interest Disclosure and the Polarisation of Scientific Communities.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):356-358.
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  10.  62
    Extending Human Lifespan and the Precautionary Paradox.John Harris & Søren Holm - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):355 – 368.
    This paper argues that a precautionary approach to scientific progress of the sort advocated by Walter Glannon with respect to life-extending therapies involves both incoherence and irresolvable paradox. This paper demonstrates the incoherence of the precautionary approach in many circumstances and argues that with respect to life-extending therapies we have at present no persuasive reasons for a moratorium on such research.
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  11.  3
    Should Research Misconduct Be Criminalized?Rafael Dal-Ré, Lex M. Bouter, Pim Cuijpers, Christian Gluud & Søren Holm - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (1-2):1-12.
    For more than 25 years, research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism —although other research misbehaviors have been also added in codes of cond...
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  12. Ethical Problems in Clinical Practice: The Ethical Reasoning of Health Care Professionals.Søren Holm - 1997 - Distributed Exclusively in the Usa by St. Martin's Press.
     
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  13.  48
    Informed Consent and Registry-Based Research - the Case of the Danish Circumcision Registry.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):53.
    Research into personal health data holds great potential not only for improved treatment but also for economic growth. In these years many countries are developing policies aimed at facilitating such research often under the banner of ‘big data’. A central point of debate is whether the secondary use of health data requires informed consent if the data is anonymised. In 2013 the Danish Minister of Health established a new register collecting data about all ritual male childhood circumcisions in Denmark. The (...)
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  14.  38
    Accountability for Reasonableness: Opening the Black Box of Process.Andreas Hasman & Søren Holm - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (4):261-273.
    Norman Daniels' and James Sabin's theory of “accountability for reasonableness” is a much discussed account of due process for decision-making on health care priority setting. Central to the theory is the acceptance that people may justifiably disagree on what reasons it is relevant to consider when priorities are made, but that there is a core set of reasons, that all centre on fairness, on which there will be no disagreement. A4R is designed as an institutional decision process which will ensure (...)
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  15.  78
    Autonomy, Authenticity, or Best Interest: Everyday Decision-Making and Persons with Dementia. [REVIEW]Søren Holm - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):153-159.
    The question of when we have justification for overriding ordinary, everyday decisions of persons with dementia is considered. It is argued that no single criterion for competent decision-making is able to distinguish reliably between decisions we can legitimately override and decisions we cannot legitimately override.
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  16.  45
    Ethical Endgames: Broad Consent for Narrow Interests; Open Consent for Closed Minds.Jan Reinert Karlsen, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (4):572-583.
    The ongoing legal and bioethics debates on consent requirements for collecting, storing, and utilizing human biological material for purposes of basic and applied research—that is, genomic research biobanking—have already managed to pass through three ostensibly dissimilar stages.
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  17.  9
    Controlled Human Infection with SARS-CoV-2 to Study COVID-19 Vaccines and Treatments: Bioethics in Utopia.Søren Holm - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):569-573.
    A number of papers have appeared recently arguing for the conclusion that it is ethically acceptable to infect healthy volunteers with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as part of research projects aimed at developing COVID-19 vaccines or treatments. This position has also been endorsed in a statement by a working group for the WHO. The papers generally argue that controlled human infection is ethically acceptable if the risks to participants are low and therefore acceptable, the scientific quality of the (...)
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  18.  38
    Analogical Reasoning in Handling Emerging Technologies: The Case of Umbilical Cord Blood Biobanking.Bjørn Hofmann, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (6):49 – 57.
    How are we individually and as a society to handle new and emerging technologies? This challenging question underlies much of the bioethical debates of modern times. To address this question we need suitable conceptions of the new technology and ways of identifying its proper management and regulation. To establish conceptions and to find ways to handle emerging technologies we tend to use analogies extensively. The aim of this article is to investigate the role that analogies play or may play in (...)
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  19.  68
    Going to the Roots of the Stem Cell Controversy.Søren Holm - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (6):493–507.
  20.  61
    Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks: The Role of Analogies in Bioethical Analysis and Argumentation Concerning New Technologies. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):397-413.
    New medical technologies provide us with new possibilities in health care and health care research. Depending on their degree of novelty, they may as well present us with a whole range of unforeseen normative challenges. Partly, this is due to a lack of appropriate norms to perceive and handle new technologies. This article investigates our ways of establishing such norms. We argue that in this respect analogies have at least two normative functions: they inform both our understanding and our conduct. (...)
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  21.  29
    Global Bioethics – Myth or Reality?Søren Holm & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-10.
    Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, (...)
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  22.  52
    Should Persons Detained During Public Health Crises Receive Compensation?Søren Holm - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):197-205.
    One of the ways in which public health officials control outbreaks of epidemic disease is by attempting to control the situations in which the infectious agent can spread. This may include isolation of infected persons, quarantine of persons who may be infected and detention of persons who are present in or have entered premises where infected persons are being treated. Most who have analysed such measures think that the restrictions in liberty they entail and the detriments in welfare they impose (...)
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  23.  94
    Should We Presume Moral Turpitude in Our Children? – Small Children and Consent to Medical Research.John Harris & Søren Holm - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (2):121-129.
    When children are too young to make their ownautonomous decisions, decisions have to be madefor them. In certain contexts we allow parentsand others to make these decisions, and do notinterfere unless the decision clearly violatesthe best interest of the child. In othercontexts we put a priori limits on whatkind of decisions parents can make, and/or whatkinds of considerations they have to take intoaccount. Consent to medical research currentlyfalls into the second group mentioned here. Wewant to consider and ultimately reject one (...)
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  24.  27
    Let Us Assume That Gene Editing is Safe—The Role of Safety Arguments in the Gene Editing Debate.Søren Holm - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):100-111.
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  25.  1
    Research Integrity: Environment, Experience, or Ethos?Bjørn Hofmann & Søren Holm - 2019 - Research Ethics 15 (3-4):1-13.
    Background:Research integrity has gained attention in the general public as well as in the research community. We wanted to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices amongst researchers that...
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  26.  12
    Eliciting Meta Consent for Future Secondary Research Use of Health Data Using a Smartphone Application - a Proof of Concept Study in the Danish Population.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):51.
    The increased use of information technology in every day health care creates vast amounts of stored health data that can be used for research. The secondary research use of routinely collected data raises questions about appropriate consent mechanisms for such use. One option is meta consent where individuals state their own consent preferences in relation to future use of their data, e.g. whether they want the data to be accessible to researchers under conditions of specific consent, broad consent, blanket consent (...)
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  27.  7
    Context Matters—Why Nudging in the Clinical Context Is Still Different.Søren Holm - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):60-61.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 60-61.
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  28. A Life in the Shadow: One Reason Why We Should Not Clone Humans.Søren Holm - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (2):160-162.
    One of the arguments that is often put forward in the discussion of human cloning is that it is in itself wrong to create a copy of a human being.
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  29.  63
    Pharmaceutical Information Systems and Possible Implementations of Informed Consent - Developing an Heuristic.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):30-.
    Background Denmark has implemented a comprehensive, nationwide pharmaceutical information system, and this system has been evaluated by the Danish Council of Ethics. The system can be seen as an exemplar of a comprehensive health information system for clinical use. Analysis The paper analyses 1) how informed consent can be implemented in the system and how different implementations create different impacts on autonomy and control of information, and 2) arguments directed towards justifying not seeking informed consent in this context. Results and (...)
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  30. Parental Responsibility and Obesity in Children.Søren Holm - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (1):21-29.
    Cardiff Law School, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK. Tel: +44(0)2920875447, Fax: +44(0)2920874097; Email: Holms{at}cardiff.ac.uk ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract The paper presents a brief overview of current knowledge about (i) the link between parental behaviour and lifestyle and childhood obesity, (ii) the many other factors influencing overweight and obesity rates in children and (iii) the effectiveness of interventions in children who are already overweight and obese. On the basis of this, it is analysed (...)
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  31. The Future of Human Reproduction : Ethics, Choice, and Regulation.John Harris & Søren Holm (eds.) - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
     
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  32. A Rose by Any Other Name... Is the Research / Non-Research Distinction Still Important and Relevant?Søren Holm - unknown
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  33.  45
    Euthanasia: Agreeing to Disagree? [REVIEW]Søren Holm - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (4):399-402.
    In discussions about the legalisation of active, voluntary euthanasia it is sometimes claimed that what should happen in a liberal society is that the two sides in the debate “agree to disagree”. This paper explores what is entailed by agreeing to disagree and shows that this is considerably more complicated than what is usually believed to be the case. Agreeing to disagree is philosophically problematic and will often lead to an unstable compromise.
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  34.  27
    A University Wide Model for the Ethical Review of Human Subjects Research.Bryn Williams-Jones & Søren Holm - 2005 - Research Ethics 1 (2):39-44.
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  35.  25
    Natural Talent, Fair Equality of Opportunity, and Therapeutic Use Exemptions.Søren Holm - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (6):18-19.
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  36.  33
    Best Interest: A Philosophical Critique. [REVIEW]Søren Holm & Andrew Edgar - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (3):197-207.
    On one conception of "best interest" there can only be one course of action in a given situation that is in a person's best interest. In this paper we will first consider what theories of "best interest" and rational decision-making that can lead to this conclusion and explore some of the less commonly appreciated implications of these theories. We will then move on to consider what ethical theories that are compatible with such a view and explore their implications. In the (...)
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  37.  30
    Like a Frog in Boiling Water: The Public, the HFEA and Sex Selection.Søren Holm - 2004 - Health Care Analysis 12 (1):27-39.
    This paper analyses the British Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's 2002 public consultation on sex selection, a consultation that was mainly concerned with sex selection for non-medical reasons. Based on a close reading of the consultation document and questionnaire it is argued that the consultation is biased towards certain outcomes and can most plausibly be construed as an attempt not to investigate but to influence public opinion.
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  38.  67
    Doping Under Medical Control - Conceptually Possible but Impossible in the World of Professional Sports?Søren Holm - 2007 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (2):135 – 145.
    This paper considers the argument that if the ban on doping in sports was abolished it would be possible to have doping under medical control, i.e. open doping, prescribed by doctors with collection of reliable information about effects and side-effects. A game-theoretic argument is developed showing that this positive scenario is very unlikely to be instantiated given reasonable assumptions about the motivation of sportspersons and sports doctors. It is furthermore shown that the standard arguments against the current ban on doping (...)
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  39.  14
    The Job of ‘Ethics Committees’ Should Be Ethically Informed Code Consistency Review.Søren Holm - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):488-488.
    Moore and Donnelly argue in the paper ‘The job of “ethics committees”’ that research ethics committees should be renamed and that their job should be specified as “review of proposals for consistency with the duly established and applicable code” only.1 They raise a large number of issues, but in this comment I briefly want to suggest that two of their arguments are fundamentally flawed. The first flawed argument is the argument related to the separation of powers. Moore and Donnelly proceed (...)
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  40.  17
    Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy and Identity: A Comment on an Exchange Between Inmaculada de Melo-Martin and John Harris.Søren Holm - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (3):487-491.
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  41.  63
    Brain-Machine Interfaces and Personal Responsibility for Action – Maybe Not As Complicated After All.Søren Holm & Teck Chuan Voo - 2010 - Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 4 (3).
    This comment responds to Kevin Warwick’s article on predictability and responsibility with respect to brain-machine interfaces in action. It compares conventional responsibility for device use with the potential consequences of phenomenological human-machine integration which obscures the causal chain of an act. It explores two senses of “responsibility”: 1) when it is attributed to a person, suggesting the morally important way in which the person is a causal agent, and 2) when a person is accountable and, on the basis of fairness (...)
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  42.  45
    Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Should There Be a Free Market in Healthcare Information?Andreas Hasman & Søren Holm - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (1):42-49.
    On June 3, 2003, the European Council of health ministers rejected a proposal from the European Commission to allow drug manufacturers to advertise directly to particular groups of patients; the proposal had already been rejected by the European Parliament subsequent to a heated public debate in which consumer and patient groups almost unanimously argued that it was not the role of drug companies to provide information to patients. The pilot scheme suggested by the Commission would only have applied to patients (...)
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  43. Physical Enhancement: What Baseline, Whose Judgment?Søren Holm & Mike McNamee - 2011 - In Guy Kahane, Julian Savulescu & Ruud Ter Meulen (eds.), Enhancing Human Capacities.
     
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  44.  83
    The Ethical Case Against Stem Cell Research.Søren Holm - 2003 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (4):372-383.
    The possibility of creating human embryonic stem cell lines from the inner cell mass of blastocysts has led to considerable debate about how these scientific developments should be regulated. Part of this debate has focused on the ethical analysis and part on how this analysis should influence policymaking.
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  45.  26
    Big Data and Health Research—The Governance Challenges in a Mixed Data Economy.Søren Holm & Thomas Ploug - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (4):515-525.
    Denmark is a society that has already moved towards Big Data and a Learning Health Care System. Data from routine healthcare has been registered centrally for years, there is a nationwide tissue bank, and there are numerous other available registries about education, employment, housing, pollution, etcetera. This has allowed Danish researchers to study the link between exposures, genetics and diseases in a large population. This use of public registries for scientific research has been relatively uncontroversial and has been supported by (...)
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  46.  4
    Declaration of Helsinki.Søren Holm - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  47.  10
    Patient Choice and Preventive Genomic Sequencing—More Trouble Upstream.Søren Holm & Thomas Ploug - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (7):24-26.
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  48.  24
    Authenticity, Best Interest, and Clinical Nudging.Søren Holm - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (2):38-40.
    In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Moti Gorin, Steven Joffe, Neal Dickert, and Scott Halpern offer a comprehensive defense of the use of nudging techniques in the clinical context, with the aim of promoting the best interests of patients. Their argument is built on three important claims: Nudging is ubiquitous and inescapable in clinical choice situations, and there is no neutral way of informing patients about their treatment choices; many patients do not have authentic preferences concerning their treatment (...)
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  49.  6
    Scientific Second-Order ’Nudging’ or Lobbying by Interest Groups: The Battle Over Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening Programmes.Thomas Ploug, Søren Holm & John Brodersen - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):641-650.
    The idea that it is acceptable to ‘nudge’ people to opt for the ‘healthy choice’ is gaining currency in health care policy circles. This article investigates whether researchers evaluating Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening Programmes attempt to influence decision makers in ways that are similar to popular ‘nudging’ techniques. Comparing two papers on the health economics of AAASP both published in the BMJ within the last 3 years, it is shown that the values chosen for the health economics modelling are not (...)
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  50.  69
    The Privacy of Tutankhamen – Utilising the Genetic Information in Stored Tissue Samples.Søren Holm - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (5):437-449.
    Recent technical developments in genetictesting has led to a situation where the DNA inpreviously stored tissue samples can beextracted and used for genetic analysis. Thisraises the question of how to decide whether aspecific use of such samples should be allowed.Using the genetic testing of ancient DNA ingeneral, and the DNA of the pharaoh Tutankhamenin particular as examples this paper analysesthe question. It investigates whether ethicalframeworks based on proxy consent, culturalaffiliation, ownership, or the privacy rightsof the dead are appropriate and justifiable (...)
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