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Søren Holm [137]S. Holm [47]Soren Holm [28]Sune Holm [21]
Søen Holm [8]Seth Holm [3]Sune Hannibal Holm [2]Søoren Holm [1]

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Sjur Holm
University of Oslo
  1.  49
    Doctors, Patients, and Nudging in the Clinical Context—Four Views on Nudging and Informed Consent.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):28-38.
    In an analysis of recent work on nudging we distinguish three positions on the relationship between nudging founded in libertarian paternalism and the protection of personal autonomy through informed consent. We argue that all three positions fail to provide adequate protection of personal autonomy in the clinical context. Acknowledging that nudging may be beneficial, we suggest a fourth position according to which nudging and informed consent are valuable in different domains of interaction.
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  2.  39
    Meta Consent – A Flexible Solution to the Problem of Secondary Use of Health Data.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):721-732.
    In this article we provide an in-depth description of a new model of informed consent called ‘meta consent’ and consider its practical implementation. We explore justifications for preferring meta consent over alternative models of consent as a solution to the problem of secondary use of health data for research. We finally argue that meta consent strikes an appropriate balance between enabling valuable research and protecting the individual.
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  3. Assistive Technology, Telecare and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Ethical Considerations.J. Perry, S. Beyer & S. Holm - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (2):81-86.
    Increasingly, commissioners and providers of services for people with intellectual disabilities are turning to assistive technology and telecare as a potential solution to the problem of the increased demand for services, brought about by an expanding population of people with intellectual disabilities in the context of relatively static or diminishing resources. While there are numerous potential benefits of assistive technology and telecare, both for service providers and service users, there are also a number of ethical issues. The aim of this (...)
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  4.  11
    The Biobank Consent Debate: Why ‘Meta-Consent’ is Still the Solution!Thomas Ploug & Soren Holm - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):295-297.
    In a recent article in the Journal of Medical Ethics, Neil Manson sets out to show that the meta-consent model of informed consent is not the solution to perennial debate on the ethics of biobank participation. In this response, we shall argue that Manson’s considerations on the costs of a meta-consent model are incomplete and therefore misleading; his view that a model of broad consent passes a threshold of moral acceptability rests on an analogy that misconstrues how biobank research is (...)
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  5. Ethical Problems in Clinical Practice: The Ethical Reasoning of Health Care Professionals.Søren Holm - 1997 - Distributed Exclusively in the Usa by St. Martin's Press.
     
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  6.  52
    Not Just Autonomy--The Principles of American Biomedical Ethics.S. Holm - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (6):332-338.
    The Principles of Biomedical Ethics by Tom L Beauchamp and James F Childress which is now in its fourth edition has had a great influence on the development of bioethics through its exposition of a theory based on the four principles: respect for autonomy; non-maleficence; beneficence, and justice (1). The theory is developed as a common-morality theory, and the present paper attempts to show how this approach, starting from American common-morality, leads to an underdevelopment of beneficence and justice, and that (...)
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  7.  18
    The Right to Refuse Diagnostics and Treatment Planning by Artificial Intelligence.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):107-114.
    In an analysis of artificially intelligent systems for medical diagnostics and treatment planning we argue that patients should be able to exercise a right to withdraw from AI diagnostics and treatment planning for reasons related to the physician’s role in the patients’ formation of and acting on personal preferences and values, the bias and opacity problem of AI systems, and rational concerns about the future societal effects of introducing AI systems in the health care sector.
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  8. Scientific Dishonesty—a Nationwide Survey of Doctoral Students in Norway.Bjørn Hofmann, Anne Ingeborg Myhr & Søren Holm - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):3-.
    Background: The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities.MethodAnonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results: 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%). 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed (...)
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  9.  28
    “Nudging” and Informed Consent Revisited: Why “Nudging” Fails in the Clinical Context.Søren Holm & Thomas Ploug - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):29 - 31.
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  10.  66
    Extending Human Lifespan and the Precautionary Paradox.John Harris & Søren Holm - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (3):355 – 368.
    This paper argues that a precautionary approach to scientific progress of the sort advocated by Walter Glannon with respect to life-extending therapies involves both incoherence and irresolvable paradox. This paper demonstrates the incoherence of the precautionary approach in many circumstances and argues that with respect to life-extending therapies we have at present no persuasive reasons for a moratorium on such research.
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  11.  82
    Autonomy, Authenticity, or Best Interest: Everyday Decision-Making and Persons with Dementia. [REVIEW]Søren Holm - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (2):153-159.
    The question of when we have justification for overriding ordinary, everyday decisions of persons with dementia is considered. It is argued that no single criterion for competent decision-making is able to distinguish reliably between decisions we can legitimately override and decisions we cannot legitimately override.
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  12.  53
    Transsexuals in Sport–Fairness and Freedom, Regulation and Law.John Coggon, Natasha Hammond & S.⊘ren Holm - 2008 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (1):4-17.
    The question of if, and under what conditions transsexuals should be allowed to participate in sports in their acquired sex is becoming increasingly relevant partly because the number of transsexuals is increasing partly because many countries now provide mechanisms for achieving legal recognition as belonging to the new acquired sex. This paper develops (1) an analysis of the justification for maintaining sex segregation in some sports and (2) an account of the rights of transsexuals to be recognised in their new (...)
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  13.  19
    Conflict of Interest Disclosure and the Polarisation of Scientific Communities.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):356-358.
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  14.  49
    Informed Consent and Routinisation.Thomas Ploug & Soren Holm - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):214-218.
    This article introduces the notion of ‘routinisation’ into discussions of informed consent. It is argued that the routinisation of informed consent poses a threat to the protection of the personal autonomy of a patient through the negotiation of informed consent. On the basis of a large survey, we provide evidence of the routinisation of informed consent in various types of interaction on the internet; among these, the routinisation of consent to the exchange of health related information. We also provide evidence (...)
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  15.  39
    Accountability for Reasonableness: Opening the Black Box of Process.Andreas Hasman & Søren Holm - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (4):261-273.
    Norman Daniels' and James Sabin's theory of “accountability for reasonableness” is a much discussed account of due process for decision-making on health care priority setting. Central to the theory is the acceptance that people may justifiably disagree on what reasons it is relevant to consider when priorities are made, but that there is a core set of reasons, that all centre on fairness, on which there will be no disagreement. A4R is designed as an institutional decision process which will ensure (...)
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  16.  9
    Going Beyond the False Dichotomy of Broad or Specific Consent: A Meta-Perspective on Participant Choice in Research Using Human Tissue.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (9):44-46.
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  17.  61
    A Right Against Risk-Imposition and the Problem of Paralysis.Sune Holm - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (4):917-930.
    In this paper I examine the prospects for a rights-based approach to the morality of pure risk-imposition. In particular, I discuss a practical challenge to proponents of the thesis that we have a right against being imposed a risk of harm. According to an influential criticism, a right against risk-imposition will rule out all ordinary activities. The paper examines two strategies that rights theorists may follow in response to this “Paralysis Problem”. The first strategy introduces a threshold for when a (...)
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  18.  53
    Informed Consent and Registry-Based Research - the Case of the Danish Circumcision Registry.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):53.
    Research into personal health data holds great potential not only for improved treatment but also for economic growth. In these years many countries are developing policies aimed at facilitating such research often under the banner of ‘big data’. A central point of debate is whether the secondary use of health data requires informed consent if the data is anonymised. In 2013 the Danish Minister of Health established a new register collecting data about all ritual male childhood circumcisions in Denmark. The (...)
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  19.  19
    Controlled Human Infection with SARS-CoV-2 to Study COVID-19 Vaccines and Treatments: Bioethics in Utopia.Søren Holm - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):569-573.
    A number of papers have appeared recently arguing for the conclusion that it is ethically acceptable to infect healthy volunteers with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as part of research projects aimed at developing COVID-19 vaccines or treatments. This position has also been endorsed in a statement by a working group for the WHO. The papers generally argue that controlled human infection is ethically acceptable if the risks to participants are low and therefore acceptable, the scientific quality of the (...)
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  20.  4
    Incentive Payments and Research Related Risks—No Reason to Change.Søren Holm - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):43-45.
    The paper by Lynch et al. argues that payments to research participants in biomedical research can be divided into three different categories, reimbursement, compensation, and incentive and...
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  21.  7
    The ‘Expiry Problem’ of Broad Consent for Biobank Research - And Why a Meta Consent Model Solves It.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):629-631.
    In this response to Neil Manson’s latest intervention in our debate about the best consent model for biobank research we show, contra Manson that the ‘expiry problem’ that affects broad consent models because of changes over time in methods, purposes, types of data used and governance structures is a real and significant problem. We further show that our preferred implementation of meta consent as a national consent platform solves this problem and is not subject to the cost and burden objections (...)
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  22.  22
    High Hopes and Automatic Escalators: A Critique of Some New Arguments in Bioethics.S. Holm & T. Takala - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (1):1-4.
    Two protechnology arguments, the “hopeful principle” and the “automatic escalator”, often used in bioethics, are identified and critically analysed in this paper. It is shown that the hopeful principle is closely related to the problematic precautionary principle, and the automatic escalator argument has close affinities to the often criticised empirical slippery slope argument. The hopeful principle is shown to be really hopeless as an argument, and automatic escalator arguments often lead nowhere when critically analysed. These arguments should therefore only be (...)
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  23.  46
    Ethical Endgames: Broad Consent for Narrow Interests; Open Consent for Closed Minds.Jan Reinert Karlsen, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (4):572-583.
    The ongoing legal and bioethics debates on consent requirements for collecting, storing, and utilizing human biological material for purposes of basic and applied research—that is, genomic research biobanking—have already managed to pass through three ostensibly dissimilar stages.
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  24.  4
    Roles, Professions and Ethics: A Tale of Doctors, Patients, Butchers, Bakers and Candlestick Makers.Søren Holm - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):782-783.
    In her paper ‘Why Not Common Morality?’, Rosamond Rhodes argues that medical ethics cannot and should not be derived from common morality and that medical ethics should instead be conceptualised as professional ethics and the content left to the medical profession to develop and decide.1 I have considerable sympathy with the first claim and have myself argued along somewhat similar lines.2 I am, however, very sceptical about elements of the second claim and will briefly explain why. The first part of (...)
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  25.  94
    Should We Presume Moral Turpitude in Our Children? – Small Children and Consent to Medical Research.John Harris & Søren Holm - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (2):121-129.
    When children are too young to make their ownautonomous decisions, decisions have to be madefor them. In certain contexts we allow parentsand others to make these decisions, and do notinterfere unless the decision clearly violatesthe best interest of the child. In othercontexts we put a priori limits on whatkind of decisions parents can make, and/or whatkinds of considerations they have to take intoaccount. Consent to medical research currentlyfalls into the second group mentioned here. Wewant to consider and ultimately reject one (...)
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  26.  54
    Should Persons Detained During Public Health Crises Receive Compensation?Søren Holm - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):197-205.
    One of the ways in which public health officials control outbreaks of epidemic disease is by attempting to control the situations in which the infectious agent can spread. This may include isolation of infected persons, quarantine of persons who may be infected and detention of persons who are present in or have entered premises where infected persons are being treated. Most who have analysed such measures think that the restrictions in liberty they entail and the detriments in welfare they impose (...)
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  27.  32
    The Luckless and the Doomed. Contractualism on Justified Risk-Imposition.Sune Holm - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):231-244.
    Several authors have argued that contractualism faces a dilemma when it comes to justifying risks generated by socially valuable activities. At the heart of the matter is the question of whether contractualists should adopt an ex post or an ex ante perspective when assessing whether an action or policy is justifiable to each person. In this paper I argue for the modest conclusion that ex post contractualism is a live option notwithstanding recent criticisms raised by proponents of the ex ante (...)
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  28.  70
    Going to the Roots of the Stem Cell Controversy.Soren Holm - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (6):493–507.
  29. The Future of Human Reproduction : Ethics, Choice, and Regulation.John Harris & Søren Holm (eds.) - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
     
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  30.  18
    The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Form.Thomas Eilertsen, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Silje E. H. Holm & Stian Solem - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  31.  62
    Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks: The Role of Analogies in Bioethical Analysis and Argumentation Concerning New Technologies. [REVIEW]Bjørn Hofmann, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):397-413.
    New medical technologies provide us with new possibilities in health care and health care research. Depending on their degree of novelty, they may as well present us with a whole range of unforeseen normative challenges. Partly, this is due to a lack of appropriate norms to perceive and handle new technologies. This article investigates our ways of establishing such norms. We argue that in this respect analogies have at least two normative functions: they inform both our understanding and our conduct. (...)
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  32.  41
    Disease, Dysfunction, and Synthetic Biology.Sune Holm - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (4):329-345.
    Theorists analyzing the concept of disease on the basis of the notion of dysfunction consider disease to be dysfunction requiring. More specifically, dysfunction-requiring theories of disease claim that for an individual to be diseased certain biological facts about it must be the case. Disease is not wholly a matter of evaluative attitudes. In this paper, I consider the dysfunction-requiring component of Wakefield’s hybrid account of disease in light of the artifactual organisms envisioned by current research in synthetic biology. In particular, (...)
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  33.  37
    Biological Interests, Normative Functions, and Synthetic Biology.Sune Holm - 2012 - Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):525-541.
    In this paper, I discuss the aetiological account of biological interests, developed by Varner, in the context of artefactual organisms envisioned by current research in synthetic biology. In “Sections 2–5”, I present Varner's theory and criticise it for being incapable of ascribing non-derivative interests to artefactual organisms due to their lack of a history of natural selection. In “Sections 6–7”, I develop a new alternative to Varner's account, building on the organisational theory of biological teleology and function. I argue that (...)
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  34.  38
    Analogical Reasoning in Handling Emerging Technologies: The Case of Umbilical Cord Blood Biobanking.Bjørn Hofmann, Jan Helge Solbakk & Søren Holm - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (6):49 – 57.
    How are we individually and as a society to handle new and emerging technologies? This challenging question underlies much of the bioethical debates of modern times. To address this question we need suitable conceptions of the new technology and ways of identifying its proper management and regulation. To establish conceptions and to find ways to handle emerging technologies we tend to use analogies extensively. The aim of this article is to investigate the role that analogies play or may play in (...)
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  35.  6
    Back to WHAT? The Role of Research Ethics in Pandemic Times.Jan Helge Solbakk, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Søren Holm, Anne Kari Tolo Heggestad, Bjørn Hofmann, Annette Robertsen, Anne Hambro Alnæs, Shereen Cox, Reidar Pedersen & Rose Bernabe - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (1):3-20.
    The Covid-19 pandemic creates an unprecedented threatening situation worldwide with an urgent need for critical reflection and new knowledge production, but also a need for imminent action despite prevailing knowledge gaps and multilevel uncertainty. With regard to the role of research ethics in these pandemic times some argue in favor of exceptionalism, others, including the authors of this paper, emphasize the urgent need to remain committed to core ethical principles and fundamental human rights obligations all reflected in research regulations and (...)
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  36.  14
    Eliciting Meta Consent for Future Secondary Research Use of Health Data Using a Smartphone Application - a Proof of Concept Study in the Danish Population.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):51.
    The increased use of information technology in every day health care creates vast amounts of stored health data that can be used for research. The secondary research use of routinely collected data raises questions about appropriate consent mechanisms for such use. One option is meta consent where individuals state their own consent preferences in relation to future use of their data, e.g. whether they want the data to be accessible to researchers under conditions of specific consent, broad consent, blanket consent (...)
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  37.  18
    The Problem of Phantom Functions.Sune Holm - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):233-241.
    This paper discusses a recent solution to the problem of artifact phantom functions by Beth Preston. A phantom function is a function associated with a kind of artifact that it is structurally incapable of performing. Preston proposes a criterion of artifact proper function according to which phantom functions can be proper functions. This paper argues that Preston’s criterion cannot ground the teleological and normative aspects definitive of proper functions and that the proposed criterion is not consistent with Preston’s account of (...)
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  38.  60
    What is Wrong with Compliance?S. Holm - 1993 - Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (2):108-110.
    Non-compliance is a label often used about patients who do not follow therapeutic advice. This paper analyses the notion of compliance, and tries to show that this notion is inextricably bound to a paternalistic conception of the doctor-patient relationship. It is proposed that we should perhaps not talk so much about the non-compliant patient, but instead shift the focus towards the non-compliant doctor.
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  39.  14
    The Job of ‘Ethics Committees’ Should Be Ethically Informed Code Consistency Review.Søren Holm - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):488-488.
    Moore and Donnelly argue in the paper ‘The job of “ethics committees”’ that research ethics committees should be renamed and that their job should be specified as “review of proposals for consistency with the duly established and applicable code” only.1 They raise a large number of issues, but in this comment I briefly want to suggest that two of their arguments are fundamentally flawed. The first flawed argument is the argument related to the separation of powers. Moore and Donnelly proceed (...)
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  40.  30
    Global Bioethics – Myth or Reality?Søren Holm & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-10.
    Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, (...)
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  41.  30
    Let Us Assume That Gene Editing is Safe—The Role of Safety Arguments in the Gene Editing Debate.Søren Holm - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):100-111.
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  42.  64
    Brain-Machine Interfaces and Personal Responsibility for Action – Maybe Not As Complicated After All.Søren Holm & Teck Chuan Voo - 2010 - Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 4 (3).
    This comment responds to Kevin Warwick’s article on predictability and responsibility with respect to brain-machine interfaces in action. It compares conventional responsibility for device use with the potential consequences of phenomenological human-machine integration which obscures the causal chain of an act. It explores two senses of “responsibility”: 1) when it is attributed to a person, suggesting the morally important way in which the person is a causal agent, and 2) when a person is accountable and, on the basis of fairness (...)
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  43.  28
    Big Data and Health Research—The Governance Challenges in a Mixed Data Economy.Søren Holm & Thomas Ploug - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (4):515-525.
    Denmark is a society that has already moved towards Big Data and a Learning Health Care System. Data from routine healthcare has been registered centrally for years, there is a nationwide tissue bank, and there are numerous other available registries about education, employment, housing, pollution, etcetera. This has allowed Danish researchers to study the link between exposures, genetics and diseases in a large population. This use of public registries for scientific research has been relatively uncontroversial and has been supported by (...)
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  44.  33
    Teleology and Biocentrism.Sune Holm - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4).
    In this paper I examine the connection between accounts of biological teleology and the biocentrist claim that all living beings have a good of their own. I first present the background for biocentrists’ appeal to biological teleology. Then I raise a problem of scope for teleology-based biocentrism and, drawing in part on recent work by Basl and Sandler, I discuss Taylor and Varner’s responses to this problem. I then challenge Basl and Sandler’s own response to the scope problem for its (...)
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  45. Parental Responsibility and Obesity in Children.Søren Holm - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (1):21-29.
    Cardiff Law School, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK. Tel: +44(0)2920875447, Fax: +44(0)2920874097; Email: Holms{at}cardiff.ac.uk ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract The paper presents a brief overview of current knowledge about (i) the link between parental behaviour and lifestyle and childhood obesity, (ii) the many other factors influencing overweight and obesity rates in children and (iii) the effectiveness of interventions in children who are already overweight and obese. On the basis of this, it is analysed (...)
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  46. A Life in the Shadow: One Reason Why We Should Not Clone Humans.Søren Holm - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (2):160-162.
    One of the arguments that is often put forward in the discussion of human cloning is that it is in itself wrong to create a copy of a human being.
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  47.  64
    Pharmaceutical Information Systems and Possible Implementations of Informed Consent - Developing an Heuristic.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):30-.
    Background Denmark has implemented a comprehensive, nationwide pharmaceutical information system, and this system has been evaluated by the Danish Council of Ethics. The system can be seen as an exemplar of a comprehensive health information system for clinical use. Analysis The paper analyses 1) how informed consent can be implemented in the system and how different implementations create different impacts on autonomy and control of information, and 2) arguments directed towards justifying not seeking informed consent in this context. Results and (...)
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  48.  24
    Authenticity, Best Interest, and Clinical Nudging.Søren Holm - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (2):38-40.
    In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Moti Gorin, Steven Joffe, Neal Dickert, and Scott Halpern offer a comprehensive defense of the use of nudging techniques in the clinical context, with the aim of promoting the best interests of patients. Their argument is built on three important claims: Nudging is ubiquitous and inescapable in clinical choice situations, and there is no neutral way of informing patients about their treatment choices; many patients do not have authentic preferences concerning their treatment (...)
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  49.  19
    Is Synthetic Biology Mechanical Biology?Sune Holm - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (4):413-429.
    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms (...)
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  50.  49
    Euthanasia: Agreeing to Disagree? [REVIEW]Søren Holm - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (4):399-402.
    In discussions about the legalisation of active, voluntary euthanasia it is sometimes claimed that what should happen in a liberal society is that the two sides in the debate “agree to disagree”. This paper explores what is entailed by agreeing to disagree and shows that this is considerably more complicated than what is usually believed to be the case. Agreeing to disagree is philosophically problematic and will often lead to an unstable compromise.
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