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S. Alexander [101]Samuel Alexander [34]Sidney Alexander [7]Samuel A. Alexander [5]
Sally Alexander [4]Shana Alexander [3]Somek Alexander [2]Simone Alexander [1]

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Alex Sager
Portland State University
Samuel Allen Alexander
Ohio State University (PhD)
  1. The Archimedean Trap: Why Traditional Reinforcement Learning Will Probably Not Yield AGI.Samuel Allen Alexander - 2020 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 11 (1):70-85.
    After generalizing the Archimedean property of real numbers in such a way as to make it adaptable to non-numeric structures, we demonstrate that the real numbers cannot be used to accurately measure non-Archimedean structures. We argue that, since an agent with Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) should have no problem engaging in tasks that inherently involve non-Archimedean rewards, and since traditional reinforcement learning rewards are real numbers, therefore traditional reinforcement learning probably will not lead to AGI. We indicate two possible ways (...)
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  2.  54
    Space, Time and Deity.S. Alexander - 1920 - Macmillan.
  3. Measuring the Intelligence of an Idealized Mechanical Knowing Agent.Samuel Alexander - 2020 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 12226.
    We define a notion of the intelligence level of an idealized mechanical knowing agent. This is motivated by efforts within artificial intelligence research to define real-number intelligence levels of compli- cated intelligent systems. Our agents are more idealized, which allows us to define a much simpler measure of intelligence level for them. In short, we define the intelligence level of a mechanical knowing agent to be the supremum of the computable ordinals that have codes the agent knows to be codes (...)
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  4. AGI and the Knight-Darwin Law: Why Idealized AGI Reproduction Requires Collaboration.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - In International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Springer.
    Can an AGI create a more intelligent AGI? Under idealized assumptions, for a certain theoretical type of intelligence, our answer is: “Not without outside help”. This is a paper on the mathematical structure of AGI populations when parent AGIs create child AGIs. We argue that such populations satisfy a certain biological law. Motivated by observations of sexual reproduction in seemingly-asexual species, the Knight-Darwin Law states that it is impossible for one organism to asexually produce another, which asexually produces another, and (...)
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  5. Intelligence Via Ultrafilters: Structural Properties of Some Intelligence Comparators of Deterministic Legg-Hutter Agents.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 10 (1):24-45.
    Legg and Hutter, as well as subsequent authors, considered intelligent agents through the lens of interaction with reward-giving environments, attempting to assign numeric intelligence measures to such agents, with the guiding principle that a more intelligent agent should gain higher rewards from environments in some aggregate sense. In this paper, we consider a related question: rather than measure numeric intelligence of one Legg- Hutter agent, how can we compare the relative intelligence of two Legg-Hutter agents? We propose an elegant answer (...)
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  6.  67
    Space, Time, and Deity: The Gifford Lectures at Glasgow 1916-1918.Samuel Alexander - 1920 - Dover Publications.
  7. The Basis of Realism.Samuel Alexander - 1914 - [Oxford University Press].
  8. A Machine That Knows Its Own Code.Samuel A. Alexander - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (3):567-576.
  9. An Axiomatic Version of Fitch’s Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Synthese 190 (12):2015-2020.
    A variation of Fitch’s paradox is given, where no special rules of inference are assumed, only axioms. These axioms follow from the familiar assumptions which involve rules of inference. We show (by constructing a model) that by allowing that possibly the knower doesn’t know his own soundness (while still requiring he be sound), Fitch’s paradox is avoided. Provided one is willing to admit that sound knowers may be ignorant of their own soundness, this might offer a way out of the (...)
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  10.  14
    Special Supplement: The Birth of Bioethics.Albert R. Jonsen, Shana Alexander, Judith P. Swazey, Warren T. Reich, Robert M. Veatch, Daniel Callahan, Tom L. Beauchamp, Stanley Hauerwas, K. Danner Clouser, David J. Rothman, Daniel M. Fox, Stanley J. Reiser & Arthur L. Caplan - 1993 - Hastings Center Report 23 (6):S1.
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  11.  84
    Infinite Graphs in Systematic Biology, with an Application to the Species Problem.Samuel A. Alexander - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):181--201.
    We argue that C. Darwin and more recently W. Hennig worked at times under the simplifying assumption of an eternal biosphere. So motivated, we explicitly consider the consequences which follow mathematically from this assumption, and the infinite graphs it leads to. This assumption admits certain clusters of organisms which have some ideal theoretical properties of species, shining some light onto the species problem. We prove a dualization of a law of T.A. Knight and C. Darwin, and sketch a decomposition result (...)
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  12.  86
    A Purely Epistemological Version of Fitch's Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2012 - The Reasoner 6 (4):59-60.
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  13.  24
    Beauty and Other Forms of Value.Samuel Alexander - 1933 - New York: Crowell.
  14. Fast-Collapsing Theories.Samuel A. Alexander - 2013 - Studia Logica (1):1-21.
    Reinhardt’s conjecture, a formalization of the statement that a truthful knowing machine can know its own truthfulness and mechanicalness, was proved by Carlson using sophisticated structural results about the ordinals and transfinite induction just beyond the first epsilon number. We prove a weaker version of the conjecture, by elementary methods and transfinite induction up to a smaller ordinal.
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  15.  23
    Philosophical and Literary Pieces.Samuel Alexander - 1939 - Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press.
  16.  45
    Arithmetical Algorithms for Elementary Patterns.Samuel A. Alexander - 2015 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 54 (1-2):113-132.
    Elementary patterns of resemblance notate ordinals up to the ordinal of Pi^1_1-CA_0. We provide ordinal multiplication and exponentiation algorithms using these notations.
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  17.  17
    Some Explanations.S. Alexander - 1921 - Mind 30 (120):409-428.
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  18.  51
    Voluntary Simplicity and the Social Reconstruction of Law: Degrowth From the Grassroots Up.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Environmental Values 22 (2):287-308.
    The Voluntary Simplicity Movement can be understood broadly as a diverse social movement made up of people who are resisting high consumption lifestyles and who are seeking, in various ways, a lower consumption but higher quality of life alternative. The central argument of this paper is that the Voluntary Simplicity Movement or something like it will almost certainly need to expand, organise, radicalise and politicise, if anything resembling a degrowth society is to emerge in law through democratic processes. In a (...)
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  19.  65
    Hegel's Conception of Nature.S. Alexander - 1886 - Mind 11 (44):495-523.
  20.  25
    I.—On Sensations and Images.S. Alexander - 1910 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 10 (1):1-35.
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  21. Vicissitudes in the Theory of Socialist Realism: A Little Lesson in History Not to Be Ignored.Stefan Morawski & S. Alexander - 1961 - Diogenes 9 (36):110-136.
  22. The Inca Empire: Despotism or Socialism.Alfred Métraux & S. Alexander - 1961 - Diogenes 9 (35):78-98.
  23. The Method of Metaphysics; and the Categories.S. Alexander - 1912 - Mind 21 (81):1-20.
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  24.  81
    Locke's Lantern.S. Alexander - 1929 - Mind 38 (150):271.
  25.  38
    The Meaning of "Motive".J. H. Muirhead, J. S. Mackenzie, S. Alexander & David G. Ritchie - 1894 - International Journal of Ethics 4 (2):229-238.
  26.  38
    I.—Self as Subject and as Person.S. Alexander - 1911 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 11 (1):1-28.
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  27.  37
    I.—Mental Activity in Willing and in Ideas.S. Alexander - 1909 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 9 (1):1-40.
  28.  31
    Heraclius, Byzantine Imperial Ideology, and the David Plates.Suzanne Alexander - 1977 - Speculum 52 (2):217-237.
    The David plates, a set of nine silver disks divided between the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and the Archeological Museum, Nicosia, Cyprus, are among the finest surviving examples of Byzantine secular art. Products of court manufacture, they were discovered in 1902 by a worker quarrying at the site of the acropolis of ancient Lapethos on Cyprus. Part of the second of two hoards found there, they were apparently buried in advance of the Arab conquest of Lapethos in 653/654. The plates (...)
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  29.  54
    On Relations; and in Particular the Cognitive Relation.S. Alexander - 1912 - Mind 21 (83):305-328.
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  30. Theism and Pantheism.S. Alexander - 1926 - Hibbert Journal 25:251.
     
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  31.  23
    An Open Letter to Physicians.Shana Alexander - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (1):7.
    Some weeks ago, we learned that the matriarch of a family, my good friend Anna, is dying. She is 75 and has inoperable esophageal cancer, and the doctors say it will only take a few more weeks or months. Anna is dying the way I want to die–at home, surrounded and lovingly tended by her family: her devoted husband of 54 years, her three daughters, her three worshipful sons-in-law, her adoring granddaughters. All of them see her every day. All of (...)
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  32.  6
    Dr. Münsterberg and His Critics.S. Alexander - 1892 - Mind 1 (2):251-264.
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  33.  2
    Index Nominum.Niccolo Acciaiuoli, Franciscus Francesco Accorso Accursius, Pierre D' Ailly, Alexander Aurelius, Severus Alexander, Jacques Almain, Angelus Carletus de Clavasio, An Carletus & Emperor Arcadius - 1997 - In Jill Kraye (ed.), Cambridge Translations of Renaissance Philosophical Texts. Cambridge University Press. pp. 293.
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  34. Humanism and Negritude: Notes on the Contemporary Afro-American Novel.Albert Gérard & S. Alexander - 1962 - Diogenes 10 (37):115-133.
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  35. Art and Instinct.Samuel Alexander - 1927 - R. West.
  36. Art And Nature.S. Alexander - 1927 - Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 11 (1):256-272.
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  37. Art and the Material the Adamson Lecture for 1925.Samuel Alexander - 1925 - The University Press.
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  38. Artistic Creation and Cosmic Creation.Samuel Alexander - 1927 - London: H. Milford.
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  39. A Paradox Related to the Turing Test.Samuel Alexander - 2011 - The Reasoner 5 (6):90-90.
  40. A Type of Simulation Which Some Experimental Evidence Suggests We Don't Live In.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (7):56-56.
    Do we live in a computer simulation? I will present an argument that the results of a certain experiment constitute empirical evidence that we do not live in, at least, one type of simulation. The type of simulation ruled out is very specific. Perhaps that is the price one must pay to make any kind of Popperian progress.
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  41. Beauty and Other Forms of Value by C. Delisle Burns. [REVIEW]S. Alexander - 1933 - Ethics 44:259.
     
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  42. Biologically Unavoidable Sequences.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 20 (1):1-13.
    A biologically unavoidable sequence is an infinite gender sequence which occurs in every gendered, infinite genealogical network satisfying certain tame conditions. We show that every eventually periodic sequence is biologically unavoidable (this generalizes König's Lemma), and we exhibit some biologically avoidable sequences. Finally we give an application of unavoidable sequences to cellular automata.
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  43.  2
    Character and Conduct.S. Alexander - 1893 - International Journal of Ethics 3 (4):466-489.
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  44. Character and Conduct.S. Alexander - 1893 - International Journal of Ethics 3 (4):466-489.
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  45. Character and Conduct.S. Alexander - 1893 - Philosophical Review 2:612.
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  46.  14
    Critical Notices.S. Alexander - 1893 - Mind 2 (5):563-566.
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  47.  7
    Critical Notices.S. Alexander - 1894 - Mind 3 (9):563-566.
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  48.  98
    Collective Willing and Truth.S. Alexander - 1913 - Mind 22 (85):14-47.
  49. Collective Willing and Truth.S. Alexander - 1913 - Philosophical Review 22:451.
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  50. Discussion.S. Alexander - 1912 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 12:206.
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