Results for 'Samuel J. Huber'

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  1.  72
    When Pestilence Prevails Physician Responsibilities in Epidemics.Samuel J. Huber & Matthew K. Wynia - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):5 – 11.
    The threat of bioterrorism, the emergence of the SARS epidemic, and a recent focus on professionalism among physicians, present a timely opportunity for a review of, and renewed commitment to, physician obligations to care for patients during epidemics. The professional obligation to care for contagious patients is part of a larger "duty to treat," which historically became accepted when 1) a risk of nosocomial infection was perceived, 2) an organized professional body existed to promote the duty, and 3) the public (...)
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  2.  41
    How to Treat Persons.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Samuel J. Kerstein develops a new, broadly Kantian account of the ethical issues that arise when a person treats another merely as a means. He explores how Kantian principles on the dignity of persons shed light on pressing issues in modern bioethics, including the distribution of scarce medical resources and the regulation of markets in organs.
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  3. Samuel J. Kerstein, How to Treat Persons. [REVIEW]Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (2):319-323.
    Samuel Kerstein’s recent (2013) How To Treat Persons is an ambitious attempt to develop a new, broadly Kantian account of what it is to treat others as mere means and what it means to act in accordance with others’ dignity. His project is explicitly nonfoundationalist: his interpretation stands or falls on its ability to accommodate our pretheoretic intuitions, and he does an admirable job of handling carefully a range of well fleshed out and sometimes subtle examples. In what follows, (...)
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  4.  8
    Retrospective Revaluation in Sequential Decision Making: A Tale of Two Systems.Samuel J. Gershman, Arthur B. Markman & A. Ross Otto - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (1):182-194.
  5.  14
    A Model-Theoretic Characterization of Monadic Second Order Logic on Infinite Words.Silvio Ghilardi & Samuel J. van Gool - 2017 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 82 (1):62-76.
    Monadic second order logic and linear temporal logic are two logical formalisms that can be used to describe classes of infinite words, i.e., first-order models based on the natural numbers with order, successor, and finitely many unary predicate symbols.Monadic second order logic over infinite words can alternatively be described as a first-order logic interpreted in${\cal P}\left$, the power set Boolean algebra of the natural numbers, equipped with modal operators for ‘initial’, ‘next’, and ‘future’ states. We prove that the first-order theory (...)
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  6.  20
    Context, Learning, and Extinction.Samuel J. Gershman, David M. Blei & Yael Niv - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (1):197-209.
  7.  61
    Kant’s Search for the Supreme Principle of Morality.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    At the core of Kant's ethics lies the claim that if there is a supreme principle of morality then it cannot be a principle based on utilitarianism or Aristotelian perfectionism or the Ten Commandments. The only viable candidate for such a principle is the categorical imperative. This book is the most detailed investigation of this claim. It constructs a new, criterial reading of Kant's derivation of one version of the categorical imperative: the Formula of Universal Law. This reading shows this (...)
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  8.  18
    Science and Religion: An Origins Story.Samuel J. Loncar - 2021 - Zygon 56 (1):275-296.
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  9.  62
    Complete Lives in the Balance.Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):37 – 45.
    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their “complete lives system” incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority (...)
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  10.  7
    Beyond Freedom and Dignity.Samuel J. Hartenberg - 1972 - Ethics 82 (4):353-355.
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  11.  32
    Amateurs and Professionals in One County: Biology and Natural History in Late Victorian Yorkshire. [REVIEW]Samuel J. M. M. Alberti - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):115 - 147.
    My goals in this paper are twofold: to outline the refashioning of amateur and professional roles in life science in late Victorian Yorkshire, and to provide a revised historiography of the relationship between amateurs and professionals in this era. Some historical treatments of this relationship assume that amateurs were demoralized by the advances of laboratory science, and so ceased to contribute and were left behind by the autonomous "new biology." Despite this view, I show that many amateurs played a vital (...)
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  12. Kantian Condemnation of Commerce in Organs.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (2):pp. 147-169.
  13.  10
    Deconstructing the Human Algorithms for Exploration.Samuel J. Gershman - 2018 - Cognition 173:34-42.
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  14.  16
    Objects and the Museum.Samuel J. M. M. Alberti - 2005 - Isis 96 (4):559-571.
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  15.  25
    Rethinking Kant on Duty.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2021 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (296):497-526.
    According to a common caricature of Kant’s ethics, it is synonymous with the Categorical Imperative (CI) and with the sublime and clarion call of duty. But in this paper, I argue that the conjunction of Kant’s concept of duty and his idea of morality as a system of imperatives is unsustainable on the grounds that it commits him to the following two theses: (I) If an agent has a duty to D, then she must be constrained to D, and (II) (...)
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  16.  5
    Origin of Perseveration in the Trade-Off Between Reward and Complexity.Samuel J. Gershman - 2020 - Cognition 204:104394.
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  17.  26
    Kant and Modern Political Philosophy.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (3):436-439.
    In Kant and Modern Political Philosophy, Katrin Flikschuh pursues two main aims. She tries to show that Kant’s theory of Right [Recht] is grounded in Kantian metaphysics. For example, we do not really understand Kant’s thought on property rights and cosmopolitanism unless we have in view its metaphysical underpinnings. Second, Flikschuh attempts to demonstrate the relevance of Kant’s theory of Right, especially as it is presented in Kant’s notoriously difficult Rechtslehre, to contemporary political concerns. In pursuing these aims she brings (...)
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  18. Conditionals and Ranking Functions, Special Issue of Erkenntnis.J. Weisberg, F. Huber & E. Swanson (eds.) - 2009 - Springer.
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  19.  10
    Learning the Structure of Social Influence.Samuel J. Gershman, Hillard Thomas Pouncy & Hyowon Gweon - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    We routinely observe others’ choices and use them to guide our own. Whose choices influence us more, and why? Prior work has focused on the effect of perceived similarity between two individuals, such as the degree of overlap in past choices or explicitly recognizable group affiliations. In the real world, however, any dyadic relationship is part of a more complex social structure involving multiple social groups that are not directly observable. Here we suggest that human learners go beyond dyadic similarities (...)
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  20. Defending the Traditional Interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2019 - Theoria 66 (158):76-102.
    In this paper I defend the traditional interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature from recent attacks leveled by Faviola Rivera-Castro, James Furner, Ido Geiger, Pauline Kleingeld and Sven Nyholm. After a short introduction, the paper is divided into four main sections. In the first, I set out the basics of the three traditional interpretations, the Logical Contradiction Interpretation, the Practical Contradiction Interpretation and the Teleological Contradiction Interpretation. In the second, I examine the work of Geiger, Kleingeld and (...)
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  21.  22
    Dignity, Disability, and Lifespan.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    In the Paraplegia Case, we must choose either to preserve the life of a paraplegic for 10 years or that of someone in full health for the same duration. Non-consequentialists reject a benefit-maximising view, which holds that since the person in full health will have a higher quality of life, we ought to save him straightaway. In the Unequal Lifespan Case, we face a choice between saving one person for 5 years in full health and another for 25 years in (...)
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  22.  8
    Treating Oneself Merely as a Means.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2008 - In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. De Gruyter. pp. 201-218.
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  23.  78
    Korsgaard’s Kantian Arguments for the Value of Humanity.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):23-52.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Christine Korsgaard affirms that Enlightenment morality is true: humanity is valuable. To many of us few claims seem more obvious. Yet Enlightenment thinkers such as Kant do not limit themselves to affirming that humanity is valuable. They appeal to reason in an effort to establish it. They try to show that, in some sense, we are rationally compelled to recognize the value of humanity. Korsgaard joins in this effort. She champions the claim that unless we (...)
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  24.  19
    Model-Based Influences on Humans' Choices and Striatal Prediction Errors.Nathaniel D. Daw, Samuel J. Gershman, Ben Seymour, Peter Dayan & Raymond J. Dolan - 2011 - Neuron 69 (6):1204-1215.
    The mesostriatal dopamine system is prominently implicated in model-free reinforcement learning, with fMRI BOLD signals in ventral striatum notably covarying with model-free prediction errors. However, latent learning and devaluation studies show that behavior also shows hallmarks of model-based planning, and the interaction between model-based and model-free values, prediction errors, and preferences is underexplored. We designed a multistep decision task in which model-based and model-free influences on human choice behavior could be distinguished. By showing that choices reflected both influences we could (...)
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  25.  16
    Kidney Vouchers and Inequity in Transplantation.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):559-574.
    This article probes the voucher program from an ethical perspective. It focuses mainly on an issue of inequity. A disparity exists in US kidney transplantation. Although African-Americans suffer far higher rates of ESRD than whites, African-Americans are much less likely than whites to get a transplant. The article explores the voucher program in light of this disparity. It motivates the view that, at least in the short term, more whites than African-Americans are likely to take advantage of the voucher program. (...)
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  26.  5
    Realism in Religion: A Pragmatist’s Perspective.Samuel J. Youngs - 2011 - Philosophia Christi 13 (2):468-474.
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  27. A Problem for Frankfurt Examples.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (1):159-167.
    In this paper I intend to raise a problem for so-called Frankfurt examples. I begin by describing the examples and what they are used for. Then I describe the problem.
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  28. Kant’s Theory of Conscience.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2015 - In Pablo Muchnik & Oliver Thorndike (eds.), Rethinking Kant: Volume IV. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 135-156.
    In this paper I discuss Kant’s theory of conscience. In particular, I explicate the following two claims that Kant makes in the Metaphysics of Morals: (1) an erring conscience is an absurdity and (2) if an agent has acted according to his/her conscience, then s/he has done all that can be required of him/her. I argue that (1) is a very specific claim that does not bear on the problem of moral knowledge. I argue that (2) rests on a strongly (...)
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  29.  47
    Incarceration, Restitution, and Lifetime Debarment: Legal Consequences of Scientific Misconduct in the Eric Poehlman Case: Commentary On: “Scientific Forensics: How the Office of Research Integrity Can Assist Institutional Investigations of Research Misconduct During Oversight Review”.Samuel J. Tilden - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):737-741.
    Following its determination of a finding of scientific misconduct the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) will seek redress for any injury sustained. Several remedies both administrative and statutory may be available depending on the strength of the evidentiary findings of the misconduct investigation. Pursuant to federal regulations administrative remedies are primarily remedial in nature and designed to protect the integrity of the affected research program, whereas statutory remedies including civil fines and criminal penalties are designed to deter and punish wrongdoers. (...)
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  30.  28
    Samuel J. Redman. Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in Museums. 373 Pp., Illus., Index. Cambridge, Mass./London: Harvard University Press, 2016. $29.95. [REVIEW]Karen A. Rader - 2017 - Isis 108 (2):467-468.
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  31.  17
    Multiattribute Decision Making in Context: A Dynamic Neural Network Methodology.Samuel J. Leven & Daniel S. Levine - 1996 - Cognitive Science 20 (2):271-299.
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  32.  37
    Death, Dignity, and Respect.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2009 - Social Theory and Practice 35 (4):505-530.
  33. A Kantian Take on Fallible Principles and Fallible Judgments.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2014 - American Dialectic 4 (1):1-27.
    According to Kant, if an agent acts according to his/her conscience, then s/he has done all that s/he ought as far as morality is concerned. But Kant thinks that agents can be mistaken in their subjective determinations of their duties. That is, Kant thinks it is possible for an agent to believe that some action X is right even though it is an objective truth that X is not right; according to Kant, agents do not have infallible knowledge of right (...)
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  34.  14
    Are Kidney Markets Morally Permissible If Vendors Do Not Benefit?Samuel J. Kerstein - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):29-30.
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  35.  56
    Novelty and Inductive Generalization in Human Reinforcement Learning.Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):391-415.
    In reinforcement learning, a decision maker searching for the most rewarding option is often faced with the question: What is the value of an option that has never been tried before? One way to frame this question is as an inductive problem: How can I generalize my previous experience with one set of options to a novel option? We show how hierarchical Bayesian inference can be used to solve this problem, and we describe an equivalence between the Bayesian model and (...)
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  36.  30
    Reason, Sentiment, and Categorical Imperatives.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2006 - In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell. pp. 6--129.
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  37.  14
    Modeling the N400 ERP Component as Transient Semantic Over-Activation Within a Neural Network Model of Word Comprehension.Samuel J. Cheyette & David C. Plaut - 2017 - Cognition 162:153-166.
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  38.  12
    Evaluating Stress as a Challenge is Associated with Superior Attentional Control and Motor Skill Performance: Testing the Predictions of the Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat.Samuel J. Vine, Paul Freeman, Lee J. Moore, Roy Chandra-Ramanan & Mark R. Wilson - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (3):185.
  39.  39
    Ought-Onomy and Mental Health Ethics: From "Respect for Personal Autonomy" to "Preservation of Person-in-Community" in African Ethics.Samuel J. Ujewe - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (4):45-59.
    Those whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make mad, says a Nigerian proverb. These words of wisdom re-echo in traditional approaches to mental health ethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Among many cultures in Nigeria, it is customary to subject persons with mental health illness, especially those who present with violent behavior, to physical restraint and beatings. The belief is that such subjugation could restore mental health in the early stages of madness. Physical restraint and beatings only form a part (...)
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  40. Reassessing the Foundations of Korsgaard’s Approach to Ethics.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2017 - Dialegesthai. Rivista Telematica di Filosofia:online.
    In a series of well known publications, Christine Korsgaard argues for the claim that an agent acts morally just in case s/he acts autonomously. Two of Korsgaard's signature arguments for the connection between morality and autonomy are the "argument from spontaneity" and the "regress argument." In this paper, I argue that neither the argument from spontaneity nor the regress argument is able to show that an agent would be acting wrongly even if s/he acts in a paradigmatically heteronomous fashion.
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  41.  3
    Korsgaard’s Kantian Arguments for the Value of Humanity.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):23-52.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Christine Korsgaard affirms that Enlightenment morality is true: humanity is valuable. To many of us few claims seem more obvious. Yet Enlightenment thinkers such as Kant do not limit themselves to affirming that humanity is valuable. They appeal to reason in an effort to establish it. They try to show that, in some sense, we are rationally compelled to recognize the value of humanity. Korsgaard joins in this effort. She champions the claim that unless we (...)
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  42.  4
    Nary an Obligatory Maxim From Kant’s Universalizability Tests.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2022 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 5 (1):15-35.
    In this paper I argue that there would be no obligatory maxims if the only standards for assessing maxims were Kant’s universalizability tests. The paper is divided into five sections. In the first, I clarify my thesis: I define my terms and disambiguate my thesis from other related theses for which one might argue. In the second, I confront the view that says that if a maxim passes the universalizability tests, then there is a positive duty to adopt that maxim; (...)
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  43. A Reply to Bencivenga, “Consequences in Kantian Ethics.”.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2013 - American Dialectic (1):285-288.
    In Bencivenga’s “Consequences in Kantian Ethics,” he offers a version of Kant’s ethics according to which the most rational approach to living one’s life is “to always imagine what might follow from one’s moves and to choose moves accordingly” (284), but according to which agents always nevertheless must be modest in their judgments about what they ought to do because the actual consequences of their actions might not turn out as they imagined. In this way, he tries to foreground the (...)
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  44. Samuel J. Keyser. The Mental Life of Modernism: Why Poetry, Painting, and Music Changed at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.Aaron Kozbelt - 2020 - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 4 (2):145-150.
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  45.  24
    Pain: Its Modes and Functions.Samuel J. Todes - 1962 - Philosophical Review 74 (3):398-401.
  46.  19
    Samuel J.M.M. Alberti, Nature and Culture : Objects, Disciplines and the Manchester Museum. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009. Pp. Xiii+239. ISBN 978-07190-8114-9. £60.00. [REVIEW]Christine Macleod - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Science 43 (4):620-622.
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  47.  8
    Moral Residue and Health Justice for the Global South: Addressing Past Issues Through Current Interventions and Research.Samuel J. Ujewe - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):96-104.
    This paper introduces the concept of moral residue to global health, and shows how its presence undermines crucial interventions and research, especially in the global south. Lingering feelings of anxiety, anger, blame or frustration often exist among local populations, where previous interventions or research have left traces of harm and/or exploitation. The existence of such feelings reflects the presence of moral residue, recognizing the moral experiences of epistemic injustices, which in turn undermines critical interventions and research through outright rejection or (...)
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  48.  21
    Crime in England.Samuel J. Barrows - 1904 - International Journal of Ethics 14 (2):180-184.
  49.  31
    The Kantian Moral Worth of Actions Contrary to Duty.Samuel J. Kerstein - 1999 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 53 (4):530 - 552.
    This paper concerns Kant's view of the relations between an actions's moral permissibility and its moral worth. In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant holds that only morally permissible actions can have moral worth. By restricting moral worth to morally permissible actions, Kant generates an asymmetrical account of how two kinds of failure affect an actions's moral worth. While failure to judge correctly whether one's action is morally permissible precludes it from having moral worth failure to attain the (...)
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  50.  30
    Die Kirchliche Lehre der Translatio Imperi Romani Bis Zur Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts. P. A. Van den Baar.Samuel J. Miller - 1961 - Speculum 36 (3):512-514.
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