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Stephen Jay Gould [73]Stephen J. Gould [5]Stephen Gould [5]S. J. Gould [5]
S. H. Gould [2]Sharon A. Gould [1]Stepi Ien Jay Gould [1]Stephen Iay Gould [1]

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  1.  78
    The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme.S. J. Gould & R. C. Lewontin - 1979 - In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books. pp. 73-90.
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  2. Ontogeny and Phylogeny.Stephen Jay Gould - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (4):652-653.
     
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  3.  84
    On Punctuated Equilibria.Niles Eldredge & Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    They are correct that punctuated equilibria apply to sexually reproducing organisms and that morphological evolutionary change is regarded as largely (if not exclusively) correlated with speciation events. However, they err in suggesting that we attribute stasis strictly to "developmental constraints," which represent only one of a set of possible mechanisms that we have suggested for the causes of stasis. Others include habitat tracking and the internal structure of species themselves [for example, (2)].
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  4.  25
    Wonderful Life; The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History.Stephen Jay Gould - 1992 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 23 (2):359-360.
  5.  40
    I. The Panda's Thumb.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    FEW HEROES LOWER their sights in the prime of their lives; triumph leads inexorably on, often to destruction. Alexander wept because he had no new worlds to conquer; Napoleon, overextended, sealed his doom in the depth of a Russian winter. But Charles Darwin did not follow the Origin of Species (1859) with a general defense of natural selection or with its evident extension to human evolution (he waited until 1871 to publish The Descent of Man). Instead, he wrote his most (...)
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  6. Exaptation–A Missing Term in the Science of Form.Stephen Jay Gould & Elisabeth S. Vrba - 1982 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  7.  7
    Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History.Stephen Jay Gould - 1991 - Journal of the History of Biology 24 (1):163-165.
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  8.  66
    The Confusion Over Evolution.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    l i ver Cromwell delivered history's most famous rebuke to the heroworshiping that irons all subtlety into flawless cardboard: Mr. Lely, I desire you would use all your skill to paint my picture truly like me, and not flatter me at al l ; but remark all these roughnesses, pimples, warts, and everything as you see me, otherwise I will never pay a farthing for it. Helena Cronin, in The Ant and the Peacock , displays a raw talent clearly equal (...)
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  9. The Hardening of the Modern Synthesis.Stepi Ien Jay Gould - unknown
    In 1937, just as Dobzhansky published the book that later generations would laud as the foundation of the modern synthesis, the American Naturnlist published a symposium on "supraspecific variation in nature and in classification." Alfred C. Kinsey, who later became one of America's most controversial intellectuals for his study of basic behaviors in another sort of WASP,1 led off the symposium with a summary of his extensive work on a family of gall wasps, the Cynipidae. In his article, Kinsey strongly (...)
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  10. Nonoverlapping Magisteria.Stephen Jay Gould - 1997 - Natural History 106 (2):16--22.
    ncongruous places often inspire anomalous stories. In early 1984, I spent several nights at the Vatican housed in a hotel built for itinerant priests. While pondering over such puzzling issues as the intended function of the bidets in each bathroom, and hungering for something other than plum jam on my breakfast rolls (why did the basket only contain hundreds of identical plum packets and not a one of, say, strawberry?), I encountered yet another among the innumerable issues of contrasting cultures (...)
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  11. Evolution: The Pleasures of Pluralism.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    ¶1 Charles Darwin began the last paragraph of The Origin of Species (1859) with a famous metaphor about life's diversity and ecological complexity: It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have (...)
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  12. The Exaptive Excellence of Spandrels as a Term and Prototype.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    In 1979, Lewontin and I borrowed the archi- tectural term “spandrel” (using the pendentives of San Marco in Venice as an example) to designate the class of forms and spaces that arise as necessary byproducts of another decision in design, and not as adaptations for direct utility in them- selves. This proposal has generated a large literature featur- ing two critiques: (i) the terminological claim that the span- drels of San Marco are not true spandrels at all and (ii) the (...)
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  13.  57
    Punctuated Equilibrium Comes of Age.Stephen Jay Gould & Niles Eldredge - unknown
    PUNCTUATED cquilibrium has finally obtained an unambiguous and incontrovertiblc majoxity—that is, our theory is now 21 ' years old. We also, with parental pride (and, therefore, potential..
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  14. This View of Life.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    Understanding after the fact confers no special perspicacity. The real test for any diviner can only lie in grasping the outcome at the outset. Correct predictions, in themselves, offer no proof of true wisdom, for how can we distinguish dumb luck from horse sense? The only good experiment is, alas, the most undoable of all intriguing thoughts in a world of irrevocable history-to run back the tape and play it again, Sam.
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  15. Individuality and Adaptation Across Levels of Selection: How Shall We Name and Generalize the Unit of Darwinism?Stephen Jay Gould & Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1999 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21):11904-09.
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast with Darwin’s own emphasis on the organismic level. But a piece of (...)
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  16.  15
    The Hedgehog, the Fox and the Magister's Pox: Mending the Gap Between Science and the Humanities.Stephen Jay Gould - 2003 - Jonathan Cape.
    The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Magister's Pox is a controversial discourse, rich with facts and observations gathered by one of the most erudite minds of our ...
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  17.  8
    Panselectionist Pitfalls in Parker & Gibson's Model for the Evolution of Intelligence.Stephen Jay Gould - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):385-386.
  18.  57
    Dollo on Dollo's Law: Irreversibility and the Status of Evolutionary Laws.Stephen Jay Gould - 1970 - Journal of the History of Biology 3 (2):189-212.
  19. Is Uniformitarianism Necessary'?Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    Uniformitarianism is a dual concept. Substantive uniformitarianism (a testable theory of geologic change postulating uniformity of rates or material conditions) is false and stifiqng to hypothesis formation. Methodological uniformitarianism (a procedural principle asserting spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws) belongs to the definition of science and is not unique to genic~~. Methodological uniformitarianism enabled Lyell to exclude the miraculous from geologic explanation; its invocation today is anachronistic since the question of divine intervention is no longer an issue in science. (...)
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  20. Kropotkin Was No Crackpot.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    IN LATE 1909, two great men corresponded across oceans, religions, generations, and races. Leo Tolstoy, sage of Christian nonviolence in his later years, wrote to the young Mohandas Gandhi, struggling for the rights of Indian settlers in South Africa.
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  21. The Buddhist Perspective on Business Ethics: Experiential Exercises for Exploration and Practice. [REVIEW]Stephen J. Gould - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (1):63 - 70.
    While Buddhism focuses on the same ethical concerns as Western ethical traditions, it provides a distinct perspective and method for dealing with them. This paper outlines the basic Buddhist perspective and then provides some experiential exercises which offer insight for self-understanding and ethical practices in business. Implications for business and ethics research are provided.
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  22. Eternal Metaphors of Palaeontology.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    Alexander wept at the height of his triumphs because he had no new worlds to conquer. Whitehead declared that all of philosophy had been a footnote to Plato. The Preacher exclaimed (Ecclesiastes 1:10): "Is there any thing whereof it may be said, See, this is new? It hath been already of old time, which was..
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  23.  58
    Evolution as Fact and Theory.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    irtley Mather, who died last year at age ninety, was a pillar of both science and Christian religion in America and one of my dearest friends. The difference of a half-century in our ages evaporated before our common interests. The most curious thing we shared was a battle we each fought at the same age. For Kirtley had gone to Tennessee with Clarence Darrow to testify for evolution at the Scopes trial of 1925. When I think that we are enmeshed (...)
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  24.  21
    Dinosaur in a Haystack.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    Gallileo described the universe in his most famous line: "This grand book is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures." Why should the laws of nature be subject to statement in such elegantly basic algebra? Why does gravity work by the principle of inverse squares? Why do simple geometrics pervade nature--from the hexagons of the honeycomb, to the complex architecture of crystals? D'Arcy Thompson, author of Growth and Form and my earliest (...)
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  25.  58
    “To Pirate or Not to Pirate”: A Comparative Study of the Ethical Versus Other Influences on the Consumer’s Software Acquisition-Mode Decision. [REVIEW]Pola B. Gupta, Stephen J. Gould & Bharath Pola - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):255 - 274.
    Consumers of software often face an acquisition-mode decision, namely whether to purchase or pirate that software. In terms of consumer welfare, consumers who pirate software may stand in opposition to those who purchase it. Marketers also face a decision whether to attempt to thwart that piracy or to ignore, if not encourage it as an aid to their softwares diffusion, and policymakers face the decision whether to adopt interventionist policies, which are government-centric, or laissez faire policies, which are marketer-centric. Here (...)
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  26.  69
    Darwin's Untimely Burial.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    n one of the numerous movie versions of A Christmas Carol , Ebenezer Scrooge, mounting the steps to visit his dying partner, Jacob Marley, encounters a dignified gentleman sitting on a landing. "Are you the doctor?" Scrooge inquires. "No," replies the man, "I'm the undertaker; ours is a very competitive business." The cutthrought world of intellectuals must rank a close second, and few events attract more notice than a proclamation that popular ideas have died. Darwin's theory of natural selection has (...)
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  27.  62
    The Return of Hopeful Monsters.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    Big Brother, the tyrant of George Orwell's 1984, directed his daily Two Minutes Hate against Emmanuel Goldstein, enemy of the people. When I studied evolutionary biology in graduate school during the mid-1960s, official rebuke and derision focused upon Richard Goldschmidt, a famous geneticist who, we were told, had gone astray. Although 1984 creeps up on us, I trust that the world will not be in Big Brother's grip by then. I do, however, predict that during this decade Goldschmidt will be (...)
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  28.  69
    Nonmoral Nature.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    hen the Right Honorable and Reverend Francis Henry, earl of Bridgewater, died in February, 1829, he left £8,000 to support a series of books "on the power, wisdom and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation." William Buckland, England's first official academic geologist and later dean of Westminster, was invited to compose one of the nine Bridgewater Treatises. In it he discussed the most pressing problem of natural theology: if God is benevolent and the creation displays his "power, wisdom (...)
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  29. Impeaching a Self-Appointed Judge.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    teach a course at Harvard with philosopher Robert Nozick and lawyer Alan Dershowitz. We take major issues engaged by each of our professions—from abortion to racism to right-to-die—and we try to explore and integrate our various approaches. We raise many questions and reach no solutions.
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  30.  11
    “To Pirate or Not to Pirate”: A Comparative Study of the Ethical Versus Other Influences on the Consumer’s Software Acquisition-Mode Decision.Pola B. Gupta, Stephen J. Gould & Bharath Pola - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):255-274.
    Consumers of software often face an acquisition-mode decision, namely whether to purchase or pirate that software. In terms of consumer welfare, consumers who pirate software may stand in opposition to those who purchase it. Marketers also face a decision whether to attempt to thwart that piracy or to ignore, if not encourage it as an aid to their software's diffusion, and policymakers face the decision whether to adopt interventionist policies, which are government-centric, or laissez faire policies, which are marketer-centric. Here (...)
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  31.  80
    Curveball.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    provides a superb and unusual opportunity to gain insight into the meaning of experiment as a method in science. The primary desideratum in all experiments is reduction of confusing variables: we bring all the buzzing and blooming confusion of the external world into our laboratories and, holding all else constant in our artificial simplicity, try to vary just one potential factor at a time. But many subject defy the use of such an experimental method—particularly most social phenomena—because importation into the (...)
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  32.  9
    Energy for Two: New Archaeal Lineages and the Origin of Mitochondria.William F. Martin, Sinje Neukirchen, Verena Zimorski, Sven B. Gould & Filipa L. Sousa - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (9):850-856.
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  33.  68
    Women's Brains.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    IN THE PRELUDE to Middlemarch, George Eliot lamented the unfulfilled lives of talented women: Some have felt that these blundering lives are due to the inconvenient indefiniteness with which the Supreme Power has fashioned the natures of women: if there were one level of feminine incompetence as strict as the ability to count three and no more, the social lot of women might be treated with scientific certitude. Eliot goes on to discount the idea of innate limitation, but while she (...)
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  34.  37
    Exaptation Revisited: Changes Imposed by Evolutionary Psychologists and Behavioral Biologists.Elisabeth A. Lloyd & Stephen Gould - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (1):50-65.
    Some methodological adaptationists hijacked the term “exaptation,” and took an occasion of Stephen Jay Gould’s misspeaking as confirmation that it possessed an evolutionarily “designed” function and was a version of an adaptation, something it was decidedly not. Others provided a standard of evidence for exaptation that was inappropriate, and based on an adaptationist worldview. This article is intended to serve as both an analysis of and correction to those situations. Gould and Elisabeth Vrba’s terms, “exaptation” and “aptation,” as originally introduced, (...)
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  35. Shades of Lamarck.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    The world, unfortunately, rarely matches our hopes and consistently refuses to behave in a reasonable manner. The psalmist did not distinguish himself as an acute observer when he wrote: "I have been young, and now am old; yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging bread." The tyranny of what seems reasonable often impedes science. Who before Einstein would have believed that the mass and aging of an object could be affected by its velocity near the (...)
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  36.  17
    Recovering From an Interruption: Investigating Speed− Accuracy Trade-Offs in Task Resumption Behavior.Duncan P. Brumby, Anna L. Cox, Jonathan Back & Sandy Jj Gould - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (2):95.
  37. An Autobiographical Anatomy. [REVIEW]Michael T. Ghiselin & Stephen Jay Gould - 2002 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (2):285 - 291.
    An 'anatomy' is a literary work that treats a particul.1r topic at great length and in minute detail. Viewed as a contribution to that genre, this massive and prolix tome may be read with patience and also with sympathy for its author. Gould diccl around the time that it was published, and the book is a fitting monument to his life's work. Because he goes into so much detail, providing an immense amount..
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  38.  65
    Not Necessarily a Wing.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    rom Flesh Gordon to Alex in Wonderland , title parodies have been a stock-in-trade of low comedy. We may not anticipate a tactical similarity between the mayhem of Mad magazine's movie reviews and the titles of major scientific works, yet two important nineteenth-century critiques of Darwin parodied his most famous phrases in their headings.
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  39.  44
    The Piltdown Conspiracy.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    In his great aria "La calumnia," Don Basillo, the music master of Rossini's Barber of Seville, graphically describes how evil whispers grow, with appropriate watering, into truly grand and injurious calumnies. For the less conniving among us, the same lesson may be read with opposite intent: in adversity, try to contain. The desire to pin evil deeds upon a single soul acting alone reflects this strategy; conspiracy theories have a terrible tendency to ramify like Basillo's whispers until the runaway solution (...)
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  40.  37
    Hooking Leviathan by Its Past.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    he landscape of every career contains a few crevasses, and usually a more extensive valley or two—for every Ruth's bat a Buckner's legs; for every lopsided victory at Agincourt, a bloodbath at Antietam. Darwin's Origin of Species contains some wonderful insights and magnificent lines, but this masterpiece also includes a few notable clunkers. Darwin experienced most embarrassment from the following passage, curtailed and largely expunged from later editions of his book: In North America the black bear was seen by Hearne (...)
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  41.  59
    Return of the Hopeful Monster.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    ig Brother, the tyrant of George Orwell's 1984, directed his daily Two Minutes Hate against Emmanuel Goldstein, enemy of the people. When I studied evolutionary biology in graduate school during the mid 1960s, official rebuke and derision focused upon Richard Goldschmidt , a famous geneticist who, we were told, had gone astray. Although 1984 creeps up on us, I trust that the world will not be in Big Brother's grip by then. I do, however, predict that during this decade Goldschmidt (...)
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  42.  17
    Piltdown in Letters.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    From the moment of discovery, the Piltdown "fossils" were the center of controversy. Piltdown apparently provided a human fossil on English soil, a maker for the eoliths, and proof that the brain came first in human evolution and that an anatomically modern braincase was present at the beginning of the Ice Age. Every conclusion was important and controversial, and for many years it was not possible to discuss human evolution without considering Piltdown. Hundreds of papers were written about the discoveries, (...)
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  43.  27
    Gulliver's Further Travels: The Necessity and Dif®Culty of a Hierarchical Theory of Selection.Stephen Jay Gould - unknown
    For principled and substantially philosophical reasons, based largely on his reform of natural history by inverting the Paleyan notion of overarching and purposeful bene¢cence in the construction of organisms, Darwin built his theory of selection at the single causal level of individual bodies engaged in unconscious (and metaphorical) struggle for their own reproductive success. But the central logic of the theory allows selection to work e¡ectively on entities at several levels of a genealogical hierarchy, provided that they embody a set (...)
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  44.  24
    Piltdown Revisited.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    Tey's The Daughter of Time as the greatest detec-tive story ever written because its pro-tagonist is Richard III, not the modern and insignificant murderer of Roger Ackroyd. The old chestnuts are peren-nial sources for impassioned and fruit-less debate. Who was Jack the Ripper? Was Shakespeare Shakespeare?
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  45.  23
    Humbled by the Genome's Mysteries.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    Two groups of researchers released the formal report of data for the human genome last Monday -- on the birthday of Charles Darwin, who jump-started our biological understanding of life's nature and evolution when he published ''The Origin of Species'' in 1859. On Tuesday, and for only the second time in 35 years of teaching, I dropped my intended schedule -- to discuss the importance of this work with my undergraduate course on the history of life. (The only other case, (...)
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  46.  18
    Opus 200.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    n my adopted home of Puritan New England, I have learned that personal indulgence is a vice to be tolerated only at rare intervals. Combine this stricture with two further principles and this essay achieves its rationale: first, that we celebrate in hundreds and their easy multiples (the Columbian quincentenary and the fiftieth anniversary of DiMaggio's hitting streak—both about equally important, and only the latter an unambiguous good); second, that geologists learn to take the long view.
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  47.  4
    A Critique of Heckhausen and Schulz's Life-Span Theory of Control From a Cross-Cultural Perspective.Stephen J. Gould - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (3):597-604.
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  48. What Only the Embryo Knows.Stephen Jay Gould - manuscript
    Thomas Henry Huxley designated three men as the finest intellects of 19th century natural history: his dear friend Charles Darwin; his most worthy opponent Georges Cuvier; and Karl Ernst von Baer, who discovered the mammalian egg cell in 1827 and wrote the founding treatise of modern embryology in 1828. Of these three, posterity has largely forgotten von Baer, who suffered a severe mental breakdown in the 1830's, but then recovered and moved to Russia (not uncommon for a German-speaking Estonian national), (...)
     
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  49.  10
    Lamarck Et Son Temps, Lamarck Et Notre Temps.D. Boulanger, R. Burkhardt, Y. Conry, J. Fabre, V. Goldschmidt & S. Gould - 1981 - Vrin.
    D. Boulanger. Colloque Lamarck Paris, Vrin, 1980 EVOLUTION DU GROUPE DES NUMMULITES C'est en 1801 que Lamarck dans son Système des animaux sans vertèbres proposa le genre Nummulites qu'il considéra comme le 89e des ...
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  50.  24
    Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans a Reader.Gregory E. Pence, George Annas, Stephen Jay Gould, George Johnson, Axel Kahn, Leon Kass, Philip Kitcher, R. C. Lewontin, Gilbert Meilaender, Timothy F. Murphy, National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Chief Justice John Roberts & James D. Watson - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Flesh of My Flesh is a collection of articles by today's most respected scientists, philosophers, bioethicists, theologians, and law professors about whether we should allow human cloning. It includes historical pieces to provide background for the current debate. Religious, philosophical, and legal points of view are all represented.
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