Here is an informal treatment of many-valued logic, especially propositional logic, using Polish notation. The relations of n-valued logics with 2-valued logics are considered, and numerous systems are drawn on for illustrations. The book is written with an eye to scientific applications of many-valued logics, and considers empirical application of formal calculi. A short section on the relation of formal and "dialectical" logics appears. The work is introductory in nature.—P. S.
Smoking behavior and personality type are two things that have strong connection to stress intensity. In this research toward 98 students of Tarumanagara University was found that there is no correlation between stress intensity and smoking behavior intensity r s (98) = 0,108, p > 0.05. The correlation between personality type and stress intensity is significant enough r s (98) = 0,215p < 0.05. The final objective of this research is to know whether stress intensity has a correlation with smoking (...) behavior intensity, while personality type is being controlled (by separating Type A and Type B). The result indicated that there is no correlation between stress and smoking behavior neither for Type A personality r s (24) = 0,210, p > 0.05 nor for Type B personality r s (27) = -0,238, p . 0.05. (shrink)
Elrod has produced a serious and comprehensive examination of Kierkegaard’s ontology in which he takes the study of the self as the unifying ground for philosophic and theological thought. Unification is Elrod’s consistent theme. Although the title of his work acknowledges Kierkegaard’s pseudonymous corpus as an independent body within the authorship, any such assertion of autonomy—which would effectively subdivide the religious and the secular—is finally denied. Elrod, in fact, mediates all distinctions between the aesthetic and religious modalities of Kierkegaard’s thought (...) by finding within the aesthetic corpus a development of selfhood utterly consistent with Christianity’s quest for self-fulfillment. (shrink)
The publication of the seventeen papers of a 1962 symposium sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, together with records of some of the discussions. Experts in fields as diverse as cybernetics and the history of Greek science converse. Although the papers treat technical topics, the treatments are not technical. Questions such as the possibility of one culture understanding another have practical overtones, being a prelude to finding means for dealing with international problems. Professor Northrop's two chapters are adhesive, (...) and relate contributions concerned with more general issues, like communication theory, and those concerned with specific topics such as the virtually tenseless Burmese language and contract law.—P. S. (shrink)
What does the law demand when it requires citizens to conform to standards of reasonableness? I propose and defend the view that the law should demand that citizens conform their behavior to some actual conduct in society. I contrast this idea against what might be called the ``empty vessel'' view of reasonableness, where the standard is understood to function like an empty vessel in the law, allowing courts to use various norms and moral judgments to determine what seems reasonable in (...) the circumstances. The empty vessel account is the more common approach for understanding reasonableness, but it leaves obscure whether and how assessments about appropriate conduct connect with facts about citizens' actual conduct. I argue for a ``binocular'' view that focuses our attention on actual practices and thereby establishes how these standards provide a stable guide to conduct and support the rule of law. (shrink)
Because Kierkegaard so stubbornly personalizes all of his corpus, and because he so engrosses reviewers in the structural subtleties of his works, he has tended to resist serious placement within the larger contexts of philosophical tradition and our own social world. In this book, the author attempts to remedy these deficiencies. Consistently, he evades preoccupation with Kierkegaard’s pervasive personality to grapple intellectually with the problems that he raised. Taylor studies Kierkegaard’s notions of self and temporality, relating S. K. both to (...) thinkers as dear to him as Plato and Hegel, and as distant from him as Augustine and Freud. His book is intensive and rigorous: he breaks down, clarifies, and attempts to trace the furthest implications of Kierkegaard’s thought. Yet, in dismissing the problematic nature of Kierkegaard’s self-presentation to speak of his study of "the self," Taylor perhaps understates Kierkegaard’s significant point: that such study is, in itself, problematic. At times his logical reconstruction of Kierkegaard’s renderings tends to negate aspects of their compelling ambiguity. (shrink)