People implicitly associate positive ideas with their dominant side of space and negative ideas with their non-dominant side. Right-handers tend to associate “good” with “right” and “bad” with “left,” but left-handers associate “bad” with “right” and “good” with “left.” Whereas right-handers' implicit associations align with idioms in language and culture that link “good” with “right,” left-handers' implicit associations go against them. Can cultural conventions modulate the body-specific association between valence and left-right space? Here, we compared people from Spanish and Moroccan (...) cultures, which differ in the strength of taboos against the use of the left hand, and therefore in their preference for the right. Results showed stronger explicit associations between space and valence in Moroccan participants than in Spaniards, but they did not show any increased tendency for right-handed Moroccans to associate “good” with “right” implicitly. Despite differences in cultural conventions between Spaniards and Moroccans, we find no evidence for a cross-cultural difference in the implicit association between space and valence, which appears to depend on patterns of bodily experience. (shrink)
Bodies of afro descendant women carry not only the historical marks of suffering and dispossession. For they are also told stories of resistance, faith and ancestry, and as social constructions, such bodies are presented as drawings of the cultural diversity that permeates individual and collective identities. Thus, this paper has the approaches around the body beyond the biological and discusses further socio-cultural marks on afro descendant feminist bodies, making allusions and images appear in Brazilian literature and speeches on such bodies.
Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words’ emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present paper, we show how attentional cueing (both exogenous and endogenous) to each conceptual dimension succeeds in modifying both the manifestation and the symmetry of the effect. The theoretical implications of this (...) finding are discussed. (shrink)
El artículo es un comentario crítico a“Realismo, esencialismo yextensionalismo”, del profesor IgnacioÁvila. En particular, se contestan lascríticas que el profesor Ávila hace a lametafísica esencialista, argumentando,principalmente, que esta metafísica escompatible con el fenómeno de larelatividad conceptual.This paper is a critical commentary to“Realism, Essentialism and Extensionalism”, by professor Ignacio Ávila. In particular, professor Ávila’s criticisms to an essentialist metaphysics are answered,arguing, mainly, that this metaphysicsis compatible with the phenom-enon of conceptual relativity.
We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and individual participants who played a matched learning game. An analysis of the languages over six generations in an iterated learning experiment revealed that in the Communication condition, but not in the Reproduction condition, words for spiky shapes tend (...) to be rated by naive judges as more spiky than the words for round shapes. This suggests that iconicity may not only be the outcome of innovations introduced by individuals, but, crucially, the result of interlocutor negotiation of new communicative conventions. We interpret our results as an illustration of cultural evolution by random mutation and selection. (shrink)
What would happen if one morning you wake up clumsy, as if your sense of touch were unreliable, arbitrarily on and off? And what would this clumsiness look like if we could transfer it to the moral sense? The article expounds an interesting analogy between the sense of touch, loosely construed, and the moral sense: just as a sort of consistency is necessary for the sense of touch to do its job, so it is for the moral sense to play (...) its part. Touch enables us to navigate the everyday world of coffee pots and staircases; our moral sensibility comes into play when we act or when we judge our actions and those of others, and plays a directive role in what we feel, how we feel it, and how we react to it. Taking the analogy further, I will suggest that inconsistency causes, in both cases, a certain clumsiness, and that clumsiness is linked to arbitrariness – like the person that helps others in dire need, but only does so on some rainy days. (shrink)
I argue that Husserl’s concept of position-taking, Stellungnahme, is adequate to understand the idea of second nature as an issue of philosophical anthropology. I claim that the methodological focus must be the living subject that acts and lives among others, and that the notion of second nature must respond to precisely this fundamental active character of subjectivity. The appropriate concept should satisfy two additional desiderata. First, it should be able to develop alongside the biological, psychological, and social individual development. Second, (...) it should be able to underlie the vast diversity of human beings within and across communities. As possible candidates, I contrast position-taking with two types of habit-like concepts: instinct and habitus, on the one hand, and customary habits, on the other. I argue that position-taking represents the active aspect of the subject while the habit-like concepts are passive. A subject’s position-takings and ensuing comportments are tied together by motivations, which evince a certain consistency, and for this reason are expression of the subject’s identity. I conclude by nuancing the relation between Stellungnahme and passivity. Passivity is deemed necessary to action but subservient to it; position-taking is thought to be prior to passivity. (shrink)
No prefácio das Obras póstumas de Espinosa, o inacabado Compêndio de gramática da língua hebraica é apresentado como um trabalho que, segundo a intenção do autor, quando concluída, assumiria a forma de uma exposição more geometrico da gramática hebraica. Nos estudos espinosanos, muitas vezes se buscou determinar o aspecto geométrico do trabalho, sobretudo em comparação com a Ética , ou então renegá-lo, afirmando a incongruência de aplicar-se tal método a um objeto, um idioma, inapreensível à geometria. A partir da reconsideração (...) desses argumentos e do estudo de algumas passagens do Compêndio , acreditamos ser possível concluir que a obra era realmente redigida como uma exposição geométrica da gramática hebraica, o que se revela especialmente pela presença de um movimento ordenado e dedutivo a comandar sua composição. (shrink)
A partir das reflexões do último Merleau-Ponty sobre a ontologia clássica e sua compreensão do ser, particularmente n? O visível e o invisível , podemos descobrir certas questões que aproximam sua filosofia da de Espinosa. Ao repassar algumas delas, esperamos mostrar ao menos a pertinência de uma investigação acerca das relações entre espinosismo e merleau-pontysmo.
The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm (EPRB) experiment performed with random variable and spatially separated analyzers is a milestone test in the controversy between Objective Local Theories (OLT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). Only a few OLT are still possible. Some of the surviving OLT (specifically, the so called non-ergodic theories) would be undetectable in the averaged statistical values, but they may leave their trace in the time dynamics. For, while QM predicts random processes, the OLT of this kind predict the existence of regularities that (...) may be revealed as a low dimensional object in the phase space. We perform a numerical analysis of the time-resolved data recorded in that experiment to unveil any hypothetical low dimensional dynamics that may be present. We find no consistent indication of such dynamics except for one data file, the longest of all in the real time. The possible causes of these dynamics are discussed. (shrink)
Through a critical engagement with Merleau-Ponty’s discussion of the concepts of nature, life, and behavior, and with contemporary accounts of animal groups, this article argues that animal groups exhibit sociality and that sociality is a fundamental ontological condition. I situate my account in relation to the superorganism and selfish individual accounts of animal groups in recent biology and zoology. I argue that both accounts are inadequate. I propose an alternative account of animal groups and animal sociality through a Merleau-Pontian inspired (...) definition of behavior. I criticize Merleau-Ponty’s individualistic prejudice, but show that his philosophy contains the resources necessary to overcome this bias. I define behavior as a holistic, ongoing, meaningful and Umwelt-oriented intrinsically configured expression of living forms of existence. By looking at cases of animal groups drawn from contemporary studies in zoology and behavioral ecology, I show that animal groups, in the fact that they behave, manifest themselves to be a fundamental form of existence, namely, the social form of existence. (shrink)
Habitats (where we live), habits (how we live), and inhabitants (who we are) constitute an ecosystem unit. The biosphere is composed of a reticulate mosaic of these habitat-habit-inhabitant units, where humans (with their indigenous languages, ecological knowledge, and practices) have coevolved. Today, these diverse ecosystem units are being violently destroyed by the imposition of a single global colonial cultural model. In Cape Horn at the southern end of the Americas, educators, authorities, and decision makers do not know about the native (...) habitats, language, and flora, and do not distinguish between Cape Horn’s flora and the flora that grows in other parts of the country or the world. In contrast, indigenous people and old residents have a detailed knowledge, but they do not participate in education, and decision making. It is not Homo sapiens in general, but bioculturally biased educators, authorities, and decision makers who need to be transformed into (educated and responsible) members and citizen of biocultural communities. The Omora Ethnobotanical Park educational program was launched to contribute to a biocultural citizenship involving three critical steps: (1) the disclosing of biocultural diversity with a “fine filter” approach that permits understanding of the cultural and ecological diversity hidden by general universal labels; (2) direct “face-to-face” encounters with human and nonhuman co-inhabitants; and (3) actions for protection of habitats and implementation of interpretative spaces that facilitate direct encounters and conservation of biocultural diversity. These steps have been implemented at local and regional scales through the creation of the Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. (shrink)
In Merleau-Pontys reflections on classical ontology and his understanding of being one can discern some issues which approximate his philosophy to that of Spinozas. By showing that, I hope to establish at least the convenience of an investigation about the relationship between the ideas of the two philosophers.A partir das reflexões do último Merleau-Ponty sobre a ontologia clássica e sua compreensão do ser, particularmente nO visível e o invisível, podemos descobrir certas questões que aproximam sua filosofia da de Espinosa. Ao (...) repassar algumas delas, esperamos mostrar ao menos a pertinência de uma investigação acerca das relações entre espinosismo e merleau-pontysmo. (shrink)
Tanto Espinosa quanto Nietzsche promoveram uma análise crítica da moral vigente; ambos terminam por descobrir a falsidade da concepção de valores transcendentes. No caso específico de Nietzsche, tal operação o conduz a determinar a criação de valores como uma tarefa imperativa aos novos filósofos. O mesmo poderia ser dito de Espinosa? Não encontraríamos no espinosismo algo que se aproximasse de uma necessidade de criar valores? Buscamos responder a tais questões mediante uma análise do início do Tratado da emenda do intelecto.
Descartes estabeleceu conceitos através dos quais explicaria sua tese geral para o movimento dos corpos. Em total desacordo, Newton realizou um ostensivo ataque a teoria cartesiana concluindo que o movimento assumido pelo filosofo francês não deveria ser considerado como um movimento real. O diálogo desenvolvido ao longo da discussão, fundamentada na teoria newtoniana referente à natureza física do mundo, demonstra de forma sutil e refinada as observações precisas feitas por Newton acerca das contradições a que levavam o desenvolvimento dos conceitos (...) propostos por Descartes. Imbuída de espírito físico-filosófico, este artigo tem por objetivo elucidar as “ficções” cartesianas, bem como demonstrar a forma pela qual Newton buscou refutá-las: contrapondo a referida teoria de movimento com a sua. (shrink)
Las relaciones entre la filosofía y la literatura han estado determinadas por la discusión y exclusión recíprocas. En este trabajo se plantea el origen de estas relaciones, considerando mito y logos como manifestación de una realidad única. Esta realidad se configura a partir de la confusión que se produce entre ser y parecer, que se plantea en el desvelamiento de la realidad a través de la creación materializada en la escritura. En este sentido, se puede considerar que la filosofía es (...) literatura de conocimiento' porque en su esfuerzo por esclarecer la realidad, por descubrir la verdad de las cosas y por hacer comprensible el bagaje conceptual de que dispone, hace uso de la belleza estilística que le brinda la literatura. (shrink)
Nos vários textos em que se debruça sobre a realidade brasileira, especialmente suas manifestações ideológicas, Marilena Chaui serve-se de um método particular de análise que envolve três operações distintas: 1) a preocupação com a singularidade dos objetos estudados; 2) a compreensão da luta de classes como determinante desses objetos; 3) a prática do contradiscurso. Nosso propósito é detectar o momento de invenção desse método nos Apontamentos para uma crítica da Ação Integralista Brasileira, texto publicado em 1978 e que sintetiza muito (...) do percurso da autora ao longo dos anos 70. (shrink)
Kant developed a philosophy of histoy where the conjiic& the wa>: has a fundamental role in the develop of the society and in the politicals relations. Is common to associate him with the project of a perpetual pace but, was not looking for a pact of pace among nations but to a programm..
In reflection, emotions have been relegated to the field of subjectivity. A long time ago they were considered as an object of psychology, devoid of any interest for philosophical analysis. Thus, for scientific positivism and ethical emotivism, emotions lack epistemic value. Such convictions started to crumble after the studies pursued by thinkers such as Richard Rorty, Martha Nussbaum or Jon Elster. This paper highlights the importance of emotions for philosophy, referring to moral and political learning based on Colombian experiences It (...) also evaluates the importance of moral emotions in order to facilitate social transformation and to contribute to the emancipatory intentions of the Illustration. Keywords: emotions. (shrink)
In Portugal, as elsewhere, the rhetoric of managerialism in higher education is becoming firmly entrenched in the governmental policymakers’ discourse and has been widely disseminated across the institutional landscape. Managerialism is an important ideological support of New Public Management policies and can be classified as a narrative of strategic change. In this paper, we analyse how far the managerialism narrative has been injected into the discursive repertory of Portuguese academics in their role as the co-ordinators of the higher education institutions’ (...) teaching and academic middle levels. Based on an analysis of interview responses, it seems that most academics support traditional academic values such as autonomy and collegiality, and reject university or polytechnic governance based on corporate philosophy. (shrink)
O objeto da reflexão, neste artigo, são as propostas curriculares veiculadas a partir da segunda metade do século XIX, no Brasil e na Argentina. A questão que se coloca é perceber quais os conteúdos que estão incluídos sobre a América Latina, nestas propostas curriculares, se há semelhanças e diferenças entre estes documentos e se os conteúdos veiculados nas propostas curriculares implantadas a partir de 1995, nestes dois países, refletem as mudanças no ensino de história, sugeridas pelo MERCOSUL Educacional. O texto (...) foi dividido em dois subtemas, sendo que no primeiro, estão dispostos os dados referentes à América Latina no ensino secundário das propostas curriculares veiculadas nos séculos XIX até a década de 1980, do século XX e no segundo, são trazidos os conteúdos da América Latina que estão propostos para o sétimo e o oitavo anos, nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, do Brasil e para o oitavo e nonos anos, nos Contenidos Básicos Comunes, da Argentina. Foi possível concluir que o lugar da América Latina foi bastante escasso, inclusive no contexto em que ascenderam suas preocupações com o nacionalismo. No caso do Brasil, o currículo foi fabricado de modo a tanto valorizar a história europeia e estadunidense, como modelo a ser seguido, e, num segundo plano, a valorizar a sua própria história. Esta lógica foi igualmente percebida na Argentina, que tinha a sua história como apêndice de uma história universal, privilegiando o olhar sobre o Estado, excluindo os conteúdos sobre a América Latina. Já as propostas curriculares veiculadas a partir de 1995, no Brasil e na Argentina, apresentaram mais permanências do que mudanças, uma vez que colocaram os conteúdos da História da América Latina na condição de ser a sobremesa de um menu, cujo prato principal ainda é a história europeia. Palavras-chave: Ensino de História da América. Mercosul Educacional. Propostas curriculares. (shrink)
The article is an approach to the work of Colombian writer Manuel Mejía Vallejo having as starting point the recognition of the importance of memory for literary creation, especially the remembrance of childhood. It is evident in the work of Mejía Vallejo the intention of leaving proof of the time and space in which he lived, as well as a concern to work out the role of memory in the life of the human being. It is argued in the article (...) that the literary style of the author might be understood as a narrative of memory, where memory reaches the category of poetic. (shrink)
It is the case of a 66-year-old man in a permanent vegetative state which his family is blocked due to suffering. A process and a document of a shared decision-making between the family and the professional team allowed giving emotional support, unlocking the situation and preventing complicated grief.
This paper examines and evaluates the models and the most important methods for solving clinical cases; namely, 1) principlism, 2) deontologism, 3) consequentialism, 4) casuistry, 5) virtue ethics and 6) ethics centered on the person. The strengths and weaknesses of each are weighed and an instrument is proposed to facilitate this type of analysis. As a group, the preference is for a methodology that articulates three models: the virtue approach, the person-centered approach, and these two in harmony with an ethics (...) centered on principles. The reasons for this comprehensive option are based primarily on recognition of the primacy of the dignity of the human person and on acknowledgement that complex clinical situations require a comprehensive view of both the person and clinical practice. The latter requires virtues, ethical principles and recognition of the human person as being endowed with inherent dignity and, in turn, as the foundation of ethics and clinical practice. DOI: 10.5294/pebi.2016.20.1.2. (shrink)
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