Order:
Disambiguations
Scott Atran [82]S. Atran [10]
  1.  34
    In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion.Scott Atran - 2002 - Oup Usa.
    This ambitious, interdisciplinary book seeks to explain the origins of religion using our knowledge of the evolution of cognition. A cognitive anthropologist and psychologist, Scott Atran argues that religion is a by-product of human evolution just as the cognitive intervention, cultural selection, and historical survival of religion is an accommodation of certain existential and moral elements that have evolved in the human condition.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   57 citations  
  2.  74
    Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):713-730.
    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring cultural by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional, and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion exploits only ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, and folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   52 citations  
  3. Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars.Scott Atran - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor as variable (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   58 citations  
  4. The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions.Scott Atran & Joseph Henrich - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):18-30.
    Understanding religion requires explaining why supernatural beliefs, devotions, and rituals are both universal and variable across cultures, and why religion is so often associated with both large-scale cooperation and enduring group conflict. Emerging lines of research suggest that these oppositions result from the convergence of three processes. First, the interaction of certain reliably developing cognitive processes, such as our ability to infer the presence of intentional agents, favors—as an evolutionary by-product—the spread of certain kinds of counterintuitive concepts. Second, participation in (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   22 citations  
  5.  14
    Memory and Mystery: The Cultural Selection of Minimally Counterintuitive Narratives.Ara Norenzayan, Scott Atran, Jason Faulkner & Mark Schaller - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (3):531-553.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   23 citations  
  6.  34
    Why Essences Are Essential in the Psychology of Concepts.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles Kalish, Susan A. Gelman, Douglas L. Medin, Christian Luhmann, Scott Atran, John D. Coley & Patrick Shafto - 2001 - Cognition 82 (1):59-69.
  7.  14
    Cultural Mosaics and Mental Models of Nature.Megan Bang, Douglas Medin & Scott Atran - unknown
    For much of their history, the relationship between anthropology and psychology has been well captured by Robert Frost's poem, “Mending Wall,” which ends with the ironic line, “good fences make good neighbors.” The congenial fence was that anthropology studied what people think and psychology studied how people think. Recent research, however, shows that content and process cannot be neatly segregated, because cultural differences in what people think affect how people think. To achieve a deeper understanding of the relation between process (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   19 citations  
  8.  9
    The Native Mind: Biological Categorization and Reasoning in Development and Across Cultures.Douglas L. Medin & Scott Atran - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (4):960-983.
    . This paper describes a cross-cultural and developmental research project on naïve or folk biology, that is, the study of how people conceptualize nature. The combination of domain specificity and cross-cultural comparison brings a new perspective to theories of categorization and reasoning and undermines the tendency to focus on “standard populations.” From the standpoint of mainstream cognitive psychology, we find that results gathered from standard populations in industrialized societies often fail to generalize to humanity at large. For example, similarity-driven typicality (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   22 citations  
  9.  5
    The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions.Scott Atran & Joseph Henrich - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):18-30.
    Understanding religion requires explaining why supernatural beliefs, devotions, and rituals are both universal and variable across cultures, and why religion is so often associated with both large-scale cooperation and enduring group conflict. Emerging lines of research suggest that these oppositions result from the convergence of three processes. First, the interaction of certain reliably developing cognitive processes, such as our ability to infer the presence of intentional agents, favors—as an evolutionary by-product—the spread of certain kinds of counterintuitive concepts. Second, participation in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  10.  12
    The Cultural Mind: Environmental Decision Making and Cultural Modeling Within and Across Populations.Scott Atran, Douglas L. Medin & Norbert O. Ross - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):744-776.
    This paper describes a cross-cultural research project on the relation between how people conceptualize nature and how they act in it. Mental models of nature differ dramatically among and within populations living in the same area and engaged in more or less the same activities. This has novel implications for environmental decision making and management, including dealing with commons problems. Our research also offers a distinct perspective on models of culture, and a unified approach to the study of culture and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   15 citations  
  11.  1
    Cultural and Experiential Differences in the Development of Folkbiological Induction.Norbert Ross, Douglas Medin, John Coley & Scott Atran - unknown
    Carey's book on conceptual change and the accompanying argument that children's biology initially is organized in terms of naïve psychology has sparked a great detail of research and debate. This body of research on children's biology has, however, been almost exclusively been based on urban, majority culture children in the US or in other industrialized nations. The development of folkbiological knowledge may depend on cultural and experiential background. If this is the case, then urban majority culture children may prove to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   18 citations  
  12.  22
    A Bird's Eye View: Biological Categorization and Reasoning Within and Across Cultures.Jeremy N. Bailenson, Michael S. Shum, Scott Atran, Douglas L. Medin & John D. Coley - 2002 - Cognition 84 (1):1-53.
    Many psychological studies of categorization and reasoning use undergraduates to make claims about human conceptualization. Generalizability of findings to other populations is often assumed but rarely tested. Even when comparative studies are conducted, it may be challenging to interpret differences. As a partial remedy, in the present studies we adopt a 'triangulation strategy' to evaluate the ways expertise and culturally different belief systems can lead to different ways of conceptualizing the biological world. We use three groups (US bird experts, US (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   18 citations  
  13.  45
    The Trouble with Memes: Inference Versus Imitation in Cultural Creation.Scott Atran - 2001 - Human Nature 12 (4):351-381.
    Memes are hypothetical cultural units passed on by imitation; although nonbiological, they undergo Darwinian selection like genes. Cognitive study of multimodular human minds undermines memetics: unlike in genetic replication, high-fidelity transmission of cultural information is the exception, not the rule. Constant, rapid 'mutation' of information during communication generates endlessly varied creations that nevertheless adhere to modular input conditions. The sort of cultural information most susceptible to modular processing is that most readily acquired by children, most easily transmitted across individuals, most (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   18 citations  
  14.  22
    Folkbiology.D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.) - 1999 - MIT Press.
    This book takes an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together the work of researchers in anthropology, cognitive and developmental psychology, biology, and ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   13 citations  
  15. Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science.Scott Atran - 1991 - Journal of the History of Biology 24 (3):537-540.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   28 citations  
  16.  12
    Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish.Douglas L. Medin, Norbert O. Ross, Scott Atran, Douglas Cox, John Coley, Julia B. Proffitt & Sergey Blok - 2006 - Cognition 99 (3):237-273.
  17.  23
    Does Rank Have its Privilege? Inductive Inferences Within Folkbiological Taxonomies.John D. Coley, Douglas L. Medin & Scott Atran - 1997 - Cognition 64 (1):73-112.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   17 citations  
  18.  4
    Inductive Reasoning in Folkbiological Thought.John D. Coley, Douglas L. Medin, Julia Beth Proffitt, Elizabeth Lynch & Scott Atran - 1999 - In D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.), Folkbiology. MIT Press. pp. 211-12.
  19.  15
    Children's Attributions of Beliefs to Humans and God: Cross‐Cultural Evidence.Nicola Knight, Paulo Sousa, Justin L. Barrett & Scott Atran - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (1):117-126.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  20.  2
    Folkbiology Doesn't Come From Folkpsychology: Evidence From Yukatek Maya in Cross-Cultural Perspective.Scott Atran, Edilberto Ucan Ek', Paulo Sousa, Douglas Medin, Elizabeth Lynch & Valentina Vapnarsky - 2001 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 1 (1):3-42.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  21.  13
    Genesis of Suicide Terrorism.Scott Atran - unknown
    Contemporary suicide terrorists from the Middle East are publicly deemed crazed cowards bent on senseless destruction who thrive in poverty and ignorance. Recent research indicates they have no appreciable psychopathology and are as educated and economically well-off as surrounding populations. A first line of defense is to get the communities from which suicide attackers stem to stop the attacks by learning how to minimize the receptivity of mostly ordinary people to recruiting organizations.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  22.  1
    Essentialism and Folkbiology: Evidence From Brazil.Paulo Sousa, Scott Atran & Douglas Medin - 2002 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 2 (3):195-223.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  23.  14
    Sacred Bounds on the Rational Resolution of Violent Political Conflict.Jeremy Ginges, Scott Atran, Douglas Medin & Khalil Shikaki - unknown
    We report a series of experiments carried out with Palestinian and Israeli participants showing that violent opposition to compromise over issues considered sacred is increased by offering material incentives to compromise but decreased when the adversary makes symbolic compromises over their own sacred values. These results demonstrate some of the unique properties of reasoning and decision-making over sacred values. We show that the use of material incentives to promote the peaceful resolution of political and cultural conflicts may backfire when adversaries (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  24.  18
    Reframing Sacred Values.Scott Atran & Robert Axelrod - unknown
    Sacred values differ from material or instrumental values in that they incorporate moral beliefs that drive action in ways dissociated from prospects for success. Across the world, people believe that devotion to essential or core values – such as the welfare of their family and country, or their commitment to religion, honor, and justice – are, or ought to be, absolute and inviolable. Counterintuitively, understanding an opponent's sacred values, we believe, offers surprising opportunities for breakthroughs to peace. Because of the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  25. Adaptationism for Human Cognition: Strong, Spurious, or Weak?Scott Atran - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (1):39-67.
    Strong adaptationists explore complex organic design as taskspecific adaptations to ancestral environments. This strategy seems best when there is evidence of homology. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic (including cognitive and linguistic) functioning necessarily or primarily represents taskspecific adaptation. This approach to cognition resembles physicists' attempts to deductively explain the most facts with fewest hypotheses. For certain domainspecific competencies (folkbiology) strong adaptationism is useful but not necessary to research. With grouplevel belief systems (religion) strong adaptationism degenerates into spurious notions (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  26. Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - unknown
    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion involves extraordinary use of ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  27.  78
    The Scientific Landscape of Religion: Evolution, Culture, and Cognition.Scott Atran - 2006 - In Philip Clayton & Zachory Simpson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 407--429.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712240; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 407-429.; Physical Description: graphs, tables ; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 426-429.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  28. Appearance in This List Does Not Preclude a Future Review of the Book. Where They Are Known Prices Are Either Given in $ US or in£ UK. Alcoff, Linda and Potter, Elizabeth (Eds.), Feminist Epistemologies, London, UK, Rout-Ledge, 1993, Pp. 312,£ 35.00,£ 12.99. [REVIEW]Ian Angus, Lenore Langsdorf, S. Atran, Robert M. Baird, Stuart E. Rosembaum, C. Bonelli Munegato, Scott M. Christensen, Dale R. Turner, Bohdan Dziemidok & Peter Engelmann - 1993 - Mind 102:406.
  29.  10
    Origin of the Species and Genus Concepts: An Anthropological Perspective.Scott Atran - 1987 - Journal of the History of Biology 20 (2):195-279.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  30. A Cheater-Detection Module? Dubious Interpretations of the Wason Selection Task and Logic.Scott Atran - unknown
    People usually fail the Wason selection task, choosing P and Q cases, when attempting to validate descriptive rules having the form “If P, then Q.” Yet they solve it, selecting P and not-Q cases, when validating deontic rules of the form “If P, then must Q.” The field of evolutionary psychology has overwhelmingly interpreted deontic versions of the selection task in terms of a naturally-selected, domain-specific social-contract or cheating algorithm. This work has done much to promote evolutionary psychology as an (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  31.  18
    Modular and Cultural Factors in Biological Understanding: An Experimental Approach to the Cognitive Basis of Science.Scott Atran - 2002 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 41--72.
    What follows is a discussion of three sets of experimental results that deal with various aspects of universal biological understanding among American and Maya children and adults. The first set of experiments shows that by the age of four-to-five years urban American and Yukatek Maya children employ a concept of innate species potential, or underlying essence, as an inferential framework for understanding the affiliation of an organism to a biological species, and for projecting known and unknown biological properties to organisms (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  32.  1
    Folkbiology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars.Scott Atran - unknown
    This essay in the "anthropology of science" is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  33.  14
    Sacred Barriers to Conflict Resolution.Scott Atran, Robert Axelrod & Richard Davis - unknown
    Resolution of quarrels arising from conflicting sacred values, as in the Middle East, may require concessions that acknowledge the opposition's core concerns.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  34.  11
    Emerging Sacred Values: The Iranian Nuclear Program.Morteza Dehghani, Rumen Iliev, Scott Atran, Jeremy Ginges & Douglas Medin - unknown
    Sacred values are different from secular values in that they are often associated with violations of the cost-benefit logic of rational choice models. Previous work on sacred values has been largely limited to religious or territorial conflicts deeply embedded in historical contexts. In this work we find that the Iranian nuclear program, a relatively recent development, is treated as sacred by some Iranians, leading to a greater disapproval of deals which involve monetary incentives to end the program. Our results suggest (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  35.  36
    Taxonomic Ranks, Generic Species, and Core Memes.Scott Atran - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):593-604.
    The target article contains a number of distinct but interrelated claims about the cognitive nature of folk biology based in part on cross-cultural work with urbanized Americans and forest-dwelling Maya Indians. Folk biology consists universally of a ranked taxonomy centered on essence-based generic species. This taxonomy is domain-specific, perhaps an innately determined evolutionary adaptation. Folk biology also plays a special role in cultural evolution in general, and in the development of Western biological science in particular. Even in our culture, however, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  36.  30
    Ordinary Constraints on the Semantics of Living Kinds: A Commonsense Alternative to Recent Treatments of Natural-Object Terms.Scott Atran - 1987 - Mind and Language 2 (1):27-63.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  37.  42
    Basic Conceptual Domains.Scott Atran - 1989 - Mind and Language 4 (1-2):7-16.
  38. Stones Against the Iron Fist, Terror Within the Nation: Alternating Structures of Violence and Cultural Identity in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.Scott Atran - unknown
    The framework of the Israel-Palestinian Arab conflict has evolved over the last half century through an instrumentalization of violence by the parties concerned. Two alternating "structures of violence" have emerged to define this instrumentality: the one Israeli, the other Palestinian. I call these structures of violence "alternating" rather than merely "reciprocating" because the one not only feeds off the other and actually practices on the other that which is merely fancied and projected as the other's intention but also because they (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  33
    Thinking About Biology. Modular Constraints on Categorization and Reasoning in the Everyday Life of Americans, Maya, and Scientists.Scott Atran, Douglas I. Medin & Norbert Ross - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (2):31-63.
    This essay explores the universal cognitive bases of biological taxonomy and taxonomic inference using cross-cultural experimental work with urbanized Americans and forest-dwelling Maya Indians. A universal, essentialist appreciation of generic species appears as the causal foundation for the taxonomic arrangement of biodiversity, and for inference about the distribution of causally-related properties that underlie biodiversity. Universal folkbiological taxonomy is domain-specific: its structure does not spontaneously or invariably arise in other cognitive domains, like substances, artifacts or persons. It is plausibly an innately-determined (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  40. The Surrogate Colonization of Palestine, 1917-1939.Scott Atran - unknown
    The "surrogate colonization" of Palestine had a foreign power giving to a nonnative group rights over land occupied by an indigenous people. It thus brought into play the complementary and conflicting agendas of three culturally distinguishable parties: British, Jews and Arabs. Each party had both "externalist" [those with no sustained practical experience of day to day life in Palestine] and "internalist" representatives. The surrogate idea was based on a "strategic consensus" involving each party's externalist camp: the British ruling elite, the (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41.  8
    How Words Could End a War.Scott Atran & Jeremy Ginges - unknown
    AS diplomats stitch together a cease-fire between Hamas and Israel, the most depressing feature of the conflict is the sense that future fighting is inevitable. Rational calculation suggests that neither side can win these wars. The thousands of lives and billions of dollars sacrificed in fighting demonstrate the advantages of peace and coexistence; yet still both sides opt to fight. This small territory is the world's great symbolic knot. “Palestine is the mother of all problems” is a common refrain among (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  42.  22
    Modest Adaptationism: Muddling Through Cognition and Language.Scott Atran - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):504-506.
    Strong adaptationists would explain complex organic designs as specific adaptations to particular ancestral environments. Weak adaptationists don't assume that complex organic functioning represents evolutionary design in the sense of niche-specific adaptation. For some domain-specific competencies (folkbiology) strong adaptationism is useful, not necessary. With group-level belief systems (religion), strong adaptationism can become spurious pseudo-adaptationism. In other cases (language), weak adaptationism proves productive.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  43.  12
    The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism.Scott Atran - unknown
    Suicide attack is the most virulent and horrifying form of terrorism in the world today. The mere rumor of an impending suicide attack can throw thousands of people into panic. This occurred during a Shi‘a procession in Iraq in late August 2005, causing hundreds of deaths. Although suicide attacks account for a minority of all terrorist acts, they are responsible for a majority of all terrorism-related casualties, and the rate of attacks is rising rapidly across the globe. During 2000–2004, there (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  44. Evolution and Devolution of Knowledge: A Tale of Two Biologies.Scott Atran, Douglas Medin & Norbert Ross - unknown
    Anthropological inquiry suggests that all societies classify animals and plants in similar ways. Paradoxically, in the same cultures that have seen large advances in biological science, citizenry's practical knowledge of nature has dramatically diminished. Here we describe historical, cross-cultural and developmental research on how people ordinarily conceptualize organic nature, concentrating on cognitive consequences associated with knowledge devolution. We show that results on psychological studies of categorization and reasoning from “standard populations” fail to generalize to humanity at large. Usual populations have (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  45.  6
    What Motivates Participation in Violent Political Action: Selective Incentives or Parochial Altruism?Jeremy Ginges & Scott Atran - unknown
    In standard models of decision making, participation in violent political action is understood as the product of instrumentally rational reasoning. According to this line of thinking, instrumentally rational individuals will participate in violent political action only if there are selective incentives that are limited to participants. We argue in favor of an alternate model of political violence where participants are motivated by moral commitments to collective sacred values. Correlative and experimental empirical evidence in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict strongly (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  46. Modest Adaptationism (Reply to Andrews Et Al.).S. Atran - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25:504-506.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  47. Anti-Anti-Cartesianism: Reply to Suart Shanker.Scott Atran & Ximena Lois - unknown
    There have been many criticisms of “nativism” in “Cartesian linguistics,” attacking positions that neither Chomsky nor any well-known generative grammarian has ever thought to defend. Shanker's polemic is no exception. It involves two spurious claims: Cartesian linguistics vitiates understanding language structure and use; nativism permits linguistic anthropology only to “validate” and “apply” generative principles. Briefly, Chomsky's outlines a language system, LS, of the human brain. LS reflexively discriminates and categorizes parts of the flux of human experience as “language,” and develops (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. Allan, LG, 207.S. Atran, F. L. Bedford, I. Berent, A. Caramazza, E. V. Clark, J. D. Coley, G. R. Fink, R. S. J. Frackowiak, P. W. Halligan & M. D. Hauser - 1997 - Cognition 64:355.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  49.  70
    Why Minds Create Gods: Devotion, Deception, Death, and Arational Decision Making.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):754-770.
    The evolutionary landscape that canalizes human thought and behavior into religious beliefs and practices includes naturally selected emotions, cognitive modules, and constraints on social interactions. Evolutionary by-products, including metacognitive awareness of death and possibilities for deception, further channel people into religious paths. Religion represents a community's costly commitment to a counterintuitive world of supernatural agents who manage people's existential anxieties. Religious devotion, though not an adaptation, informs all cultures and most people.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Combating Al Qaeda's Splinters: Mishandling Suicide Terrorism.Scott Atran - unknown
    The past three years saw more suicide attacks than the last quarter century. Most of these were religiously motivated. While most Westerners have imagined a tightly coordinated transnational terrorist organization headed by Al Qaeda, it seems more likely that nations under attack face a set of largely autonomous groups and cells pursuing their own regional aims. Repeated suicide actions show that massive counterforce alone does not diminish the frequency or intensity of suicide attack. Like pounding mercury with a hammer, this (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 92