Results for 'Samuel J. Huber'

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  1.  70
    When Pestilence Prevails Physician Responsibilities in Epidemics.Samuel J. Huber & Matthew K. Wynia - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):5 – 11.
    The threat of bioterrorism, the emergence of the SARS epidemic, and a recent focus on professionalism among physicians, present a timely opportunity for a review of, and renewed commitment to, physician obligations to care for patients during epidemics. The professional obligation to care for contagious patients is part of a larger "duty to treat," which historically became accepted when 1) a risk of nosocomial infection was perceived, 2) an organized professional body existed to promote the duty, and 3) the public (...)
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  2.  37
    How to Treat Persons.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Samuel J. Kerstein develops a new, broadly Kantian account of the ethical issues that arise when a person treats another merely as a means. He explores how Kantian principles on the dignity of persons shed light on pressing issues in modern bioethics, including the distribution of scarce medical resources and the regulation of markets in organs.
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  3.  59
    Kant’s Search for the Supreme Principle of Morality.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    At the core of Kant's ethics lies the claim that if there is a supreme principle of morality then it cannot be a principle based on utilitarianism or Aristotelian perfectionism or the Ten Commandments. The only viable candidate for such a principle is the categorical imperative. This book is the most detailed investigation of this claim. It constructs a new, criterial reading of Kant's derivation of one version of the categorical imperative: the Formula of Universal Law. This reading shows this (...)
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  4.  55
    Complete Lives in the Balance.Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):37 – 45.
    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their “complete lives system” incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority (...)
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  5.  18
    Context, Learning, and Extinction.Samuel J. Gershman, David M. Blei & Yael Niv - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (1):197-209.
  6.  8
    Retrospective Revaluation in Sequential Decision Making: A Tale of Two Systems.Samuel J. Gershman, Arthur B. Markman & A. Ross Otto - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (1):182-194.
  7. Kantian Condemnation of Commerce in Organs.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (2):pp. 147-169.
  8.  12
    Science and Religion: An Origins Story.Samuel J. Loncar - 2021 - Zygon 56 (1):275-296.
  9.  32
    Amateurs and Professionals in One County: Biology and Natural History in Late Victorian Yorkshire. [REVIEW]Samuel J. M. M. Alberti - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):115 - 147.
    My goals in this paper are twofold: to outline the refashioning of amateur and professional roles in life science in late Victorian Yorkshire, and to provide a revised historiography of the relationship between amateurs and professionals in this era. Some historical treatments of this relationship assume that amateurs were demoralized by the advances of laboratory science, and so ceased to contribute and were left behind by the autonomous "new biology." Despite this view, I show that many amateurs played a vital (...)
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  10.  23
    Kant and Modern Political Philosophy.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (3):436-439.
    In Kant and Modern Political Philosophy, Katrin Flikschuh pursues two main aims. She tries to show that Kant’s theory of Right [Recht] is grounded in Kantian metaphysics. For example, we do not really understand Kant’s thought on property rights and cosmopolitanism unless we have in view its metaphysical underpinnings. Second, Flikschuh attempts to demonstrate the relevance of Kant’s theory of Right, especially as it is presented in Kant’s notoriously difficult Rechtslehre, to contemporary political concerns. In pursuing these aims she brings (...)
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  11.  6
    Beyond Freedom and Dignity.Samuel J. Hartenberg - 1972 - Ethics 82 (4):353-355.
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  12.  16
    Objects and the Museum.Samuel J. M. M. Alberti - 2005 - Isis 96 (4):559-571.
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  13.  75
    Korsgaard’s Kantian Arguments for the Value of Humanity.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):23-52.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Christine Korsgaard affirms that Enlightenment morality is true: humanity is valuable. To many of us few claims seem more obvious. Yet Enlightenment thinkers such as Kant do not limit themselves to affirming that humanity is valuable. They appeal to reason in an effort to establish it. They try to show that, in some sense, we are rationally compelled to recognize the value of humanity. Korsgaard joins in this effort. She champions the claim that unless we (...)
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  14.  6
    Treating Oneself Merely as a Means.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2008 - In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. De Gruyter. pp. 201-218.
  15.  16
    Kidney Vouchers and Inequity in Transplantation.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):559-574.
    This article probes the voucher program from an ethical perspective. It focuses mainly on an issue of inequity. A disparity exists in US kidney transplantation. Although African-Americans suffer far higher rates of ESRD than whites, African-Americans are much less likely than whites to get a transplant. The article explores the voucher program in light of this disparity. It motivates the view that, at least in the short term, more whites than African-Americans are likely to take advantage of the voucher program. (...)
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  16.  9
    Deconstructing the Human Algorithms for Exploration.Samuel J. Gershman - 2018 - Cognition 173:34-42.
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  17.  18
    Dignity, Disability, and Lifespan.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    In the Paraplegia Case, we must choose either to preserve the life of a paraplegic for 10 years or that of someone in full health for the same duration. Non-consequentialists reject a benefit-maximising view, which holds that since the person in full health will have a higher quality of life, we ought to save him straightaway. In the Unequal Lifespan Case, we face a choice between saving one person for 5 years in full health and another for 25 years in (...)
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  18.  10
    Learning the Structure of Social Influence.Samuel J. Gershman, Hillard Thomas Pouncy & Hyowon Gweon - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    We routinely observe others’ choices and use them to guide our own. Whose choices influence us more, and why? Prior work has focused on the effect of perceived similarity between two individuals, such as the degree of overlap in past choices or explicitly recognizable group affiliations. In the real world, however, any dyadic relationship is part of a more complex social structure involving multiple social groups that are not directly observable. Here we suggest that human learners go beyond dyadic similarities (...)
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  19.  14
    Model-Based Influences on Humans' Choices and Striatal Prediction Errors.Nathaniel D. Daw, Samuel J. Gershman, Ben Seymour, Peter Dayan & Raymond J. Dolan - 2011 - Neuron 69 (6):1204-1215.
    The mesostriatal dopamine system is prominently implicated in model-free reinforcement learning, with fMRI BOLD signals in ventral striatum notably covarying with model-free prediction errors. However, latent learning and devaluation studies show that behavior also shows hallmarks of model-based planning, and the interaction between model-based and model-free values, prediction errors, and preferences is underexplored. We designed a multistep decision task in which model-based and model-free influences on human choice behavior could be distinguished. By showing that choices reflected both influences we could (...)
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  20.  3
    Origin of Perseveration in the Trade-Off Between Reward and Complexity.Samuel J. Gershman - 2020 - Cognition 204:104394.
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  21.  35
    Death, Dignity, and Respect.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2009 - Social Theory and Practice 35 (4):505-530.
  22.  47
    Incarceration, Restitution, and Lifetime Debarment: Legal Consequences of Scientific Misconduct in the Eric Poehlman Case: Commentary On: “Scientific Forensics: How the Office of Research Integrity Can Assist Institutional Investigations of Research Misconduct During Oversight Review”.Samuel J. Tilden - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):737-741.
    Following its determination of a finding of scientific misconduct the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) will seek redress for any injury sustained. Several remedies both administrative and statutory may be available depending on the strength of the evidentiary findings of the misconduct investigation. Pursuant to federal regulations administrative remedies are primarily remedial in nature and designed to protect the integrity of the affected research program, whereas statutory remedies including civil fines and criminal penalties are designed to deter and punish wrongdoers. (...)
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  23. Kant’s Theory of Conscience.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2015 - In Pablo Muchnik & Oliver Thorndike (eds.), Rethinking Kant: Volume IV. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 135-156.
    In this paper I discuss Kant’s theory of conscience. In particular, I explicate the following two claims that Kant makes in the Metaphysics of Morals: (1) an erring conscience is an absurdity and (2) if an agent has acted according to his/her conscience, then s/he has done all that can be required of him/her. I argue that (1) is a very specific claim that does not bear on the problem of moral knowledge. I argue that (2) rests on a strongly (...)
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  24.  12
    Are Kidney Markets Morally Permissible If Vendors Do Not Benefit?Samuel J. Kerstein - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):29-30.
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  25.  14
    Modeling the N400 ERP Component as Transient Semantic Over-Activation Within a Neural Network Model of Word Comprehension.Samuel J. Cheyette & David C. Plaut - 2017 - Cognition 162:153-166.
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  26.  29
    Reason, Sentiment, and Categorical Imperatives.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2006 - In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell. pp. 6--129.
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  27. Samuel J. Kerstein, How to Treat PersonsOxford: Oxford University Press, 2013 Pp. 240 ISBN 9780199692033 (Hbk) $65.00.Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (2):319-323.
    Samuel Kerstein’s recent (2013) How To Treat Persons is an ambitious attempt to develop a new, broadly Kantian account of what it is to treat others as mere means and what it means to act in accordance with others’ dignity. His project is explicitly nonfoundationalist: his interpretation stands or falls on its ability to accommodate our pretheoretic intuitions, and he does an admirable job of handling carefully a range of well fleshed out and sometimes subtle examples. In what follows, (...)
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  28.  28
    Samuel J. Redman. Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in Museums. 373 Pp., Illus., Index. Cambridge, Mass./London: Harvard University Press, 2016. $29.95. [REVIEW]Karen A. Rader - 2017 - Isis 108 (2):467-468.
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  29.  8
    Uniform Interpolation and Compact Congruences.Samuel J. van Gool, George Metcalfe & Constantine Tsinakis - 2017 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 168 (10):1927-1948.
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  30. A Kantian Take on Fallible Principles and Fallible Judgments.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2014 - American Dialectic 4 (1):1-27.
    According to Kant, if an agent acts according to his/her conscience, then s/he has done all that s/he ought as far as morality is concerned. But Kant thinks that agents can be mistaken in their subjective determinations of their duties. That is, Kant thinks it is possible for an agent to believe that some action X is right even though it is an objective truth that X is not right; according to Kant, agents do not have infallible knowledge of right (...)
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  31.  55
    Novelty and Inductive Generalization in Human Reinforcement Learning.Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):391-415.
    In reinforcement learning, a decision maker searching for the most rewarding option is often faced with the question: What is the value of an option that has never been tried before? One way to frame this question is as an inductive problem: How can I generalize my previous experience with one set of options to a novel option? We show how hierarchical Bayesian inference can be used to solve this problem, and we describe an equivalence between the Bayesian model and (...)
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  32.  17
    Multiattribute Decision Making in Context: A Dynamic Neural Network Methodology.Samuel J. Leven & Daniel S. Levine - 1996 - Cognitive Science 20 (2):271-299.
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  33.  11
    Evaluating Stress as a Challenge is Associated with Superior Attentional Control and Motor Skill Performance: Testing the Predictions of the Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat.Samuel J. Vine, Paul Freeman, Lee J. Moore, Roy Chandra-Ramanan & Mark R. Wilson - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (3):185.
  34.  1
    Korsgaard’s Kantian Arguments for the Value of Humanity.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):23-52.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Christine Korsgaard affirms that Enlightenment morality is true: humanity is valuable. To many of us few claims seem more obvious. Yet Enlightenment thinkers such as Kant do not limit themselves to affirming that humanity is valuable. They appeal to reason in an effort to establish it. They try to show that, in some sense, we are rationally compelled to recognize the value of humanity. Korsgaard joins in this effort. She champions the claim that unless we (...)
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  35.  30
    The Kantian Moral Worth of Actions Contrary to Duty.Samuel J. Kerstein - 1999 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 53 (4):530 - 552.
    This paper concerns Kant's view of the relations between an actions's moral permissibility and its moral worth. In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant holds that only morally permissible actions can have moral worth. By restricting moral worth to morally permissible actions, Kant generates an asymmetrical account of how two kinds of failure affect an actions's moral worth. While failure to judge correctly whether one's action is morally permissible precludes it from having moral worth failure to attain the (...)
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  36.  23
    Pain: Its Modes and Functions.Samuel J. Todes - 1962 - Philosophical Review 74 (3):398-401.
  37.  13
    Explaining Compound Generalization in Associative and Causal Learning Through Rational Principles of Dimensional Generalization.Fabian A. Soto, Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (3):526-558.
  38. Conditionals and Ranking Functions, Special Issue of Erkenntnis.J. Weisberg, F. Huber & E. Swanson (eds.) - 2009 - Springer.
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  39.  37
    'Equal Though Different': Laboratories, Museums and the Institutional Development of Biology in Late-Victorian Northern England.Alison Kraft & Samuel J. M. M. Alberti - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (2):203-236.
    Traditional accounts of the emergence of professional biology have privileged not only metropolis over province, but research over teaching and laboratory over museum. This paper seeks to supplement earlier studies of the ‘transformation of biology’ in the late nineteenth century by exploring in detail the developments within three biology departments in Northern English civic colleges. By outlining changes in the teaching practices, research topics and the accommodation of the departments, the authors demonstrate both locally contingent factors in their development and (...)
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  40.  51
    Building Machines That Learn and Think Like People.Brenden M. Lake, Tomer D. Ullman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Samuel J. Gershman - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  41.  12
    Integrating Models of Interval Timing and Reinforcement Learning.Elijah A. Petter, Samuel J. Gershman & Warren H. Meck - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (10):911-922.
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  42.  17
    The Science of Personality: Nomothetic or Idiographic?Samuel J. Beck - 1953 - Psychological Review 60 (6):353-359.
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  43.  2
    Kant's Hedonism.Samuel J. Kerstein - 2001 - In Ralph Schumacher, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Volker Gerhardt (eds.), Kant Und Die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des Ix. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Bd. I: Hauptvorträge. Bd. Ii: Sektionen I-V. Bd. Iii: Sektionen Vi-X: Bd. Iv: Sektionen Xi-Xiv. Bd. V: Sektionen Xv-Xviii. De Gruyter. pp. 247-255.
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  44.  11
    Let Us Be Fair to 5-Year-Olds: Priority for the Young in the Allocation of Scarce Health Resources.Kelsey Gipe & Samuel J. Kerstein - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (3):325-335.
    Life-saving health resources like organs for transplant and experimental medications are persistently scarce. How ought we, morally speaking, to ration these resources? Many hold that, in any morally acceptable allocation scheme, the young should to some extent be prioritized over the old. Govind Persad, Alan Wertheimer and Ezekiel Emanuel propose a multi-principle allocation scheme called the Complete Lives System, according to which persons roughly between 15 and 40 years old get priority over younger children and older adults, other things being (...)
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  45. Saving Lives and Respecting Persons.Greg Bognar & Samuel J. Kerstein - 2010 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (2):1-21.
    In the distribution of resources, persons must be respected, or so many philosophers contend. Unfortunately, they often leave it unclear why a certain allocation would respect persons, while another would not. In this paper, we explore what it means to respect persons in the distribution of scarce, life-saving resources. We begin by presenting two kinds of cases. In different age cases, we have a drug that we must use either to save a young person who would live for many more (...)
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  46.  4
    Moral Residue and Health Justice for the Global South: Addressing Past Issues Through Current Interventions and Research.Samuel J. Ujewe - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):96-104.
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  47.  36
    Ought-Onomy and Mental Health Ethics: From "Respect for Personal Autonomy" to "Preservation of Person-in-Community" in African Ethics.Samuel J. Ujewe - 2018 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 25 (4):45-59.
    Those whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make mad, says a Nigerian proverb. These words of wisdom re-echo in traditional approaches to mental health ethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Among many cultures in Nigeria, it is customary to subject persons with mental health illness, especially those who present with violent behavior, to physical restraint and beatings. The belief is that such subjugation could restore mental health in the early stages of madness. Physical restraint and beatings only form a part (...)
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  48.  17
    ‘Equal Though Different’: Laboratories, Museums and the Institutional Development of Biology in Late-Victorian Northern England.Alison Kraft & Samuel J. M. M. Alberti - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (2):203-236.
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  49.  5
    Realism in Religion: A Pragmatist’s Perspective.Samuel J. Youngs - 2011 - Philosophia Christi 13 (2):468-474.
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  50.  13
    Samuel J. M. M. Alberti . The Afterlives of Animals: A Museum Menagerie. Vi + 247 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011. $35. [REVIEW]Lynn K. Nyhart - 2012 - Isis 103 (3):566-567.
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