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S. Andrew Schroeder
Claremont McKenna College
  1. Rethinking Health: Healthy or Healthier Than?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):131-159.
    Theorists of health have, to this point, focused exclusively on trying to define a state—health—that an organism might be in. I argue that they have overlooked the possibility of a comparativist theory of health, which would begin by defining a relation—healthier than—that holds between two organisms or two possible states of the same organism. I show that a comparativist approach to health has a number of attractive features, and has important implications for philosophers of medicine, bioethicists, health economists, and policy (...)
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  2.  23
    Friedrich Waismann’s Philosophy of Mathematics.Severin Schroeder & Harry Tomany - 2019 - In Dejan Makovec & Stewart Shapiro (eds.), Friedrich Waismann: The Open Texture of Analytic Philosophy. pp. 67-88.
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  3. Consequentializing and its Consequences.S. Schroeder - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1475-1497.
    Recently, a number of philosophers have argued that we can and should “consequentialize” non-consequentialist moral theories, putting them into a consequentialist framework. I argue that these philosophers, usually treated as a group, in fact offer three separate arguments, two of which are incompatible. I show that none represent significant threats to a committed non-consequentialist, and that the literature has suffered due to a failure to distinguish these arguments. I conclude by showing that the failure of the consequentializers’ arguments has implications (...)
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  4.  75
    Value Choices in Summary Measures of Population Health.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (2):176-187.
    Summary measures of health, such as the quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life year, have long been known to incorporate a number of value choices. In this paper, though, I show that the value choices in the construction of such measures extend far beyond what is generally recognized. In showing this, I hope both to improve the understanding of those measures by epidemiologists, health economists and policy-makers, and also to contribute to the general debate about the extent to which such (...)
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  5. Which Values Should Be Built Into Economic Measures?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2019 - Economics and Philosophy 35 (3):521-536.
    Many economic measures are structured to reflect ethical values. I describe three attitudes towards this: maximalism, according to which we should aim to build all relevant values into measures; minimalism, according to which we should aim to keep values out of measures; and an intermediate view. I argue the intermediate view is likely correct, but existing versions are inadequate. In particular, economists have strong reason to structure measures to reflect fixed, as opposed to user-assessable, values. This implies that, despite disagreement (...)
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  6. Democratic Values: A Better Foundation for Public Trust in Science.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz023.
    There is a growing consensus among philosophers of science that core parts of the scientific process involve non-epistemic values. This undermines the traditional foundation for public trust in science. In this article I consider two proposals for justifying public trust in value-laden science. According to the first, scientists can promote trust by being transparent about their value choices. On the second, trust requires that the values of a scientist align with the values of an individual member of the public. I (...)
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  7. Public Trust in Science: Exploring the Idiosyncrasy-Free Ideal.Marion Boulicault & S. Andrew Schroeder - manuscript
    What makes science trustworthy to the public? This chapter examines one proposed answer: the trustworthiness of science is based at least in part on its independence from the idiosyncratic values, interests, and ideas of individual scientists. That is, science is trustworthy to the extent that following the scientific process would result in the same conclusions, regardless of the particular scientists involved. We analyze this "idiosyncrasy-free ideal" for science by looking at philosophical debates about inductive risk, focusing on two recent proposals (...)
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  8. Imperfect Duties, Group Obligations, and Beneficence.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (5):557-584.
    There is virtually no philosophical consensus on what, exactly, imperfect duties are. In this paper, I lay out three criteria which I argue any adequate account of imperfect duties should satisfy. Using beneficence as a leading example, I suggest that existing accounts of imperfect duties will have trouble meeting those criteria. I then propose a new approach: thinking of imperfect duties as duties held by groups, rather than individuals. I show, again using the example of beneficence, that this proposal can (...)
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  9. Wittgenstein: The Way Out of the Fly Bottle.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    This book offers a lucid and highly readable account of Wittgenstein's philosophy, framed against the background of his extraordinary life and character. Woven together with a biographical narrative, the chapters explain the key ideas of Wittgenstein's work, from his first book, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to his mature masterpiece, the Philosophical Investigations. Severin Schroeder shows that at the core of Wittgenstein's later work lies a startlingly original and subversive conception of the nature of philosophy. In accordance with this conception, Wittgenstein offers (...)
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  10.  12
    Explication, Description and Enlightenment.Severin Schroeder & John Preston - 2019 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 22 (1):106-120.
    In the first chapter of his book Logical Foundations of Probability, Rudolf Carnap introduced and endorsed a philosophical methodology which he called the method of ‘explication’. P.F. Strawson took issue with this methodology, but it is currently undergoing a revival. In a series of articles, Patrick Maher has recently argued that explication is an appropriate method for ‘formal epistemology’, has defended it against Strawson’s objection, and has himself put it to work in the philosophy of science in further clarification of (...)
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  11. Health, Disability, and Well-Being.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
    Much academic work (in philosophy, economics, law, etc.), as well as common sense, assumes that ill health reduces well-being. It is bad for a person to become sick, injured, disabled, etc. Empirical research, however, shows that people living with health problems report surprisingly high levels of well-being - in some cases as high as the self-reported well-being of healthy people. In this chapter, I explore the relationship between health and well-being. I argue that although we have good reason to believe (...)
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  12.  42
    Wittgenstein on Aesthetics and Philosophy.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - Revista de Historiografía.
    Wittgenstein offers three objections to the idea of aesthetics as a branch of psychology: Statistical data about people’s preferences have no normative force. Artistic value is not instrumental value, a capacity to produce independently identifiable – and scientifically measurable – psychological effects. While psychological investigations may bring to light the causes of aesthetic preferences, they fail to provide reasons for them. According to Wittgenstein, aesthetic explanations are poignant synoptic representations of aspects of a work, and the criterion of success of (...)
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  13.  30
    Is Consistency Overrated?S. Andrew Schroeder - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):199-200.
    In their insightful article, ‘The Disvalue of Death in the Global Burden of Disease’, Solberg et al argue that there is a potential incoherence in the way disability-adjusted life years are calculated. Morbidity is measured in years lived with disability in a way quite unlike the way mortality is measured in years of life lost. This potentially renders them incommensurable, like apples and oranges, and makes their aggregate—DALYs—conceptually unsound. The authors say that it is ‘vital’ to address this problem, that (...)
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  14. You Don't Have to Do What's Best! (A Problem for Consequentialists and Other Teleologists).S. Andrew Schroeder - 2011 - In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Define teleology as the view that requirements hold in virtue of facts about value or goodness. Teleological views are quite popular, and in fact some philosophers (e.g. Dreier, Smith) argue that all (plausible) moral theories can be understood teleologically. I argue, however, that certain well-known cases show that the teleologist must at minimum assume that there are certain facts that an agent ought to know, and that this means that requirements can't, in general, hold in virtue of facts about value (...)
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  15. Hempel's Paradox, Law-Likeness and Causal Relations.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    It is widely thought that Bayesian confirmation theory has provided a solution to Hempel's Paradox (the Ravens Paradox). I discuss one well-known example of this approach, by John Mackie, and argue that it is unconvincing. I then suggest an alternative solution, which shows that the Bayesian approach is altogether mistaken. Nicod's Condition should be rejected because a generalisation is not confirmed by any of its instances if it is not law-like. And even law-like non-basic empirical generalisations, which are expressions of (...)
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  16.  3
    Wittgenstein.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  17.  82
    The Tightrope Walker.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  18.  29
    A Tale of Two Problems.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  19.  78
    The Concept of Trying.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    It is widely held that whenever someone φs, that person tries to do φ. I examine arguments by B. O’Shaughnessy and J. Hornsby, and considerations by P. Grice in support of that thesis. I argue that none of them are convincing. The remainder of the paper defends an analysis of the concept of trying along the lines opposed by Grice et al. By speaking of someone’s trying to φ the speaker leaves the room for failure or the possibility of failure. (...)
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  20.  57
    Analytic Truths and Grammatical Propositions.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  21.  41
    Are Reasons Causes? A Wittgensteinian Response to Davidson.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  22.  56
    ‘Too Ridiculous for Words’: Wittgenstein on Scientific Aesthetics.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  23.  4
    ‘Solidarity, Sisters! We’Re All Crazy’: The Moral Madness of Opting Out of High-Stakes Testing.Stephanie Schroeder, Elizabeth Currin & Todd McCardle - forthcoming - Educational Studies:1-19.
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  24.  30
    Wittgenstein on Grammar and Grammatical Statements.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  25.  10
    Schopenhauer's Influence on Wittgenstein.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  26.  83
    Moore's Paradox and First Person Authority.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    This paper explores Wittgenstein's attempts to explain the peculiarities of the first-person use of 'believe' that manifest themselves in Moore's paradox, discussed in Philosophical Investigations, Part II, section x. An utterance of the form 'p and I do not believe that p' is a kind of contradiction, for the second conjunct is not, as it might appear, just a description of my mental state, but an expression of my belief that not-p, contradicting the preceding expression of my belief that p. (...)
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  27.  9
    The Emergence of Wittgenstein’s Views on Aesthetics in the 1933 Lectures.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - Estetica: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics.
    In this paper I offer a genetic account of how Wittgenstein developed his ideas on aesthetics in his 1933 lectures. He argued that the word ‘beautiful’ is neither the name of a particular perceptible quality, nor the name of whatever produces a certain psychological effect, and unlike ‘good’, it does not stand for a family-resemblance concept either. Rather, the word ‘beautiful’ has different meanings in different contexts as we apply it according to different criteria. However, in more advanced regions of (...)
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  28.  11
    Mathematical Propositions as Rules of Grammar.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  29.  14
    The Concept of Trying.Severin Schroeder - 2001 - Philosophical Investigations 24 (3):213-227.
    It is widely held that whenever someone φs, that person tries to do φ. I examine arguments by B. O’Shaughnessy and J. Hornsby, and considerations by P. Grice in support of that thesis. I argue that none of them are convincing. The remainder of the paper defends an analysis of the concept of trying along the lines opposed by Grice et al. By speaking of someone’s trying to φ the speaker leaves the room for failure or the possibility of failure. (...)
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  30.  11
    Private Language and Private Experience.Severin Schroeder - 2001 - In Hans-Johann Glock (ed.), Wittgenstein: A Critical Reader. Blackwell.
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  31.  51
    What is Inductive Risk?: Kevin C. Elliott and Ted Richards : Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, 312pp, $39.95 PB. [REVIEW]S. Schroeder - 2019 - Metascience 28 (1):29-32.
  32. Incidence, Prevalence, and Hybrid Approaches to Calculating DALYs.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2012 - Population Health Metrics 10 (19).
    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question (...)
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  33.  38
    Mathematics and Forms of Life.Severin Schroeder - 2015 - Nordic Wittgenstein Review 4:111-130.
    According to Wittgenstein, mathematics is embedded in, and partly constituting, a form of life. Hence, to imagine different, alternative forms of elementary mathematics, we should have to imagine different practices, different forms of life in which they could play a role. If we tried to imagine a radically different arithmetic we should think either of a strange world or of people acting and responding in very peculiar ways. If such was their practice, a calculus expressing the norms of representation they (...)
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  34.  46
    Art, Value, and Function.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    Is the concept of a work of art an evaluative concept: does its application imply a positive evaluation? I shall discuss this question by considering two opposing attempts at defining art, namely the Institutional Theory and the view that art is a functional concept. I shall argue that the concept of art does not imply an unconditionally positive evaluation, but that art is a prestige concept. Moreover, it will be shown that functional definitions of art are flawed.
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  35.  21
    Explication, Description and Enlightenment.Severin Schroeder & John Preston - forthcoming - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy.
    Rudolf Carnap introduced and endorsed a philosophical methodology which he called the method of ‘explication’. P.F. Strawson took issue with this methodology, but it is currently undergoing a revival. In a series of articles, Patrick Maher has recently argued that explication is an appropriate method for ‘formal epistemology’, has defended it against Strawson’s objection, and has himself put it to work in the philosophy of science in further clarification of the very concepts on which Carnap originally used it, as well (...)
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  36.  24
    Sentimentality as an Aesthetic Flaw.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - In C. Carmona & J. Levinson (eds.), Aesthetics, Literature, and Life: Essays in honor of Jean Pierre Cometti. Aesthetics. Italy: Mimesis International.
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  37.  44
    Can I Have Your Pain?Severin Schroeder - 2013 - Philosophical Investigations 36 (1):201-209.
    In the so-called private language argument, Wittgenstein argues both against the alleged epistemological privacy of sensations and against their alleged ontological privacy, that is, the common view that somebody else cannot have my pain. A prominent proponent of the claim of sensations' ontological privacy was Gottlob Frege, whose position has recently been defended by Wolfgang Künne. This paper reconsiders Wittgenstein's objections to ontological privacy and attempts to defend Wittgenstein's position against Künne's Frege-inspired arguments.
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  38.  39
    God, Lions, and Englishwomen.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - In Margit Gaffal & Jesús Padilla Gálvez (eds.), Understanding and Comprehension. De Gruyter. pp. 171-184.
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  39.  24
    Conjecture, Proof, and Sense in Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    One of the key tenets in Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics is that a mathematical proposition gets its meaning from its proof. This seems to have the paradoxical consequence that a mathematical conjecture has no meaning, or at least not the same meaning that it will have once a proof has been found. Hence, it would appear that a conjecture can never be proven true: for what is proven true must ipso facto be a different proposition from what was only conjectured. (...)
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  40.  35
    Schopenhauer and Hume on Will and Causation.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Schopenhauer. Oxford University Press.
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  41. Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind.Severin Schroeder (ed.) - 2001 - Palgrave.
    Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind aims to reassess the work of Wittgenstein in terms of its importance to contemporary debates surrounding the philosophy of mind.The first part of this study examines Wittgenstein in the context of current views on the human mind in relation to the body and behavior. The arguments confront the views of Quine and Dennett, as well as functionalism, eliminative materialism, and the current debate about consciousness. The essays that make up the second part focus on (...)
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  42.  48
    Music and Metaphor.Severin Schroeder - unknown
    Peter Kivy’s contour theory provides a promising explanation of the way we describe instrumental music as expressive of emotions. I argue that if, unlike Kivy, we emphasise the metaphorical character of such descriptions, the contour theory, as a strategy for unpacking such metaphors, can be defended convincingly against common objections. This approach is more satisfactory than those of Scruton and Peacocke, who make much of metaphorical experiences, but leave the underlying metaphors unexplained. Moreover, it gives the contour theory a wider (...)
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  43.  44
    Belief and 'Belief': Reply to Burley.Severin Schroeder - unknown
  44.  30
    On Some Standard Objections to Mathematical Conventionalism.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - Belgrade Philosophical Annual.
    According to Wittgenstein, mathematical propositions are rules of grammar, that is, conventions, or implications of conventions. So his position can be regarded as a form of conventionalism. However, mathematical conventionalism is widely thought to be untenable due to objections presented by Quine, Dummett and Crispin Wright. It has also been argued that only an implausibly radical form of conventionalism could withstand the critical implications of Wittgenstein’s rule-following considerations. In this article I discuss those objections to conventionalism and argue that none (...)
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  45.  52
    Intuition, Decision, Compulsion.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  46.  1
    The Emergence of Wittgenstein’s Views on Aesthetics in the 1933 Lectures.Severin Schroeder - 2020 - Estetika 57 (1):5-14.
    In this paper I offer a genetic account of how Wittgenstein developed his ideas on aesthetics in his 1933 lectures. He argued that the word ‘beautiful’ is neither the name of a particular perceptible quality, nor the name of whatever produces a certain psychological effect, and unlike ‘good’, it does not stand for a family-resemblance concept either. Rather, the word ‘beautiful’ has different meanings in different contexts as we apply it according to different criteria. However, in more advanced regions of (...)
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  47.  21
    Metaphor and Metamorphosis.Severin Schroeder - forthcoming - In Creativity. De Gruyter.
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  48.  31
    Dreams and Grammar: Reply to Hanfling.Severin Schroeder - unknown
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  49.  28
    Notes Toward a Philosophy of Nonviolence: A City In Which Violence Is Not Necessary.Steven Schroeder - 2003 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 10 (2):69-75.
    This paper takes Gandhi's satyagraha, which he defined as "holding on to truth" as a basis for a political philosophy of nonviolence that draws on voices familiar from twentieth century nonviolent struggles as well as sociobiology, literary criticism, and feminist approaches to sacrifice.
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  50.  10
    The Demand for Synoptic Representations and the Private Language Discussion.Severin Joachim Schroeder - 2004 - In Erich Ammereller & Eugen Fischer (eds.), Wittgenstein at Work: Method in the Philosophical Investigations. Routledge. pp. 147.
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