Results for 'S. Spelke Elizabeth'

998 found
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  1. Melting Lizards and Crying Mailboxes: Children's Preferential Recall of Minimally Counterintuitive Concepts.Konika Banerjee, Omar S. Haque & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1251-1289.
    Previous research with adults suggests that a catalog of minimally counterintuitive concepts, which underlies supernatural or religious concepts, may constitute a cognitive optimum and is therefore cognitively encoded and culturally transmitted more successfully than either entirely intuitive concepts or maximally counterintuitive concepts. This study examines whether children's concept recall similarly is sensitive to the degree of conceptual counterintuitiveness (operationalized as a concept's number of ontological domain violations) for items presented in the context of a fictional narrative. Seven- to nine-year-old children (...)
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  2. aCCENT TrumpS raCE iN GuiDiNG ChilDrEN'S SOCial prEfErENCES.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    A series of experiments investigated the effect of speakers’ language, accent, and race on children’s social preferences. When presented with photographs and voice recordings of novel children, 5-year-old children chose to be friends with native speakers of their native language rather than foreign-language or foreign-accented speakers. These preferences were not exclusively due to the intelligibility of the speech, as children found the accented speech to be comprehensible, and did not make social distinctions between foreign-accented and foreign-language speakers. Finally, children chose (...)
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  3. Young Children's Representations of Spatial and Functional Relations Between Objects.Rachel Keen & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Three experiments investigated changes from 15 to 30 months of age in children’s (N = 114) mastery of relations between an object and an aperture, supporting surface, or form. When choosing between objects to insert into an aperture, older children selected objects of an appropriate size and shape, but younger children showed little selectivity. Further experiments probed the sources of younger children’s difficulty by comparing children’s performance placing a target object in a hole, on a 2-dimensional form, or atop another (...)
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  4. Preschool Children's Mapping of Number Words to Nonsymbolic Numerosities.Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Five-year-old children categorized as skilled versus unskilled counters were given verbal estimation and number word comprehension tasks with numerosities 20 – 120. Skilled counters showed a linear relation between number words and nonsymbolic numerosities. Unskilled counters showed the same linear relation for smaller numbers to which they could count, but not for larger number words. Further tasks indicated that unskilled counters failed even to correctly order large number words differing by a 2 : 1 ratio, whereas they performed well on (...)
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  5. Navigation as a Source of Geometric Knowledge: Young Children’s Use of Length, Angle, Distance, and Direction in a Reorientation Task.Sang Ah Lee, Valeria A. Sovrano & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2012 - Cognition 123 (1):144-161.
  6.  11
    Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning: Object Terms and Substance Terms.Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1991 - Cognition 38 (2):179-211.
  7.  22
    Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks to Reorient in an Open Space.Stéphane Gouteux & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2001 - Cognition 81 (2):119-148.
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  8.  31
    Shared Cultural Knowledge: Effects of Music on Young Children’s Social Preferences.Gaye Soley & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2016 - Cognition 148:106-116.
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  9.  3
    Children’s Expectations and Understanding of Kinship as a Social Category.Annie C. Spokes & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  10.  13
    Ontological Categories Guide Young Children's Inductions of Word Meaning.Nancy N. Soja, Susan Carey & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1993 - In Alvin Goldman (ed.), Readings in Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press.
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  11.  23
    Children’s Understanding of the Relationship Between Addition and Subtraction.Camilla K. Gilmore & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):932-945.
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  12.  3
    "The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number": Correction to Condry and Spelke.Kirsten F. Condry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (2):243-243.
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  13.  64
    Synchronous Change and Perception of Object Unity: Evidence From Adults and Infants.Peter W. Jusczyk, Scott P. Johnson, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Lori J. Kennedy - 1999 - Cognition 71 (3):257-88.
    Adults and infants display a robust ability to perceive the unity of a center-occluded object when the visible ends of the object undergo common motion (e.g. Kellman, P.J., Spelke, E.S., 1983. Perception of partly occluded objects in infancy. Cognitive Psychology 15, 483±524). Ecologically oriented accounts of this ability focus on the primacy of motion in the perception of segregated objects, but Gestalt theory suggests a broader possibility: observers may perceive object unity by detecting patterns of synchronous change, of which (...)
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  14. Symbolic Arithmetic Knowledge Without Instruction.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
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  15. Object Permanence in Five-Month-Old Infants.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1985 - Cognition 20 (3):191-208.
    A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Fivemonth-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In the possible event, the screen stopped when it reached the occluded box; in the impossible event, the screen moved through the space (...)
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  16. Core Knowledge.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Human cognition is founded, in part, on four systems for representing objects, actions, number, and space. It may be based, as well, on a fifth system for representing social partners. Each system has deep roots in human phylogeny and ontogeny, and it guides and shapes the mental lives of adults. Converging research on human infants, non-human primates, children and adults in diverse cultures can aid both understanding of these systems and attempts to overcome their limits.
     
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  17. Young Children Reorient by Computing Layout Geometry, Not by Matching Images of the Environment.Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D (...)
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  18. A Modular Geometric Mechanism for Reorientation in Children.Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Although disoriented young children reorient themselves in relation to the shape of the surrounding surface layout, cognitive accounts of this ability vary. The present paper tests three theories of reorientation: a snapshot theory based on visual image-matching computations, an adaptive combination theory proposing that diverse environmental cues to orientation are weighted according to their experienced reliability, and a modular theory centering on encapsulated computations of the shape of the extended surface layout. Seven experiments test these theories by manipulating four properties (...)
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  19. Judgments of the Lucky Across Development and Culture.Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    For millennia, human beings have believed that it is morally wrong to judge others by the fortuitous or unfortunate events that befall them or by the actions of another person. Rather, an individual’s own intended, deliberate actions should be the basis of his or her evaluation, reward, and punishment. In a series of studies, the authors investigated whether such rules guide the judgments of children. The first 3 studies demonstrated that children view lucky others as more likely than unlucky others (...)
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  20. Perceiving Bimodally Specified Events in Infancy.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Four-month-old infants can perceive bimodally speciiied events. They respond to relationships between the optic and acoustic stimulation that carries information about an object. Infants can do this by detecting the temporal synchrony of an object’s sounds and its optically specified impacts. They are sensitive both to the common tempo and to the simultaneity of such sounds and visible impacts. These findings support the view that intermodal perception depends at least in part on the detection of invariant relationships in patterns of (...)
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  21. Infants' Rapid Learning About Self-Propelled Objects.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Six experiments investigated 7-month-old infants’ capacity to learn about the self-propelled motion of an object. After observing 1 wind-up toy animal move on its own and a second wind-up toy animal move passively by an experimenter’s hand, infants looked reliably longer at the former object during a subsequent stationary test, providing evidence that infants learned and remembered the mapping of objects and their motions. In further experiments, infants learned the mapping for different animals and retained it over a 15-min delay, (...)
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  22.  45
    Principles of Object Perception.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):29--56.
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  23.  24
    Children’s Understanding of the Relationship Between Addition and Subtraction.Elizabeth Spelke & Camilla Gilmore - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):932-945.
    In learning mathematics, children must master fundamental logical relationships, including the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction. At the start of elementary school, children lack generalized understanding of this relationship in the context of exact arithmetic problems: they fail to judge, for example, that 12 + 9 - 9 yields 12. Here, we investigate whether preschool children’s approximate number knowledge nevertheless supports understanding of this relationship. Five-year-old children were more accurate on approximate large-number arithmetic problems that involved an inverse transformation (...)
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  24. Evidence for Two Systems.Sang Ah Lee, Anna Shusterman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    ��Disoriented 4-year-old children use a distinctive container to locate a hidden object, but do they reorient by this information? We addressed this question by testing children’s search for objects in a circular room containing one distinctive and two identical containers. Children’s search patterns provided evidence that the distinctive container served as a direct cue to a hidden object’s location, but not as a directional signal guiding reorientation. The findings suggest that disoriented children’s search behavior depends on two distinct processes: a (...)
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  25. Paper.In-Kyeong Kim & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Experiments using a preferential looking method, a perceptual judgment method, and a predictive judgment method investigated the development, from 7 months to 6 years of age, of sensitivity to the effects of gravity and inertia on inanimate object motion. The experiments focused on a situation in which a ball rolled off a flat surface and either continued in linear motion (contrary to gravity), turned abruptly and moved downward (contrary to inertia), or underwent natural, parabolic motion. When children viewed the three (...)
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  26. Linda Hermer-Vazquez.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Under many circumstances, children and adult rats reorient themselves through a process which operates only on information about the shape of the environment (e.g., Cheng, 1986; Hermer & Spelke, 1996). In contrast, human adults relocate themselves more flexibly, by conjoining geometric and nongeometric information to specify their position (Hermer & Spelke, 1994). The present experiments used a dual-task method to investigate the processes that underlie the flexible conjunction of information. In Experiment 1, subjects reoriented themselves flexibly when they (...)
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  27.  74
    Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.Fei Xu & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 74 (1):1-11.
    Six-month-old infants discriminate between large sets of objects on the basis of numerosity when other extraneous variables are controlled, provided that the sets to be discriminated differ by a large ratio (8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). The capacities to represent approximate numerosity found in adult animals and humans evidently develop in human infants prior to language and symbolic counting.
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  28.  38
    Origins of Knowledge.Elizabeth S. Spelke, Karen Breinlinger, Janet Macomber & Kristen Jacobson - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (4):605-632.
    Experiments with young infants provide evidence for early-developing capacities to represent physical objects and to reason about object motion. Early physical reasoning accords with 2 constraints at the center of mature physical conceptions: continuity and solidity. It fails to accord with 2 constraints that may be peripheral to mature conceptions: gravity and inertia. These experiments suggest that cognition develops concurrently with perception and action and that development leads to the enrichment of conceptions around an unchanging core. The experiments challenge claims (...)
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  29. The Native Language of Social Cognition.Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    What leads humans to divide the social world into groups, preferring their own group and disfavoring others? Experiments with infants and young children suggest these tendencies are based on predispo- sitions that emerge early in life and depend, in part, on natural language. Young infants prefer to look at a person who previously spoke their native language. Older infants preferentially accept toys from native-language speakers, and preschool children preferentially select native-language speakers as friends. Variations in accent are sufficient to evoke (...)
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  30.  13
    Brief Non-Symbolic, Approximate Number Practice Enhances Subsequent Exact Symbolic Arithmetic in Children.Daniel C. Hyde, Saeeda Khanum & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2014 - Cognition 131 (1):92-107.
  31.  42
    Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings.Jennifer S. Lipton & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2006 - Cognition 98 (3):57-66.
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  32. What Makes Us Smart? Core Knowledge and Natural Language.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2003 - In Dedre Getner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought. MIT Press. pp. 277--311.
  33.  60
    Foundations of Cooperation in Young Children.Kristina R. Olson & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Cognition 108 (1):222-231.
  34.  34
    Non-Symbolic Arithmetic Abilities and Mathematics Achievement in the First Year of Formal Schooling.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2010 - Cognition 115 (3):394-406.
  35.  36
    Human Spatial Representation: Insights From Animals.Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (9):376-382.
  36.  5
    The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number.Kirsten F. Condry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (1):22-38.
  37.  27
    Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants.Prentice Starkey, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognition 36 (2):97-127.
  38.  12
    Spontaneous Mapping of Number and Space in Adults and Young Children.Maria-Dolores de Hevia & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):198-207.
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  39. Conceptual Precursors to Language.Elizabeth S. Spelke & Susan J. Hespos - unknown
    Because human languages vary in sound and meaning, children must learn which distinctions their language uses. For speech perception, this learning is selective: initially infants are sensitive to most acoustic distinctions used in any language1–3, and this sensitivity reflects basic properties of the auditory system rather than mechanisms specific to language4–7; however, infants’ sensitivity to non-native sound distinctions declines over the course of the first year8. Here we ask whether a similar process governs learning of word meanings. We investigated the (...)
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  40.  24
    Updating Egocentric Representations in Human Navigation.Ranxiao Frances Wang & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):215-250.
  41.  12
    Preverbal Infants Identify Emotional Reactions That Are Incongruent with Goal Outcomes.Amy E. Skerry & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2014 - Cognition 130 (2):204-216.
  42. Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science?Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    This article considers 3 claims that cognitive sex differ- ences account for the differential representation of men and women in high-level careers in mathematics and sci- ence: (a) males are more focused on objects from the beginning of life and therefore are predisposed to better learning about mechanical systems; (b) males have a pro- file of spatial and numerical abilities producing greater aptitude for mathematics; and (c) males are more variable in their cognitive abilities and therefore predominate at the upper (...)
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  43.  62
    Language and Number: A Bilingual Training Study.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2001 - Cognition 78 (1):45-88.
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  44.  5
    Human Infants’ Understanding of Social Imitation: Inferences of Affiliation From Third Party Observations.Lindsey J. Powell & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2018 - Cognition 170:31-48.
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  45. Perception of Partly Occluded Objects in Infancy* 1.Philip J. Kellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 1983 - Cognitive Psychology 15 (4):483–524.
    Four-month-old infants sometimes can perceive the unity of a partly hidden object. In each of a series of experiments, infants were habituated to one object whose top and bottom were visible but whose center was occluded by a nearer object. They were then tested with a fully visible continuous object and with two fully visible object pieces with a gap where the occluder had been. Pattems of dishabituation suggested that infants perceive the boundaries of a partly hidden object by analyzing (...)
     
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  46.  35
    Infants' Ability to Connect Gaze and Emotional Expression to Intentional Action.Ann T. Phillips, Henry M. Wellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - Cognition 85 (1):53-78.
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  47.  71
    Exact Equality and Successor Function: Two Key Concepts on the Path Towards Understanding Exact Numbers.Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):491 – 505.
    Humans possess two nonverbal systems capable of representing numbers, both limited in their representational power: the first one represents numbers in an approximate fashion, and the second one conveys information about small numbers only. Conception of exact large numbers has therefore been thought to arise from the manipulation of exact numerical symbols. Here, we focus on two fundamental properties of the exact numbers as prerequisites to the concept of EXACT NUMBERS : the fact that all numbers can be generated by (...)
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  48. All Numbers Are Not Equal: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Small and Large Number Representations.Daniel C. Hyde & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    & Behavioral and brain imaging research indicates that human infants, humans adults, and many nonhuman animals represent large nonsymbolic numbers approximately, discriminating between sets with a ratio limit on accuracy. Some behavioral evidence, especially with human infants, suggests that these representations differ from representations of small numbers of objects. To investigate neural signatures of this distinction, event-related potentials were recorded as adult humans passively viewed the sequential presentation of dot arrays in an adaptation paradigm. In two studies, subjects viewed successive (...)
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  49. Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science? A Critical Review.Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2005 - American Psychologist 60 (9):950-958.
  50. Conceptual Pecursors to Language.SusanJ Hespos & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2004 - Nature 430:453-456.
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