89 found
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  1. Bodies for Sale: Ethics and Exploitation in the Human Body Trade.Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Routledge.
    _Bodies for Sale: Ethics and Exploitation in the Human Body Trade _explores the philosophical and practical issues raised by activities such as surrogacy and organ trafficking. Stephen Wilkinson asks what is it that makes some commercial uses of the body controversial, whether the arguments against commercial exploitation stand up, and whether legislation outlawing such practices is really justified. In Part One Wilkinson explains and analyses some of the notoriously slippery concepts used in the body commodification debate, including exploitation, harm and (...)
  2. Bayesing Qualia: Consciousness as Inference, Not Raw Datum.A. Clark, K. Friston & S. Wilkinson - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (9-10):19-33.
    The meta-problem of consciousness (Chalmers, 2018) is the problem of explaining the behaviours and verbal reports that we associate with the so-called 'hard problem of consciousness'. These may include reports of puzzlement, of the attractiveness of dualism, of explanatory gaps, and the like. We present and defend a solution to the meta-problem. Our solution takes as its starting point the emerging picture of the brain as a hierarchical inference engine. We show why such a device, operating under familiar forms of (...)
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  3. Choosing Tomorrow's Children: The Ethics of Selective Reproduction.Stephen Wilkinson - 2010 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    To what extent should parents be allowed to use reproductive technologies to determine the characteristics of their future children? Is there something morally wrong with choosing what their sex will be, or with trying to 'screen out' as much disease and disability as possible before birth? Stephen Wilkinson offers answers to such questions.
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  4.  64
    Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.Anthony Wrigley, Stephen Wilkinson & John B. Appleby - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (9):631-638.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer and Maternal Spindle Transfer. It examines how questions of identity impact (...)
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  5.  64
    Getting Warmer: Predictive Processing and the Nature of Emotion.Sam Wilkinson, George Deane, Kathryn Nave & Andy Clark - 2019 - In Laura Candiotto (ed.), The Value of Emotions for Knowledge. Springer Verlag. pp. 101-119.
    Predictive processing accounts of neural function view the brain as a kind of prediction machine that forms models of its environment in order to anticipate the upcoming stream of sensory stimulation. These models are then continuously updated in light of incoming error signals. Predictive processing has offered a powerful new perspective on cognition, action, and perception. In this chapter we apply the insights from predictive processing to the study of emotions. The upshot is a picture of emotion as inseparable from (...)
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  6.  47
    Losing Ourselves: Active Inference, Depersonalization, and Meditation.George Deane, Mark Miller & Sam Wilkinson - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
  7.  26
    Before and beyond trust: reliance in medical AI.Charalampia Kerasidou, Angeliki Kerasidou, Monika Buscher & Stephen Wilkinson - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (11):852-856.
    Artificial intelligence is changing healthcare and the practice of medicine as data-driven science and machine-learning technologies, in particular, are contributing to a variety of medical and clinical tasks. Such advancements have also raised many questions, especially about public trust. As a response to these concerns there has been a concentrated effort from public bodies, policy-makers and technology companies leading the way in AI to address what is identified as a "public trust deficit". This paper argues that a focus on trust (...)
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  8.  47
    The Representation of Agents in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations.Sam Wilkinson & Vaughan Bell - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (1):104-126.
    Current models of auditory verbal hallucinations tend to focus on the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, but often fail to address the content of the auditory experience. In other words, they tend to ask why there are AVHs at all, instead of asking why, given that there are AVHs, they have the properties that they have. One such property, which has been largely overlooked and which we will focus on here, is why the voices are often experienced as coming from agents, (...)
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  9. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework.Sam Wilkinson - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 30:142-155.
    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH, can be accounted (...)
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  10.  74
    Should uterus transplants be publicly funded?Stephen Wilkinson & Nicola Jane Williams - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):559-565.
    Since 2000, 11 human uterine transplantation procedures (UTx) have been performed across Europe and Asia. Five of these have, to date, resulted in pregnancy and four live births have now been recorded. The most significant obstacles to the availability of UTx are presently scientific and technical, relating to the safety and efficacy of the procedure itself. However, if and when such obstacles are overcome, the most likely barriers to its availability will be social and financial in nature, relating in particular (...)
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  11. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (2):169–187.
    It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded, therefore, that those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on: (a) improving the (...)
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  12.  85
    Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.Stephen Wilkinson - 2015 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):125-145.
    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? In the light of the answer to, how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is (...)
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  13.  44
    The varieties of inner speech questionnaire – Revised : Replicating and refining links between inner speech and psychopathology.Ben Alderson-Day, Kaja Mitrenga, Sam Wilkinson, Simon McCarthy-Jones & Charles Fernyhough - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 65:48-58.
  14.  47
    Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health.Stephen Wilkinson - 2014 - Bioethics 29 (1):26-35.
    One widely held view of prenatal screening is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, (...)
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  15.  70
    Delusions, dreams, and the nature of identification.Sam Wilkinson - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):203-226.
    Delusional misidentification is commonly understood as the product of an inference on the basis of evidence present in the subject's experience. For example, in the Capgras delusion, the patient sees someone who looks like a loved one, but who feels unfamiliar, so they infer that they must not be the loved one. I question this by presenting a distinction between “recognition” and “identification.” Identification does not always require recognition for its epistemic justification, nor does it need recognition for its psychological (...)
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  16.  81
    Expressivism about delusion attribution.Sam Wilkinson - 2020 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 16 (2):59-77.
    In this paper, I will present and advocate a view about what we are doing when we attribute delusion, namely, say that someone is delusional. It is an “expressivist” view, roughly analogous to expressivism in meta-ethics. Just as meta-ethical expressivism accounts for certain key features of moral discourse, so does this expressivism account for certain key features of delusion attribution. And just as meta-ethical expressivism undermines factualism about moral properties, so does this expressivism, if correct, show that certain attempts to (...)
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  17.  46
    Is 'Normal Grief' a Mental Disorder?Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (200):290-304.
  18. Is 'normal grief' a mental disorder?S. Wilkinson - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (200):289-305.
  19.  81
    How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations.Matthew Ratcliffe & Sam Wilkinson - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 39:48-58.
  20.  25
    Distinguishing volumetric content from perceptual presence within a predictive processing framework.Sam Wilkinson - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):791-800.
    I argue for an overlooked distinction between perceptual presence and volumetric content, and flesh it out in terms of predictive processing. Within the predictive processing framework we can distinguish between agent-active and object-active expectations. The former expectations account for perceptual presence, while the latter account for volumetric content. I then support this position with reference to how experiences of presence are created by virtual reality technologies, and end by reflecting on what this means for the relationship between sensorimotor enactivism and (...)
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  21.  20
    Is ‘Normal Grief’ a Mental Disorder&quest.Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (200):290-304.
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  22.  40
    Predictive Processing and the Varieties of Psychological Trauma.Sam Wilkinson, Guy Dodgson & Kevin Meares - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  23. Derationalizing Delusions.Vaughan Bell, Nichola Raihani & Sam Wilkinson - 2021 - Clinical Psychological Science : A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science 9 (1):24-37.
     
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  24. Introspection, isolation, and construction: Mentality as activity. Commentary on Hurlburt, Heavey & Kelsey, “Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking”.Joel Krueger, Marco Bernini & Sam Wilkinson - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 25:9-10.
  25. Commodification Arguments for the Legal Prohibition of Organ Sale.Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Health Care Analysis 8 (2):189-201.
    The commercial trading of human organs, along withvarious related activities (for example, advertising)was criminalised throughout Great Britain under theHuman Organ Transplants Act 1989.This paper critically assesses one type of argumentfor this, and similar, legal prohibitions:commodification arguments.Firstly, the term `commodification' is analysed. Thiscan be used to refer to either social practices or toattitudes. Commodification arguments rely on thesecond sense and are based on the idea that having acommodifying attitude to certain classes of thing(e.g. bodies or persons) is wrong. The commodifyingattitude consists (...)
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  26.  54
    Inner speech is not so simple: a commentary on Cho & Wu.Peter Moseley & Sam Wilkinson - unknown
    We welcome Cho and Wu’s suggestion that the study of auditory verbal hallucinations could be improved by contrasting and testing more explanatory models. However, we have some worries both about their criticisms of inner speech-based self-monitoring models and whether their proposed spontaneous activation model is explanatory.
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  27. Theorizing representing the other.Celia Kitzinger & Sue Wilkinson - 1996 - In Sue Wilkinson & Celia Kitzinger (eds.), Representing the other: a Feminism & psychology reader. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. pp. 1--32.
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  28.  57
    Representing the other: a Feminism & psychology reader.Sue Wilkinson & Celia Kitzinger (eds.) - 1996 - Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
    Identifying a range of key concerns related to representation and difference, Representing the Other offers a provocative agenda for the future development of feminist theory and practice. The book's contributors, including many key international researchers in women's studies, draw on personal experiences of speaking "for" and "about" others in their research, professional practice, academic writing, or political activism. They highlight problems of representing the Other with an ethnic or cultural background different from one's own and extend discussions of "Othering" to (...)
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  29. Female Genital Mutilation and Cosmetic Surgery: Regulating Non‐Therapeutic Body Modification.Sally Sheldon & Stephen Wilkinson - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (4):263–285.
    In the UK, female genital mutilation is unlawful, not only when performed on minors, but also when performed on adult women. The aim of our paper is to examine several arguments which have been advanced in support of this ban and to assess whether they are sufficient to justify banning female genital mutilation for competent, consenting women. We proceed by comparing female genital mutilation, which is banned, with cosmetic surgery, towards which the law has taken a very permissive stance. We (...)
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  30.  43
    A Mental Files Approach to Delusional Misidentification.Sam Wilkinson - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (2):389-404.
    I suggest that we can think of delusional misidentification in terms of systematic errors in the management of mental files. I begin by sketching the orthodox “bottom-up” aetiology of delusional misidentification. I suggest that the orthodox aetiology can be given a descriptivist or a singularist interpretation. I present three cases that a descriptivist interpretation needs to account for. I then introduce a singularist approach, one that is based on mental files, and show how it opens the way for different and (...)
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  31.  96
    Bodily integrity and the sale of human organs.S. Wilkinson & E. Garrard - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (6):334-339.
    Existing arguments against paid organ donation are examined and found to be unconvincing. It is argued that the real reason why organ sale is generally thought to be wrong is that (a) bodily integrity is highly valued and (b) the removal of healthy organs constitutes a violation of this integrity. Both sale and (free) donation involve a violation of bodily integrity. In the case of the latter, though, the disvalue of the violation is typically outweighed by the presence of other (...)
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  32.  66
    Smokers' rights to health care: Why the 'restoration argument' is a moralising wolf in a liberal sheep's clothing.Stephen Wilkinson - 1999 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (3):255–269.
    Do people who cause themselves to be ill (e.g. by smoking) forfeit some of their rights to healthcare? This paper examines one argument for the view that they do, the restoration argument. It goes as follows. Smokers need more health‐resources than non‐smokers. Given limited budgets, we must choose between treating everyone equally (according to need) or reducing smokers' entitlements. If we choose the former, non‐smokers will be harmed by others' smoking, because there will be less resources available for them than (...)
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  33. The Agentive Role of Inner Speech in Self-Knowledge.Sam Wilkinson - 2020 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2):7-26.
    Although interpretivists are right to give inner speech a central role in generating self-knowledge, they mischaracterize the precise nature of this role. Inner speech is fundamentally an action, a form of speech, and provides us with self-knowledge not by being something that we perceive (or “quasi-perceive”) and interpret, but by being something that we knowingly do. Once this is appreciated, interpretivism is undermined.
     
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  34.  20
    The speaker behind the voice: therapeutic practice from the perspective of pragmatic theory.Felicity Deamer & Sam Wilkinson - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  35.  25
    Thought Insertion Clarified.M. Ratcliffe & S. Wilkinson - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (11-12):246-269.
    'Thought insertion' in schizophrenia involves somehow experiencing one's own thoughts as someone else's. Some philosophers try to make sense of this by distinguishing between ownership and agency: one still experiences oneself as the owner of an inserted thought but attributes it to another agency. In this paper, we propose that thought insertion involves experiencing thought contents as alien, rather than episodes of thinking. To make our case, we compare thought insertion to certain experiences of 'verbal hallucination' and show that they (...)
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  36. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.S. Wilkinson - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6):467-471.
    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is (...)
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  37.  33
    The Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement.John B. Appleby, Rosamund Scott & Stephen Wilkinson - 2016 - Bioethics 31 (1):2-6.
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  38.  22
    Metaphorical Thinking and Delusions in Psychosis.Felicity Deamer & Sam Wilkinson - 2021 - In Maxime Amblard, Michel Musiol & Manuel Rebuschi (eds.), (In)Coherence of Discourse: Formal and Conceptual Issues of Language. Dordrecht: Springer Verlag. pp. 119-130.
    This paper explores how metaphorical thinking might contribute to an aetiology of florid delusions in psychosis. We argue that this approach helps to account for the path from experience to the delusional assertion, which, though relatively straightforward for monothematic delusions like the Capgras delusion, has always been difficult to account for in florid delusions in psychosis. Our account also helps to account for double book-keeping and the relative agential inertia of the belief.
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  39.  98
    Selecting Disability and the Welfare of the Child.Stephen Wilkinson - 2006 - The Monist 89 (4):482-504.
  40. What Can Predictive Processing Tell Us about the Content of Perceptual Experience?Sam Wilkinson - 2021 - In Heather Logue & Louise Richardson (eds.), Purpose and Procedure in Philosophy of Perception. OUP. pp. 174-190.
  41.  27
    Levels and kinds of explanation: lessons from neuropsychiatry.Sam Wilkinson - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  42.  60
    Eugenics, embryo selection, and the Equal Value Principle.Stephen Wilkinson - 2006 - Clinical Ethics 1 (1):46-51.
    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and some prenatal screening programmes have been criticized for being 'eugenic'. This paper aims to analyse this criticism and to evaluate one of the main ethical arguments lying behind it. It starts with a discussion of the meaning of the term 'eugenics' and of some relevant distinctions: for example, that between objections to eugenic ends and objections to certain means of achieving them. Next, a particular argument against using preimplantation genetic diagnosis to 'screen out' disability is considered, (...)
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  43. Beyond believing badly.Sam Wilkinson - 2013 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 32 (3):105-119.
     
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  44.  52
    Voices and Thoughts in Psychosis: An Introduction.Sam Wilkinson & Ben Alderson-Day - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (3):529-540.
    In this introduction we present the orthodox account of auditory verbal hallucinations, a number of worries for this account, and some potential responses open to its proponents. With some problems still remaining, we then introduce the problems presented by the phenomenon of thought insertion, in particular the question of how different it is supposed to be from AVHs. We then mention two ways in which theorists have adopted different approaches to voices and thoughts in psychosis, and then present the motivation (...)
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  45.  50
    Do we need an alternative ‘relational approach’ to saviour siblings?Stephen Wilkinson - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (12):927-928.
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  46.  16
    Forward models and passive psychotic symptoms.Sam Wilkinson - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  47.  36
    Hearing Soundless Voices.Sam Wilkinson - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):27-34.
    The phenomenon of 'hearing voices,' often viewed as a symptom of schizophrenia, is commonly called, in the scientific and clinical literature, 'auditory-verbal hallucination.' However, reports of hearing soundless voices, voices that are not auditory, which go as far back as Tuttle and Kraepelin and appear in phenomenological interviews and questionnaires are relatively common. What are we to make of such reports?One option is to dismiss these claims: one cannot hear soundless voices. This dismissal could be due to a combination of (...)
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  48. Cutting to the Core: Exploring the Ethics of Contested Surgeries.Michael Benatar, Leslie Cannold, Dena Davis, Merle Spriggs, Julian Savulescu, Heather Draper, Neil Evans, Richard Hull, Stephen Wilkinson, David Wasserman, Donna Dickenson, Guy Widdershoven, Françoise Baylis, Stephen Coleman, Rosemarie Tong, Hilde Lindemann, David Neil & Alex John London - 2006 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    When the benefits of surgery do not outweigh the harms or where they do not clearly do so, surgical interventions become morally contested. Cutting to the Core examines a number of such surgeries, including infant male circumcision and cutting the genitals of female children, the separation of conjoined twins, surgical sex assignment of intersex children and the surgical re-assignment of transsexuals, limb and face transplantation, cosmetic surgery, and placebo surgery.
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  49.  27
    The ethics of uterus transplantation.Nicola Jane Williams, Rosamund Scott & Stephen Wilkinson - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (8):478-480.
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  50. The phenomenology of voice-hearing and two concepts of voice.Sam Wilkinson & Joel Krueger - 2022 - In Angela Woods, B. Alderson-Day & C. Fernyhough (eds.), Voices in Psychosis: Interdisciplinary Perspective. pp. 127-133.
    The experiences described in the VIP transcripts are incredibly varied and yet frequently explicitly labelled by participants as "voices." How can we make sense of this? If we reflect carefully on uses of the word "voice", we see that it can express at least two entirely different concepts, which pick out categorically different phenomena. One concept picks out a speech sound (e.g. "This synthesizer has a "voice" setting"). Another concept picks out a specific agent (e.g. "I hear two voices: one (...)
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