20 found
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  1.  52
    Meaning and framing: the semantic implications of psychological framing effects.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (8):967-990.
    I use the psychological phenomenon of ‘attribute framing’ as a case study for exploring philosophical conceptions of semantics and the semantics-pragmatics divide. Attribute frames are pairs of sentences that use contradictory expressions to predicate the same property of an individual or object. Despite their equivalence, pairs of attribute frames have been observed to induce systematic variability in hearers’ responses. One explanation of such framing effects appeals to the distinct ‘reference point information’ conveyed by alternative frames. Although this information is taken (...)
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  2.  35
    Rationalising framing effects: at least one task for empirically informed philosophy.Sarah A. Fisher - 2020 - Crítica, Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 52 (156):5-30.
    Human judgements are affected by the words in which information is presented —or ‘framed’. According to the standard gloss, ‘framing effects’ reveal counter-normative reasoning, unduly affected by positive/negative language. One challenge to this view suggests that number expressions in alternative framing conditions are interpreted as denoting lower-bounded (minimum) quantities. However, it is unclear whether the resulting explanation is a rationalising one. I argue that a number expression should only be interpreted lower-boundedly if this is what it actually means. I survey (...)
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  3.  46
    Risky‐choice framing and rational decision‐making.Sarah A. Fisher & David R. Mandel - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (8):e12763.
    This article surveys the latest research on risky-choice framing effects, focusing on the implications for rational decision-making. An influential program of psychological research suggests that people's judgements and decisions depend on the way in which information is presented, or ‘framed’. In a central choice paradigm, decision-makers seem to adopt different preferences, and different attitudes to risk, depending on whether the options specify the number of people who will be saved or the corresponding number who will die. It is standardly assumed (...)
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  4.  23
    Frames, Reasons, and Rationality.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (2):162-173.
    In his recent book, Frame It Again: New Tools for Rational Decision-Making, J. L. Bermúdez argues that it can be rational to evaluate the same thing differently when it is described using alternati...
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  5.  68
    Semantic content and utterance context: a spectrum of approaches.Emma Borg & Sarah A. Fisher - 2021 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Philosophy of Language. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    It is common in philosophy of language to recognise two different kinds of linguistic meaning: literal or conventional meaning, on the one hand, versus communicated or conveyed meaning, on the other. However, once we recognise these two types of meaning, crucial questions immediately emerge; for instance, exactly which meanings should we treat as the literal (semantic) ones, and exactly which appeals to a context of utterance yield communicated (pragmatic), as opposed to semantic, content? It is these questions and, specifically, how (...)
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  6.  24
    Frames, Reasons, and Rationality.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (2):162-173.
    In his recent book, Frame It Again: New Tools for Rational Decision-Making, J. L. Bermúdez argues that it can be rational to evaluate the same thing differently when it is described using alternati...
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  7.  19
    Defining preferences over framed outcomes does not secure agents' rationality.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e227.
    Bermúdez claims that agents think about framed outcomes, not outcomes themselves; and that seemingly incoherent preferences can be rational, once defined over framed outcomes. However, the agents in his examples know that alternative frames describe the same outcome, neutrally understood. This undermines the restriction of their preferences to framed outcomes and, in turn, the argument for rational framing effects.
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  8.  24
    Framing Effects and Fuzzy Traces: ‘Some’ Observations.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (3):719-733.
    Framing effects occur when people respond differently to the same information, just because it is conveyed in different words. For example, in the classic ‘Disease Problem’ introduced by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, people’s choices between alternative interventions depend on whether these are described positively, in terms of the number of people who will be saved, or negatively in terms of the corresponding number who will die. In this paper, I discuss an account of framing effects based on ‘fuzzy-trace theory’. (...)
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  9.  49
    Reassessing truth-evaluability in the Minimalism-Contextualism debate.Sarah A. Fisher - 2019 - Synthese 198 (3):1-18.
    The debate between Semantic Minimalism and Radical Contextualism is standardly characterized as concerning truth-evaluability—specifically, whether or not sentences require rich contextualization in order to express complete, truth-evaluable contents. In this paper, I examine the notion of truth-evaluability, considering which kinds of mappings it might require from worldly states of affairs to truth-values. At one end of the spectrum, an exhaustive notion would require truth-evaluable contents to map all possible states of affairs to truth-values. At the other end, a liberal notion (...)
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  10.  27
    Teaching & learning guide for: Risky‐choice framing and rational decision‐making.Sarah A. Fisher & David R. Mandel - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (12):e12794.
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  11.  18
    That's not what you said! Semantic constraints on literal speech.Sarah A. Fisher - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    According to some philosophers, a sentence's semantics can fail to constitute a complete propositional content, imposing mere constraints on such a content. Recently, Daniel Harris has begun developing a formal constraint semantics. He claims that the semantic values of sentences constrain what speakers can literally say with them—and what hearers can know about what was said. However, that claim is undermined by his conception of semantics as the study of a psychological module. I argue instead that semantic constraints should be (...)
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  12.  44
    An empirical investigation of intuitions about uptake.Sarah A. Fisher, Kathryn B. Francis & Leo Townsend - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Since Austin’s introduction of the locutionary-illocutionary-perlocutionary distinction, it has been a matter of debate within speech act theory whether illocutionary acts like promising, warning, refusing and telling require audience ‘uptake’ in order to be performed. Philosophers on different sides of this debate have tried to support their positions by appealing to hypothetical scenarios, designed to elicit intuitive judgements about the role of uptake. However, philosophers’ intuitions appeared to remain deadlocked, while laypeople’s intuitions have not yet been probed. To begin rectifying (...)
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  13.  40
    Correction to: Pain priors, polyeidism, and predictive power: a preliminary investigation into individual differences in ordinary thought about pain.Harriet Wilkinson, Tim V. Salomons, Deepak Ravindran, Richard Harrison, Nat Hansen, Sarah A. Fisher & Emma Borg - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 44 (1):101-102.
    According to standard philosophical and clinical understandings, pain is an essentially mental phenomenon. In a challenge to this standard conception, a recent burst of empirical work in experimental philosophy, such as that by Justin Sytsma and Kevin Reuter, purports to show that people ordinarily conceive of pain as an essentially bodily phenomenon—specifically, a quality of bodily disturbance. In response to this bodily view, other recent experimental studies have provided evidence that the ordinary concept of pain is more complex than previously (...)
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  14.  34
    Description invariance: a rational principle for human agents.Sarah A. Fisher - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):42-54.
    This article refines a foundational tenet of rational choice theory known as the principle of description invariance. Attempts to apply this principle to human agents with imperfect knowledge have paid insufficient attention to two aspects: first, agents’ epistemic situations, i.e. whether and when they recognize alternative descriptions of an object to be equivalent; and second, the individuation of objects of description, i.e. whether and when objects count as the same or different. An important consequence is that many apparent ‘framing effects’ (...)
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  15.  35
    Introduction.Emma Borg, Sarah A. Fisher, Nat Hansen, Antonio Scarafone & Marat Shardimgaliev - 2020 - Ratio 33 (4):203-205.
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  16.  15
    Semantic content and utterance context : a spectrum of approaches.Emma Borg & Sarah A. Fisher - 2021 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Philosophy of Language. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    It is common in philosophy of language to recognise two different kinds of linguistic meaning: literal or conventional meaning, on the one hand, versus communicated or conveyed meaning, on the other. However, once we recognise these two types of meaning, crucial questions immediately emerge; for instance, exactly which meanings should we treat as the literal (semantic) ones, and exactly which appeals to a context of utterance yield communicated (pragmatic), as opposed to semantic, content? It is these questions and, specifically, how (...)
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  17.  7
    Semantic content and utterance context : a spectrum of approaches.Emma Borg & Sarah A. Fisher - 2021 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Philosophy of Language. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    It is common in philosophy of language to recognise two different kinds of linguistic meaning: literal or conventional meaning, on the one hand, versus communicated or conveyed meaning, on the other. However, once we recognise these two types of meaning, crucial questions immediately emerge; for instance, exactly which meanings should we treat as the literal (semantic) ones, and exactly which appeals to a context of utterance yield communicated (pragmatic), as opposed to semantic, content? It is these questions and, specifically, how (...)
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  18.  11
    Correction to: Framing Effects and Fuzzy Traces: ‘Some’ Observations.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (2):525-525.
    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13164-021-00565-2.
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  19.  18
    Frame It Again: New Tools for Rational Decision-Making.Sarah A. Fisher - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (2):512-514.
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  20.  29
    Review of 'Frame It Again: New Tools for Rational Decision-Making' by José Luis Bermúdez. [REVIEW]Sarah A. Fisher - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
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