This paper attempts to explain why and how the middle class in Korea decisively joined the democratic movement in 1987 by drawing special attention to the role played by the middling grassroots (MG). MG was formed out of the common experience of student activism and contesting subcultures, which were widely dispersed over Korean university campuses during the 1980s. In addition, this paper examines the contrasting views on the Korean democratic transition by Bruce Cumings and Adam Przeworski. This substantive analysis attempts (...) to show how such discord can be resolved by working out a mediating variable between action and social structure. It is suggested that the concept of MG is a good example of such a mediating variable. (shrink)
This longitudinal study examined how nursing students' moral judgment changes after they become qualified nurses working in a hospital environment. The sample used was a group of 80 nursing students attending a university in Suwon, Korea, between 2001 and 2003. By using a Korean version of the Judgment About Nursing Decisions questionnaire, an instrument used in nursing care research, moral judgment scores based on Ketefian's six nursing dilemmas were determined. The results were as follows: (1) the qualified nurses had significantly (...) higher idealistic moral judgment scores than the nursing students; (2) the qualified nurses showed significantly higher realistic moral judgment scores than the nursing students; and (3) when comparing idealistic and realistic moral judgment scores, both the qualified nurses and the nursing students had higher scores for idealistic moral judgment. Further study is recommended to examine changes in moral judgment. (shrink)
En el artículo se hace una serie de observaciones al ensayo de A. Milano sobre el concepto de verdad y revelación cristiana en san Agustín, publicado en el libro "Quale verità" (Dehoniana 1999), señalando que el autor deja de lado algunas precisiones que los agustinólogos han hecho, particularmente las relativas al pensamiento de san Agustín acerca de la revelación trinitaria y de la relación Cristo-Verdad.
The philosophy of the Han Dynasty, especially that of the Eastern Han , is an unjustly neglected area of scholarship on early Chinese thought. In this article, I introduce the thought of a number of important Eastern Han philosophers, with particular attention to Wang Chong, Wang Fu, Xu Gan, and Wang Su. I also explain the major features of Eastern Han thought as distinct from that of the Warring States and Western Han periods, and consider their origins in reaction to (...) Western Han ideas and their further development in the Wei-Jin period. (shrink)
The philosophy of the Wei-Jin era had a unique character of its own which was different from the classicial studies of the Han dynasty and which gave rise to the so-called "Xuanxue" movement that paid homage to the philosophies of Laozi and Zhuangzi. This school has not been well studied in scholarly circles. In the present article, I would like to discuss my own rather crude views of the following problems.
Zi xu -- Di 1 zhang yu zhou san yuan: xin, wu, neng -- Di 2 zhang jin dai wu li xue de zhe xue yi yi -- Di 3 zhang xin wu neng de ji ben te xing yu yu zhou ji ben fa ze -- Di 4 zhang yu zhou san jie -- Di 5 zhang yu zhou de sheng cheng bian hua -- Di 6 zhang zong jie yu ying yong.
This paper looks at the tragedy of Qiao Feng in Jin Yong’s The Demi-Gods and the Semi-Devils. While it is common practice for Žižekean scholars to examine genre writing and popular culture with Lacanian theory, the martial arts genre has received little attention. In Demi-Gods, Qiao Feng experiences an ‘identity crisis’ at the peak of his career: rumour has it that though he was raised and trained in China, he was born a Khitan. Qiao Feng at first believes it is (...) a just conspiracy, and henceforth is blind-sided by the imaginary relation between his ego and small others. He mis-recognises others’ scheming as ‘the Other of the Other,’ while his supposedly deceased Khitan father occupies the corner of the Other in the schema L to orchestra the manipulation game. However, what Qiao Feng is really under prey is the desire of the father, and of the two fatherlands, one Han-Chinese, one Khitan: his tragedy lies in the split of the national Other, in the impossibility of the ethical imperative Your duty is to be loyal to your country. And yet, it is exactly because of the emptiness in the ethical call that Qiao Feng can start to act as a subject, a subject that is by definition already always split. This paper thus interprets the actions of Jin Yong’s hero according to Lacan’s schema L, and also provides variations of the schema based on the twists and turns of this martial arts tragedy. (shrink)
El artículo estudia las huellas que, en la producción agustiniana dle período indicado en el título, han dejado las siguientes obras ambrosianas: Del fide, De Spiritu Sancto, Exameron, De paradiso, Expositio euangelii secundum Lucam y Exposito Ps. 118.
Todos los humanos, cualquiera sea su edad y en cualquier momento de la historia en que los situemos, se han preguntado de una forma u otra, acerca del origen de nuestra especie, del origen de la tierra, del universo, del origen, en fin, del tiempo y del espacio. Son preguntas eternas que de una forma u otra, reflejan la magia del misterio que envuelve nuestra presencia como especie en este hermoso globo azulado perdido en la inmensidad del universo infinito. Esta (...) Historia del Universo de Thom.. (shrink)
Este artículo examina tres momentos de éxtasis, según han quedado recogidos en los libros 6-9 de las "Confesiones". Los relatos de las conversiones de Agustín a lo largo de las "Confesiones" están claramente señalados por tres compromisos intelectuales: el maniqueísmo, el neoplatonismo y el cristianismo. Sostiene que Agustín usa la experiencia del éxtasis para señalar cada una de estas tres fases de su odisea espiritual. Más aún, al hacer esto, este método de argumentación ilumina una escena memorable que, a primera (...) vista, no encaja fácilmente en la historia de Agustín: la de Alipio en los espectáculos. (shrink)
El artículo ofrece una visión de conjunto, preliminar y general, del "status quaestionis" del influjo de san Agustín en el desarrollo de la "nouvelle théologie". Acerca de ésta proporciona una visión general histórico-teológica, entreverada con el interés que por el pensamiento de san Agustín han mostrado los representantes de aquélla.
It is commonly accepted that Han Fei studied under Xunzi sometime during the late third century BCE. However, there is surprisingly little dedicated to the in-depth study of the relationship between Xunzi’s ideas and one of his best-known followers. In this essay I argue that Han Fei’s notion of xing, commonly translated as human nature, was not only influenced by Xunzi but also that it is an important feature of his political philosophy.
Several scholars have recently proposed that Confucianism should be regarded as a form of virtue ethics. This view offers new approaches to understanding not only Confucian thinkers, but also their critics within the Chinese tradition. For if Confucianism is a form of virtue ethics, we can then ask to what extent Chinese criticisms of it parallel criticisms launched against contemporary virtue ethics, and what lessons for virtue ethics in general might be gleaned from the challenges to Confucianism in particular. This (...) paper undertakes such an exercise in examining Han Feizi, an early critic of Confucianism. The essay offers a careful interpretation of the debate between Han Feizi and the Confucians and suggests that thinking through Han Feizi's criticisms and the possible Confucian responses to them has a broader philosophical payoff, namely by highlighting a problem for current defenders of virtue ethics that has not been widely noticed, but deserves attention. (shrink)
Han Feizi’s 韓非子 thought, I argue, contains a political theory that justifies principled, law-governed government. A key element of his theory is a solution to the problem of rectifying names. He recognized that the same word can have varying criteria of application depending on the purpose of the practice that requires a criterion. Some criteria for a practice are good and some bad. A wise ruler knows which criteria are good and appropriate to ruling. His view is illuminated by considering (...) the phenomenon of paradiastole and a contemporary view about the relationship between meaning and criteria of application. (shrink)
Wei-Jin period is characterized by neo-Daoism ( xuanxue 玄學), and J I Kang lived in the midst of this philosophical exploration. Adopting the naturalism of the Zhuangzi , J i Kang expressed his socio-political concerns through the medium of music, which was previously regarded as having moral bearing and rectitude. Denying such rectitude became central for J i Kang, who claimed that music was incapable of possessing human emotion, releasing it from the chains of Confucian ritualism. His investigation into the (...) name and reality of musical expression gave music an “aesthetic turn” lacking in Qin and early Han thought, and by making use of concepts such as natural harmony and spontaneity, J i Kang was able to turn away from the negative aesthetics of earlier thinkers such as H e Yan and W ang Bi to one cherishing the naturalism espoused by Zhuangzi. (shrink)