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Sanford S. Levy [14]Sanford Levy [6]Sanford Scott Levy [1]
  1. Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader.Brad Hooker, Elinor Mason, Dale E. Miller, D. W. Haslett, Shelly Kagan, Sanford S. Levy, David Lyons, Phillip Montague, Tim Mulgan, Philip Pettit, Madison Powers, Jonathan Riley, William H. Shaw, Michael Smith & Alan Thomas (eds.) - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    What determines whether an action is right or wrong? Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader explores for students and researchers the relationship between consequentialist theory and moral rules. Most of the chapters focus on rule consequentialism or on the distinction between act and rule versions of consequentialism. Contributors, among them the leading philosophers in the discipline, suggest ways of assessing whether rule consequentialism could be a satisfactory moral theory. These essays, all of which are previously unpublished, provide students in (...)
     
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  2.  45
    The Biophilia Hypothesis and Anthropocentric Environmentalism.Sanford S. Levy - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (3):227-246.
    Much anthropocentric environmental argument is limited by a narrow conception of how humans can benefit from nature. E. O. Wilson defends a more robust anthropocentric environmentalism based on a broader understanding of these benefits. At the center of his argument is the biophilia hypothesis according to which humans have an evolutionarily crafted, aesthetic and spiritual affinity for nature. However,the “biophilia hypothesis” covers a variety of claims, some modest and some more extreme. Insofar as we have significant evidence for biophilia, it (...)
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  3.  35
    Philippa Foot’s Theory of Natural Goodness.Sanford S. Levy - 2009 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (1):1-15.
    Philippa Foot's book, Natural Goodness, involves a large project including a theory of natural goodness, a theory of the virtues, and a theory of practical rationality. Natural goodness is the foundation for the rest and is used to support a more or less traditional list of the virtues and a theory of reasons for action. Though Foot's doctrine of natural goodness may provide an account of some sort of goodness, I argue that it is not adequate as a foundation for (...)
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  4.  37
    The Principle of Double Effect.Sanford S. Levy - 1986 - Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (1):29-40.
  5.  19
    Paul Ramsey and the Rule of Double Effect.Sanford S. Levy - 1987 - Journal of Religious Ethics 15 (1):59 - 71.
    Paul Ramsey has argued that the rule of double effect is morally significant because of the existence of indeterminate choices between incommensurable values. I interpret his argument as the following disjunctive syllogism. There are two sorts of principles we can appeal to in dealing with indeterminate choices: the rule of double effect and a commensurate reason principle. The second does not work, so we are left with the first. I respond, first, that this argument commits the fallacy of bifurcation and (...)
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  6. The Coherence of Two-Level Utilitarianism: Hare Vs. Williams: Sanford S. Levy.Sanford S. Levy - 1994 - Utilitas 6 (2):301-309.
  7.  19
    The Biophilia Hypothesis and Anthropocentric Environmentalism.Sanford S. Levy - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (3):227-246.
    Much anthropocentric environmental argument is limited by a narrow conception of how humans can benefit from nature. E. O. Wilson defends a more robust anthropocentric environmentalism based on a broader understanding of these benefits. At the center of his argument is the biophilia hypothesis according to which humans have an evolutionarily crafted, aesthetic and spiritual affinity for nature. However,the “biophilia hypothesis” covers a variety of claims, some modest and some more extreme. Insofar as we have significant evidence for biophilia, it (...)
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  8.  25
    Moral Education: An Act-Utilitarian View1.Sanford S. Levy - 1990 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 10 (2):165-174.
  9.  24
    A Limit on Intuitionistic Methods of Moral Reasoning.Sanford S. Levy - 2003 - Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (4):463-470.
  10.  15
    Richard McCormick and Proportionate Reason.Sanford S. Levy - 1985 - Journal of Religious Ethics 13 (2):258 - 278.
    In response to criticisms of his "Ambiguity in Moral Choice", Richard McCormick developed, in "Commentary on the Commentaries," an alternative view on proportionate reason. I interpret McCormick's view in terms of what I call "the undermining principle," "the theory of associated goods," "the necessity principle," and "the liberty principle." I argue that the first two are the heart of the theory and link McCormick's view to that of Peter Knauer. I then show that McCormick's view suffers from several problems, including (...)
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  11.  10
    Thomas Reid's Defense of Conscience.Sanford S. Levy - 1999 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (4):413 - 435.
  12.  55
    A Contractualist Defense of Rule Consequentialism.Sanford Levy - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Research 38:189-201.
    In this paper, I provide a defense of rule consequentialism that does not appeal to the “guiding teleological idea” according to which the final ground of moral assessment must lie in effects on well-being. My defense also avoids appeals to intuition. It is a contractualist defense. Many forms of contractualism can, with only minor tweaking, be used to defend rule consequentialism. In this paper I show how one specific form of contractualism does the job. This argument is inspired by a (...)
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  13.  19
    A Contractualist Defense of Rule Consequentialism.Sanford Levy - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Research 38:189-201.
    In this paper, I provide a defense of rule consequentialism that does not appeal to the “guiding teleological idea” according to which the final ground of moral assessment must lie in effects on well-being. My defense also avoids appeals to intuition. It is a contractualist defense. Many forms of contractualism can, with only minor tweaking, be used to defend rule consequentialism. In this paper I show how one specific form of contractualism does the job. This argument is inspired by a (...)
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  14.  16
    Jonathan Baron, Consequentialism and Error Theory.Sanford S. Levy - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):22-23.
  15.  15
    Metaethics: A Contemporary Introduction, by Mark van Roojen. [REVIEW]Sanford Levy - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy 40 (1):112-115.
  16.  27
    Michael Huemer’s A Priori Defense of Metaethical Internalism.Sanford Levy - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (4):1067-1080.
    Versions of internalism have played important roles in metaethics, for example, in defending irrealist options such as emotivism. However, internalism is itself as controversial as the views it is used to defend. Standard approaches to testing the view, such as thought experiments about amoralists, have failed to gain consensus. Michael Huemer offers a defense of internalism of a different kind which he calls the “argument from interpretation.” He presents the argument as one Humeans could embrace, but versions could be accepted (...)
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  17.  34
    Metaethical Naturalism and Thick Moral Arguments.Sanford Levy - 2009 - Philo 12 (1):46-60.
    There has long been interest in deriving evaluative conclusions from nonevaluative premises. I revisit two classic attempts at this derivation by Philippa Foot and John Searle. They try the derivation using “thick arguments.” I argue that all thick arguments fail. Their failure is not due to a special feature of morality or of moral language, as many critics have charged. Rather it is because the thick evaluative terms are theoretical terms.
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  18. Philippa Foot's Theory of Natural Goodness.Sanford S. Levy - 2009 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (1):1-15.
    Philippa Foot's book, Natural Goodness, involves a large project including a theory of natural goodness, a theory of the virtues, and a theory of practical rationality. Natural goodness is the foundation for the rest and is used to support a more or less traditional list of the virtues and a theory of reasons for action. Though Foot's doctrine of natural goodness may provide an account of some sort of goodness, I argue that it is not adequate as a foundation for (...)
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  19.  38
    The Failure of Hooker’s Argument for Rule Consequentialism.Sanford Levy - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (5):598-614.
    Brad Hooker argues for rule consequentialism using narrow reflective equilibrium resources along with a handful of wider resources. One of his important claims in defense of rule consequentialism is that it begins from a familiar and attractive idea about morality. I argue that his defense of rule consequentialism fails and more particularly, that rather than beginning from a familiar and attractive idea, it begins from an idea that is quite unattractive. I show this by applying the method rule consequentialists use (...)
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  20.  43
    Utilitarian Alternatives to Act Utilitarianism.Sanford S. Levy - 1997 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78 (1):93–112.
    One problem for any utilitarian alternative to act utilitarianism, such as rule utilitarianism, is the feeling that act utilitarianism is the most natural form of utilitarianism. Other forms seem unmotivated, inconsistent, or irrational. This argument is found in Smart, Foot and Slote. It turns on the assumption that utilitarianism must be motivated by the "teleological motivation," the idea that one must derive one's entire moral theory from the notion of the good. I respond that act utilitarianism itself has a problem (...)
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