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Samuel Clarke [23]Sam Clarke [21]
  1. The number sense represents (rational) numbers.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-57.
    On a now orthodox view, humans and many other animals possess a “number sense,” or approximate number system, that represents number. Recently, this orthodox view has been subject to numerous critiques that question whether the ANS genuinely represents number. We distinguish three lines of critique – the arguments from congruency, confounds, and imprecision – and show that none succeed. We then provide positive reasons to think that the ANS genuinely represents numbers, and not just non-numerical confounds or exotic substitutes for (...)
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  2. Beyond the icon: Core cognition and the bounds of perception.Sam Clarke - 2022 - Mind and Language 37 (1):94-113.
    This paper refines a controversial proposal: that core systems belong to a perceptual kind, marked out by the format of its representational outputs. Following Susan Carey, this proposal has been understood in terms of core representations having an iconic format, like certain paradigmatically perceptual outputs. I argue that they don’t, but suggest that the proposal may be better formulated in terms of a broader analogue format type. Formulated in this way, the proposal accommodates the existence of genuine icons in perception, (...)
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  3. Cognitive penetration and informational encapsulation: Have we been failing the module?Sam Clarke - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (8):2599-2620.
    Jerry Fodor deemed informational encapsulation ‘the essence’ of a system’s modularity and argued that human perceptual processing comprises modular systems, thus construed. Nowadays, his conclusion is widely challenged. Often, this is because experimental work is seen to somehow demonstrate the cognitive penetrability of perceptual processing, where this is assumed to conflict with the informational encapsulation of perceptual systems. Here, I deny the conflict, proposing that cognitive penetration need not have any straightforward bearing on the conjecture that perceptual processing is composed (...)
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  4. Mapping the Visual Icon.Sam Clarke - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (3):552-577.
    It is often claimed that pre-attentive vision has an ‘iconic’ format. This is seen to explain pre-attentive vision's characteristically high processing capacity and to make sense of an overlap in the mechanisms of early vision and mental imagery. But what does the iconicity of pre-attentive vision amount to? This paper considers two prominent ways of characterising pre-attentive visual icons and argues that neither is adequate: one approach renders the claim ‘pre-attentive vision is iconic’ empirically false while the other obscures its (...)
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  5. Number adaptation: A critical look.Sami Yousif, Sam Clarke & Elizabeth Brannon - forthcoming - Cognition.
    It is often assumed that adaptation — a temporary change in sensitivity to a perceptual dimension following exposure to that dimension — is a litmus test for what is and is not a “primary visual attribute”. Thus, papers purporting to find evidence of number adaptation motivate a claim of great philosophical significance: That number is something that can be seen in much the way that canonical visual features, like color, contrast, size, and speed, can. Fifteen years after its reported discovery, (...)
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  6. Border Disputes: Recent Debates along the Perception–Cognition Border.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (8):e12936.
    The distinction between perception and cognition frames countless debates in philosophy and cognitive science. But what, if anything, does this distinction actually amount to? In this introductory article, we summarize recent work on this question. We first briefly consider the possibility that a perception-cognition border should be eliminated from our scientific ontology, and then introduce and critically examine five positive approaches to marking a perception–cognition border, framed in terms of phenomenology, revisability, modularity, format, and stimulus-dependence.
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  7. Naïve realism and phenomenal similarity.Sam Clarke & Alfonso Anaya - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66 (5):885-902.
    It has been claimed that naïve realism predicts phenomenological similarities where there are none and, thereby, mischaracterises the phenomenal character of perceptual experience. If true, this undercuts a key motivation for the view. Here, we defend naïve realism against this charge, proposing that such arguments fail (three times over). In so doing, we highlight a more general problem with critiques of naïve realism that target the purported phenomenological predictions of the view. The problem is: naïve realism, broadly construed, doesn’t make (...)
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  8. Is Pain Modular?Laurenz Casser & Sam Clarke - 2023 - Mind and Language 38 (3):828-46.
    We suggest that pain processing has a modular architecture. We begin by motivating the (widely assumed but seldom defended) conjecture that pain processing comprises inferential mechanisms. We then note that pain exhibits a characteristic form of judgement independence. On the assumption that pain processing is inferential, we argue that its judgement independence is indicative of modular (encapsulated) mechanisms. Indeed, we go further, suggesting that it renders the modularity of pain mechanisms a default hypothesis to be embraced pending convincing counterevidence. Finally, (...)
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  9. Compositionality and constituent structure in the analogue mind.Sam Clarke - 2023 - Philosophical Perspectives 37 (1):90-118.
    I argue that analogue mental representations possess a canonical decomposition into privileged constituents from which they compose. I motivate this suggestion, and rebut arguments to the contrary, through reflection on the approximate number system, whose representations are widely expected to have an analogue format. I then argue that arguments for the compositionality and constituent structure of these analogue representations generalize to other analogue mental representations posited in the human mind, such as those in early vision and visual imagery.
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  10. Joint action goals reduce visuomotor interference effects from a partner’s incongruent actions.Sam Clarke, Luke McEllin, Anna Francová, Marcell Székely, Stephen Andrew Butterfill & John Michael - 2019 - Scientific Reports 9 (1).
    Joint actions often require agents to track others’ actions while planning and executing physically incongruent actions of their own. Previous research has indicated that this can lead to visuomotor interference effects when it occurs outside of joint action. How is this avoided or overcome in joint actions? We hypothesized that when joint action partners represent their actions as interrelated components of a plan to bring about a joint action goal, each partner’s movements need not be represented in relation to distinct, (...)
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  11. Rational Number Representation by the Approximate Number System.Chuyan Qu, Sam Clarke & Elizabeth Brannon - manuscript
    The approximate number system (ANS) enables organisms to represent the approximate number of items in an observed collection, quickly and independently of natural language. Recently, it has been proposed that the ANS goes beyond representing natural numbers by extracting and representing rational numbers (Clarke & Beck, 2021a). Prior work demonstrates that adults and children discriminate ratios in an approximate and ratio-dependent manner, consistent with the hallmarks of the ANS. Here, we use a well-known “connectedness illusion” to provide evidence that these (...)
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  12. Naïve realism and unconscious perception: A reply to Berger and Nanay.Alfonso Anaya & Sam Clarke - 2017 - Analysis 77 (2):267-273.
    In a recent paper, Berger and Nanay consider, and reject, three ways of addressing the phenomenon of unconscious perception within a naïve realist framework. Since these three approaches seem to exhaust the options open to naïve realists, and since there is said to be excellent evidence that perception of the same fundamental kind can occur, both consciously and unconsciously, this is seen to present a problem for the view. We take this opportunity to show that all three approaches considered remain (...)
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  13.  32
    A demonstration of the being and attributes of God and other writings.Samuel Clarke (ed.) - 1998 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Samuel Clarke was by far the most gifted and influential Newtonian philosopher of his generation, and A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God, which constituted the 1704 Boyle Lectures, was one of the most important works of the first half of the eighteenth century, generating a great deal of controversy about the relation between space and God, the nature of divine necessary existence, the adequacy of the Cosmological Argument, agent causation, and the immateriality of the soul. Together with (...)
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  14. Numbers, numerosities, and new directions.Jacob Beck & Sam Clarke - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-20.
    In our target article, we argued that the number sense represents natural and rational numbers. Here, we respond to the 26 commentaries we received, highlighting new directions for empirical and theoretical research. We discuss two background assumptions, arguments against the number sense, whether the approximate number system represents numbers or numerosities, and why the ANS represents rational numbers.
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  15. The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Samuel Clarke - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late modern philosophy: essential readings with commentary. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  16.  84
    Size adaptation: Do you know it when you see it?Sami Yousif & Sam Clarke - manuscript
    The visual system adapts to a wide range of visual features, from lower-level features like color and motion to higher-level features like causality and, perhaps, number. According to some, adaptation is a strictly perceptual phenomenon, such that the presence of adaptation licenses the claim that a feature is truly perceptual in nature. Given the theoretical importance of claims about adaptation, then, it is important to understand exactly when the visual system does and does not exhibit adaptation. Here, we take as (...)
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  17. Investigating what felt shapes look like.Sam Clarke - 2016 - I-Perception 7 (1).
    A recent empirical study claims to show that the answer to Molyneux’s question is negative, but, as John Schwenkler points out, its findings are inconclusive: Subjects tested in this study probably lacked the visual acuity required for a fair assessment of the question. Schwenkler is undeterred. He argues that the study could be improved by lowering the visual demands placed on subjects, a suggestion later endorsed and developed by Kevin Connolly. I suggest that Connolly and Schwenkler both underestimate the difficulties (...)
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  18. A demonstration of the being and attributes of God.Samuel Clarke - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late modern philosophy: essential readings with commentary. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  19. Teaching & Learning Guide for: ‘Border Disputes: Recent Debates along the Perception–Cognition Border’.Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (10):e12949.
  20. Do humans visually adapt to number, or just itemhood?Sami Yousif, Sam Clarke & Elizabeth Brannon - 2023 - In M. Goldwater, F. K. Anggoro, B. K. Hayes & D. C. Ong (eds.), Proceedings of the 45th Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1-6.
    Visual number adaption is a widely accepted phenomenon. This paper advances an alternative explanation for putative cases of the phenomenon. We propose that such cases may simply reflect observers adapting to the items in perceived displays, rather than their numerical quantity. Three experiments motivate consideration of this novel proposal and call into question the evidential basis for received formulations of the number adaptation hypothesis.
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  21.  27
    The Correspondence of Samuel Clarke and Anthony Collins, 1707-08.Samuel Clarke & Anthony Collins (eds.) - 2011 - Peterborough, CA: Broadview Press.
    An important work in the debate between materialists and dualists, the public correspondence between Anthony Collins and Samuel Clarke provided the framework for arguments over consciousness and personal identity in eighteenth-century Britain. In Clarke's view, mind and consciousness are so unified that they cannot be compounded into wholes or divided into parts, so mind and consciousness must be distinct from matter. Collins, by contrast, was a perceptive advocate of a materialist account of mind, who defended the possibility that thinking and (...)
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  22.  56
    The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence: together with extracts from Newton's Principia and Opticks.Samuel Clarke - 1956 - New York: Barnes & Noble. Edited by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Isaac Newton & H. G. Alexander.
    This book presents extracts from Leibniz's letters to Newtonian scientist Samuel Clarke.
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  23. Discourse concerning the unchangeable obligations of natural religion.Samuel Clarke - 2007 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late modern philosophy: essential readings with commentary. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  24. Recueil de Diverses Pieces, Sur la Philosophie, la Religion Naturelle, l'Histoire, les Mathematiques, &C.Pierre Desmaizeaux, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Anthony Collins, Samuel Clarke & Isaac Newton - 1740 - Chez François Changuion.
  25. Recueil de Diverses Pieces, Sur la Philosophie, la Religion Naturelle, l'Histoire, les Mathematiques, &C.Pierre Desmaizeaux, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Isaac Newton, Samuel Clarke & Henri Du Sauzet - 1720 - Chez H. Du Sauzet.
  26.  58
    Leibniz and Clarke: Correspondence.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Samuel Clarke & Roger Ariew - 2000 - Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Edited by Samuel Clarke & Roger Ariew.
    For this new edition, Roger Ariew has adapted Samuel Clarke's edition of 1717, modernizing it to reflect contemporary English usage. Ariew's introduction places the correspondence in historical context and discusses the vibrant philosophical climate of the times. Appendices provide those selections from the works of Newton that Clarke frequently refers to in the correspondence. A bibliography is also included.
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  27.  73
    Born to Count.Jacob Beck & Sam Clarke - 2023 - Scientific American 328 (3):42-49.
    Imagine hosting a party. You arrange snacks, curate a playlist and place a variety of beers in the refrigerator. Your first guest shows up, adding a six-pack before taking one bottle for himself. You watch your next guest arrive and contribute a few more beers, minus one for herself. Ready for a drink, you open the fridge and are surprised to find only eight beers remaining. You haven't been consciously counting the beers, but you know there should be more, so (...)
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  28. Does the number sense represent number?Sam Clarke & Jacob Beck - 2020 - In Blair Armstrong, Stephanie Denison, Michael Mack & Yang Xu (eds.), Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.
    On a now orthodox view, humans and many other animals are endowed with a “number sense”, or approximate number system (ANS), that represents number. Recently, this orthodox view has been subject to numerous critiques, with critics maintaining either that numerical content is absent altogether, or else that some primitive analog of number (‘numerosity’) is represented as opposed to number itself. We distinguish three arguments for these claims – the arguments from congruency, confounds, and imprecision – and show that none succeed. (...)
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  29.  36
    Heart rate and skin conductance during experimentally induced anxiety: Effects of anticipated intensity of noxious stimulation and experience.Seymour Epstein & Samuel Clarke - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):105.
  30.  18
    Gardner, John, 196 Gilovich, Thomas, 269 Ginsborg, Hannah, 87 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 248.Yogi Berra, Samuel Clarke, Gerald A. Cohen & Daniel Dennett - 2004 - In Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler (eds.), Practical Conflicts: New Philosophical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  31. Korespondencja.Joseph Butler & Samuel Clarke - 2007 - Idea Studia nad strukturą i rozwojem pojęć filozoficznych 19 (19).
     
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  32.  23
    The Correspondence between Joseph Butler and Samuel Clarke.Joseph Butler & Samuel Clarke - 2007 - Idea. Studia Nad Strukturą I Rozwojem Pojęć Filozoficznych 19:173-193.
  33.  42
    A demonstration of the being and attributes of God. 1705.Samuel Clarke - 1705 - Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt,: F. Frommann. Edited by Samuel Clarke.
    Being the Substance of Eight SERMONS Preach'd at the Cathedral-Church of St. Paul, in the Year 1704. at the Lecture Founded by the Honourable RO BERT BOTL ...
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  34. Kazania.Samuel Clarke - 2005 - Idea Studia nad strukturą i rozwojem pojęć filozoficznych 17 (17).
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  35. 4 The Problem of Divine Perfection and Freedom 'William Rowe'.Samuel Clarke - 1999 - In Eleonore Stump & Michael J. Murray (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: The Big Questions. Blackwell. pp. 6--28.
  36. Polemika G. Leibnit︠s︡a i S. Klarka.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Samuel Clarke (eds.) - 1960
  37. A Collection of Papers, Which Passed Between the Late Learned Mr. Leibnitz and Dr. Clarke in the Years 1715 and 1716 Relating to the Principles of Natural Philosophy and Religion : With an Appendix : To Which Are Added, Letters to Dr. Clarke Concerning Liberty and Necessity, From a Gentleman of the University of Cambridge, with the Doctor's Answers to Them : Also, Remarks Upon a Book, Entituled, a Philosophical Enquiry Concerning Human Liberty.Samuel Clarke & Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - 1717 - Printed for James Knapton.
  38.  50
    The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Science. [REVIEW]Sam Clarke - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (7):1090-1094.
  39. The Conscious Brain by Jesse J. Prinz. [REVIEW]Sam Clarke - 2014 - Philosophy Now 104:43-44.
     
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