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Steve Clarke [58]Simon Clarke [25]Samuel Clarke [21]S. Clarke [9]
Stanley G. Clarke [9]Simon R. Clarke [8]Sam Clarke [4]Shayne Clarke [3]

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Steve Clarke
Charles Sturt University
Simon R. Clarke
American University of Armenia
Steven W. Clarke
Trinity College, Dublin
3 more
  1. Naïve Realism and Unconscious Perception: A Reply to Berger and Nanay.Alfonso Anaya & Sam Clarke - 2017 - Analysis 77 (2):267-273.
    In a recent paper, Berger and Nanay consider, and reject, three ways of addressing the phenomenon of unconscious perception within a naïve realist framework. Since these three approaches seem to exhaust the options open to naïve realists, and since there is said to be excellent evidence that perception of the same fundamental kind can occur, both consciously and unconsciously, this is seen to present a problem for the view. We take this opportunity to show that all three approaches considered remain (...)
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  2.  32
    Two Concepts of Conscience and Their Implications for Conscience-Based Refusal in Healthcare.Steve Clarke - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (1):97-108.
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  3.  9
    Conscientious Objection in Healthcare, Referral and the Military Analogy.Steve Clarke - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):218-221.
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  4. Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science: Scientific Realism and Commonsense.Steve Clarke & Timothy D. Lyons (eds.) - 2002 - Dordrecht: Springer.
  5.  5
    Pure Science with a Practical Aim: The Meanings of Fundamental Research in Britain, Circa 1916–1950.Sabine Clarke - 2010 - Isis 101 (2):285-311.
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  6. Religion as an Evolutionary Byproduct: A Critique of the Standard Model.R. Powell & S. Clarke - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):457-486.
    The dominant view in the cognitive science of religion (the ‘Standard Model’) is that religious belief and behaviour are not adaptive traits but rather incidental byproducts of the cognitive architecture of mind. Because evidence for the Standard Model is inconclusive, the case for it depends crucially on its alleged methodological superiority to selectionist alternatives. However, we show that the Standard Model has both methodological and evidential disadvantages when compared with selectionist alternatives. We also consider a pluralistic approach, which holds that (...)
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  7. Introduction: Scientific Realism and Commonsense.Steve Clarke & Timothy D. Lyons - 2002 - In Steve Clarke & Timothy D. Lyons (eds.), Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science: Scientific Realism and Commonsense. Dordrecht: Springer.
  8.  64
    The Duty to Disclose Adverse Clinical Trial Results.S. Matthew Liao, Mark Sheehan & Steve Clarke - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (8):24-32.
    Participants in some clinical trials are at risk of being harmed and sometimes are seriously harmed as a result of not being provided with available, relevant risk information. We argue that this situation is unacceptable and that there is a moral duty to disclose all adverse clinical trial results to participants in clinical trials. This duty is grounded in the human right not to be placed at risk of harm without informed consent. We consider objections to disclosure grounded in considerations (...)
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  9.  13
    The Justification of Religious Violence.Steve Clarke - 2014 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  10.  12
    Bioconservatism, Bioenhancement and Backfiring.Tamara Kayali Browne & Steve Clarke - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Education:1-16.
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  11. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (3):155-161.
    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases ; second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. (...)
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  12. Defensible Territory for Entity Realism.Steve Clarke - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (4):701-722.
    In the face of argument to the contrary, it is shown that there is defensible middle ground available for entity realism, between the extremes of scientific realism and empiricist antirealism. Cartwright's ([1983]) earlier argument for defensible middle ground between these extremes, which depended crucially on the viability of an underdeveloped distinction between inference to the best explanation (IBE) and inference to the most probable cause (IPC), is examined and its defects are identified. The relationship between IBE and IPC is clarified (...)
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  13. Conspiracy Theories and Conspiracy Theorizing.Steve Clarke - 2002 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (2):131-150.
    The dismissive attitude of intellectuals toward conspiracy theorists is considered and given some justification. It is argued that intellectuals are entitled to an attitude of prima facie skepticism toward the theories propounded by conspiracy theorists, because conspiracy theorists have an irrational tendency to continue to believe in conspiracy theories, even when these take on the appearance of forming the core of degenerating research program. It is further argued that the pervasive effect of the "fundamental attribution error" can explain the behavior (...)
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  14.  46
    The Reversal Test, Status Quo Bias, and Opposition to Human Cognitive Enhancement.Steve Clarke - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (3):369-386.
    Bostrom and Ord’s reversal test has been appealed to by many philosophers to substantiate the charge that preferences for status quo options are motivated by status quo bias. I argue that their characterization of the reversal test needs to be modified, and that their description of the burden of proof it imposes needs to be clarified. I then argue that there is a way to meet that burden of proof which Bostrom and Ord fail to recognize. I also argue that (...)
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  15.  93
    Scientific Imperialism and the Proper Relations Between the Sciences.Steve Clarke & Adrian Walsh - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (2):195-207.
    John Dupr argues that 'scientific imperialism' can result in 'misguided' science being considered acceptable. 'Misguided' is an explicitly normative term and the use of the pejorative 'imperialistic' is implicitly normative. However, Dupr has not justified the normative dimension of his critique. We identify two ways in which it might be justified. It might be justified if colonisation prevents a discipline from progressing in ways that it might otherwise progress. It might also be justified if colonisation prevents the expression of important (...)
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  16. Investigating What Felt Shapes Look Like.Sam Clarke - 2016 - I-Perception 7 (1).
    A recent empirical study claims to show that the answer to Molyneux’s question is negative, but, as John Schwenkler points out, its findings are inconclusive: Subjects tested in this study probably lacked the visual acuity required for a fair assessment of the question. Schwenkler is undeterred. He argues that the study could be improved by lowering the visual demands placed on subjects, a suggestion later endorsed and developed by Kevin Connolly. I suggest that Connolly and Schwenkler both underestimate the difficulties (...)
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  17. A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God.Samuel Clarke - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
  18.  10
    Miracles, Scarce Resources, and Fairness.Steve Clarke - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (5):65-66.
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  19. A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God and Other Writings.Samuel Clarke - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    Samuel Clarke was by far the most gifted and influential Newtonian philosopher of his generation, and A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God, which constituted the 1704 Boyle Lectures, was one of the most important works of the first half of the eighteenth century, generating a great deal of controversy about the relation between space and God, the nature of divine necessary existence, the adequacy of the Cosmological Argument, agent causation, and the immateriality of the soul. Together with (...)
     
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  20.  77
    Future Technologies, Dystopic Futures and the Precautionary Principle.Steve Clarke - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):121-126.
    It is sometimes suggested that new research in such areas as artificial intelligence, nanotechnology and genetic engineering should be halted or otherwise restricted because of concerns about possible catastrophic scenarios. Proponents of such restrictions typically invoke the precautionary principle, understood as a tool of policy formulation, as part of their case. Here I examine the application of the precautionary principle to possible catastrophic scenarios. I argue, along with Sunstein (Risk and Reason: Safety, Law and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, (...)
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  21. Conspiracy Theories and the Internet: Controlled Demolition and Arrested Development.Steve Clarke - 2007 - Episteme 4 (2):167-180.
    Abstract Following Clarke (2002), a Lakatosian approach is used to account for the epistemic development of conspiracy theories. It is then argued that the hypercritical atmosphere of the internet has slowed down the development of conspiracy theories, discouraging conspiracy theorists from articulating explicit versions of their favoured theories, which could form the hard core of Lakatosian research pro grammes. The argument is illustrated with a study of the “controlled demolition” theory of the collapse of three towers at the World Trade (...)
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  22.  51
    Intuitions as Evidence, Philosophical Expertise and the Developmental Challenge.Steve Clarke - 2013 - Philosophical Papers 42 (2):175-207.
    Appeals to intuitions as evidence in philosophy are challenged by experimental philosophers and other critics. A common response to experimental philosophical criticisms is to hold that only professional philosophers? intuitions count as evidence in philosophy. This ?expert intuitions defence? is inadequate for two reasons. First, recent studies indicate significant variability in professional philosophers? intuitions. Second, the academic literature on professional intuitions gives us reasons to doubt that professional philosophers develop truth-apt intuitions. The onus falls on those who mount the expert (...)
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  23.  14
    Anti-Theory in Ethics and Moral Conservatism.Stanley G. Clarke & Evan Simpson (eds.) - 1989 - State University of New York Press.
    "This is a timely collection of important papers.
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  24. The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate.Steve Clarke, Julian Savulescu, C. A. J. Coady, Alberto Giubilini & Sagar Sanyal (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    An international team of ethicists refresh the debate about human enhancement by examining whether resistance to the use of technology to enhance our mental and physical capabilities can be supported by articulated philosophical reasoning, or explained away, e.g. in terms of psychological influences on moral reasoning.
     
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  25.  62
    Monks Who Have Sex: Pārājika Penance in Indian Buddhist Monasticisms. [REVIEW]Shayne Clarke - 2009 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 37 (1):1-43.
    In the study of Buddhism it is commonly accepted that a monk or nun who commits a pārājika offence is permanently and irrevocably expelled from the Buddhist monastic order. This view is based primarily on readings of the Pāli Vinaya. With the exception of the Pāli Vinaya, however, all other extant Buddhist monastic law codes (Dharmaguptaka, Mahāsāṅghika, Mahīśāsaka, Sarvāstivāda and Mūlasarvāstivāda) contain detailed provisions for monks and nuns who commit pārājikas but nevertheless wish to remain within the saṅgha. These monastics (...)
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  26.  30
    Bioconservatism, Bioliberalism, and the Wisdom of Reflecting on Repugnance.Rebecca Roach & Steve Clarke - 2009 - Monash Bioethics Review 28 (1):04-1.
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  27. Transcendental Realisms in the Philosophy of Science: On Bhaskar and Cartwright.Stephen Clarke - 2010 - Synthese 173 (3):299-315.
    I consider two transcendental arguments for realism in the philosophy of science, which are due to Roy Bhaskar (A realist theory of science, 1975) and Nancy Cartwright (The dappled world, 1999). Bhaskar and Cartwright are both influential figures, however there is little discussion of their use of transcendental arguments in the literature. Here I seek to correct this oversight. I begin by describing the role of the transcendental arguments in question, in the context of the broader philosophical theories in which (...)
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  28.  70
    Sim and the City: Rationalism in Psychology and Philosophy and Haidt's Account of Moral Judgment.Steve Clarke - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):799 – 820.
    Jonathan Haidt ( 2001 ) advances the 'Social Intuitionist' account of moral judgment , which he presents as an alternative to rationalist accounts of moral judgment , hitherto dominant in psychology. Here I consider Haidt's anti-rationalism and the debate that it has provoked in moral psychology , as well as some anti-rationalist philosophical claims that Haidt and others have grounded in the empirical work of Haidt and his collaborators. I will argue that although the case for anti-rationalism in moral psychology (...)
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  29.  10
    A Prospect Theory Approach to Understanding Conservatism.Steve Clarke - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):551-568.
    There is widespread agreement about a combination of attributes that someone needs to possess if they are to be counted as a conservative. They need to lack definite political ideals, goals or ends, to prefer the political status quo to its alternatives, and to be risk averse. Why should these three highly distinct attributes, which are widely believed to be characteristic of adherents to a significant political position, cluster together? Here I draw on prospect theory to develop an explanation for (...)
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  30. Bioconservatism, Bioliberalism, and Repugnance.Rebecca Roache & Steve Clarke - 2009 - Monash Bioethics Review 28 (1):04.1-04.21.
    We consider the current debate between bioconservatives and their opponents—whom we dub bioliberals—about the moral acceptability of human enhancement and the policy implications of moral debates about enhancement. We argue that this debate has reached an impasse, largely because bioconservatives hold that we should honour intuitions about the special value of being human, even if we cannot identify reasons to ground those intuitions. We argue that although intuitions are often a reliable guide to belief and action, there are circumstances in (...)
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  31. Consequential Neutrality Revivified.Simon R. Clarke - 2014 - In Roberto Merrill & Daniel Marc Weinstock (eds.), Political Neutrality: A Re-evaluation. New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 109-123.
    Liberal neutrality requires that, given the diversity of conceptions of the good life held by people, the state should be in some sense neutral between these conceptions. Just what that sense is has been a matter of debate but it seems generally accepted that neutrality is a property of the justifications for government action and not of the consequences of such action. In other words, the state must be neutral by avoiding invoking any conception of the good in its justification (...)
     
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  32.  32
    Paternalism, Consent, and the Use of Experimental Drugs in the Military.J. Wolfendale & S. Clarke - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (4):337-355.
    Modern military organizations are paternalistic organizations. They typically recognize a duty of care toward military personnel and are willing to ignore or violate the consent of military personnel in order to uphold that duty of care. In this paper, we consider the case for paternalism in the military and distinguish it from the case for paternalism in medicine. We argue that one can consistently reject paternalism in medicine but uphold paternalism in the military. We consider two well-known arguments for the (...)
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  33.  97
    Naturalism, Science and the Supernatural.Steve Clarke - 2009 - Sophia 48 (2):127-142.
    There is overwhelming agreement amongst naturalists that a naturalistic ontology should not allow for the possibility of supernatural entities. I argue, against this prevailing consensus, that naturalists have no proper basis to oppose the existence of supernatural entities. Naturalism is characterized, following Leiter and Rea, as a position which involves a primary commitment to scientific methodology and it is argued that any naturalistic ontological commitments must be compatible with this primary commitment. It is further argued that properly applied scientific method (...)
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  34.  5
    Conscientious Objection in Healthcare: New Directions.Steve Clarke - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):191-191.
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  35. Discourse Concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion.Samuel Clarke - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
  36.  42
    Informed Consent in Medicine in Comparison with Consent in Other Areas of Human Activity.Steve Clarke - 2001 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (2):169-187.
  37.  77
    A Definition of Paternalism.Simon Clarke - 2002 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (1):81-91.
  38.  16
    Buchanan and the Conservative Argument Against Human Enhancement From Biological and Social Harmony.Steve Clarke - 2016 - In Steve Clarke, Julian Savulescu, Tony Coady, Alberto Giubilini & Sagar Sanyal (eds.), The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 211-224.
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  39.  38
    Imperialism, Progress, Developmental Teleology, and Interdisciplinary Unification.Steve Clarke & Adrian Walsh - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):341-351.
    In a previous article in this journal, we examined John Dupré's claim that ‘scientific imperialism’ can lead to ‘misguided’ science being considered acceptable. Here, we address criticisms raised by Ian J. Kidd and Uskali Mäki against that article. While both commentators take us to be offering our own account of scientific imperialism that goes beyond that developed by Dupré, and go on to criticise what they take to be our account, our actual ambitions were modest. We intended to ‘explicate the (...)
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  40.  55
    The Supernatural and the Miraculous.Steve Clarke - 2007 - Sophia 46 (3):277 - 285.
    Both intention-based and causation-based definitions of the miraculous make reference to the term ‘supernatural’. Philosophers who define the miraculous appear to use this term in a loose way, perhaps meaning the nonnatural, perhaps meaning a subcategory of the nonnatural. Here I examine the aetiology of the term ‘supernatural’. I consider three outstanding issues regarding the meaning of the term and conclude that the supernatural is best understood as a subcategory of the nonnatural. In light of this clarification, I argue that (...)
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  41. Marx's Theory of Crisis.Simon Clarke - 1996 - Science and Society 60 (1):122-126.
     
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  42. The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Samuel Clarke - 1956 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
  43.  52
    Was Lenin a Marxist? The Populist Roots of Marxism-Leninism.Simon Clarke - 1998 - Historical Materialism 3 (1):3-28.
  44.  23
    Informed Consent and Surgeons' Performance.Steve Clarke & Justin Oakley - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (1):11 – 35.
    This paper argues that the provision of effective informed consent by surgical patients requires the disclosure of material information about the comparative clinical performance of available surgeons. We develop a new ethical argument for the conclusion that comparative information about surgeons' performance - surgeons' report cards - should be provided to patients, a conclusion that has already been supported by legal and economic arguments. We consider some recent institutional and legal developments in this area, and we respond to some common (...)
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  45. Locating Humour in Indian Buddhist Monastic Law Codes: A Comparative Approach. [REVIEW]Shayne Clarke - 2009 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 37 (4):311-330.
    It has been claimed that Indian Buddhism, as opposed to East Asian Chan/Zen traditions, was somehow against humour. In this paper I contend that humour is discernible in canonical Indian Buddhist texts, particularly in Indian Buddhist monastic law codes (Vinaya). I will attempt to establish that what we find in these texts sometimes is not only humourous but that it is intentionally so. I approach this topic by comparing different versions of the same narratives preserved in Indian Buddhist monastic law (...)
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  46.  57
    Emotions: Rationality Without Cognitivism.Stanley G. Clarke - 1986 - Dialogue 25 (4):663-674.
  47.  89
    The Neuroscience of Decision Making and Our Standards for Assessing Competence to Consent.Steve Clarke - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):189-196.
    Rapid advances in neuroscience may enable us to identify the neural correlates of ordinary decision making. Such knowledge opens up the possibility of acquiring highly accurate information about people’s competence to consent to medical procedures and to participate in medical research. Currently we are unable to determine competence to consent with accuracy and we make a number of unrealistic practical assumptions to deal with our ignorance. Here I argue that if we are able to detect competence to consent and if (...)
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  48.  71
    Anti-Theory in Ethics.Stanley G. Clarke - 1987 - American Philosophical Quarterly 24 (3):237 - 244.
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  49.  46
    Hume's Definition of Miracles Revised.Steve Clarke - 1999 - American Philosophical Quarterly 36 (1):49 - 57.
    It is argued that Hume’s definition of miracle stands in need of revision because it fails to be inclusive of acts of supernatural intervention in the world which are non-law-violating. Potential revisions of the definition, due to Paul Dietl and Christopher Hughes are considered and found to be inadequate, and a new definition is put forward; a miracle is "an intended outcome of an intervention in the natural world by a supernatural agent." An objection to this definition is anticipated and (...)
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  50. Marx, Marginalism and Modern Sociology From Adam Smith to Max Weber.Simon Clarke - 1991
     
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