Results for 'Sarah E. Ainsworth'

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  1.  31
    Are Groups More or Less Than the Sum of Their Members? The Moderating Role of Individual Identification.Roy F. Baumeister, Sarah E. Ainsworth & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-38.
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  2.  34
    Cooperation and Fairness Depend on Self-Regulation.Sarah E. Ainsworth & Roy F. Baumeister - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):79-80.
    Any evolved disposition for fairness and cooperation would not replace but merely compete with selfish and other antisocial impulses. Therefore, we propose that human cooperation and fairness depend on self-regulation. Evidence shows reductions in fairness and other prosocial tendencies when self-regulation fails.
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  3.  33
    Subjective Correlates and Consequences of Belief in Free Will.A. Will Crescioni, Roy F. Baumeister, Sarah E. Ainsworth, Michael Ent & Nathaniel M. Lambert - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (1):41-63.
    Four studies measured or manipulated beliefs in free will to illuminate how such beliefs are linked to other aspects of personality. Study 1 showed that stronger belief in free will was correlated with more gratitude, greater life satisfaction, lower levels of perceived life stress, a greater sense of self-efficacy, greater perceived meaning in life, higher commitment in relationships, and more willingness to forgive relationship partners. Study 2 showed that the belief in free will was a stronger predictor of life satisfaction, (...)
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  4.  9
    The Making of Might-Have-Beens: Effects of Free Will Belief on Counterfactual Thinking.Jessica L. Alquist, Sarah E. Ainsworth & Roy Baumesiter - 2014 - Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41 (2):268-283.
    Counterfactual thoughts are based on the assumption that one situation could result in multiple possible outcomes. This assumption underlies most theories of free will and contradicts deterministic views that there is only one possible outcome of any situation. Three studies tested the hypothesis that stronger belief in free will would lead to more counterfactual thinking. Experimental manipulations (Studies 1-2) and a measure (Studies 3-4) of belief in free will were linked to increased counterfactual thinking in response to autobiographical (Studies 1, (...)
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  5.  12
    Differentiation of Individual Selves Facilitates Group-Level Benefits of Ultrasociality.Sarah E. Ainsworth, Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  6.  4
    Differentiating Selves Facilitates Group Outcomes.Sarah E. Ainsworth, Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  7.  22
    Individual Identity and Freedom of Choice in the Context of Environmental and Economic Conditions.Roy F. Baumeister, Jina Park & Sarah E. Ainsworth - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):484 - 484.
    Van de Vliert's findings fit nicely with our recent arguments implying that (1) differentiated selfhood is partly motivated by requirements of cultural groups, and (2) free will mainly exists within culture. Some cultural groups promote individual freedom, whereas others constrict it so as to maintain elites' power and privilege. Thus, freedom is, to a great extent, a creation of culture.
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  8.  55
    Varieties of Update.Sarah E. Murray - 2014 - Semantics and Pragmatics 7 (2):1--53.
    This paper discusses three potential varieties of update: updates to the common ground, structuring updates, and updates that introduce discourse referents. These different types of update are used to model different aspects of natural language phenomena. Not-at-issue information directly updates the common ground. The illocutionary mood of a sentence structures the context. Other updates introduce discourse referents of various types, including propositional discourse referents for at-issue information. Distinguishing these types of update allows a unified treatment of a broad range of (...)
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  9.  43
    Evidentiality and the Structure of Speech Acts.Sarah E. Murray - 2010 - Dissertation, Rutgers University
    Many languages grammatically mark evidentiality, i.e., the source of information. In assertions, evidentials indicate the source of information of the speaker while in questions they indicate the expected source of information of the addressee. This dissertation examines the semantics and pragmatics of evidentiality and illocutionary mood, set within formal theories of meaning and discourse. The empirical focus is the evidential system of Cheyenne (Algonquian: Montana), which is analyzed based on several years of fieldwork by the author.
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  10.  20
    Evolutionary Constraints on Human Object Perception.E. Koopman Sarah, Z. Mahon Bradford & F. Cantlon Jessica - 2017 - Cognitive Science:2126-2148.
    Language and culture endow humans with access to conceptual information that far exceeds any which could be accessed by a non-human animal. Yet, it is possible that, even without language or specific experiences, non-human animals represent and infer some aspects of similarity relations between objects in the same way as humans. Here, we show that monkeys’ discrimination sensitivity when identifying images of animals is predicted by established measures of semantic similarity derived from human conceptual judgments. We used metrics from computer (...)
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  11.  16
    The Role of Cultural Artifacts in the Interpretation of Metaphorical Expressions About Time.Sarah E. Duffy - 2014 - Metaphor and Symbol 29 (2):94-112.
    Across cultures, people employ space to construct representations of time. English exhibits two deictic space–time metaphors: the “moving ego” metaphor conceptualizes the ego as moving forward through time and the “moving time” metaphor conceptualizes time as moving forward towards the ego. Earlier research investigating the psychological reality of these metaphors has shown that engaging in certain types of spatial-motion thinking may influence how people reason about events in time. More recently, research has shown that people’s interactions with cultural artifacts may (...)
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  12.  32
    Ebola, Team Communication, and Shame: But Shame on Whom?Sarah E. Shannon - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):20-25.
    Examined as an isolated situation, and through the lens of a rare and feared disease, Mr. Duncan's case seems ripe for second-guessing the physicians and nurses who cared for him. But viewed from the perspective of what we know about errors and team communication, his case is all too common. Nearly 440,000 patient deaths in the U.S. each year may be attributable to medical errors. Breakdowns in communication among health care teams contribute in the majority of these errors. The culture (...)
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  13.  10
    Individual Differences in the Interpretation of Ambiguous Statements About Time.Sarah E. Duffy & Michele I. Feist - 2014 - Cognitive Linguistics 25 (1):29-54.
  14.  85
    Graduate Students and the Culture of Authorship.Sarah E. Oberlander & Robert J. Spencer - 2006 - Ethics and Behavior 16 (3):217 – 232.
    In the last 50 years, multiauthored publications have become more prevalent, given the increasing number of collaborative, interdisciplinary, multicenter research studies. The determination of authorship credit and order is a difficult process, especially for graduate students, whose disadvantaged power position in research settings increases their vulnerability to exploitation. The American Psychological Association has published ethical standards for determining authorship credit, but the power difference inherent in the student-faculty relationship may complicate this ethical dilemma. The authors reviewed a number of previously (...)
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  15.  44
    Animals and Agency: An Interdisciplinary Exploration.Sarah E. McFarland & Ryan Hediger (eds.) - 2009 - Brill.
    This collection examines the question of nonhuman animal agency by shifting emphasis from the human perspective toward that of other animals, exploring modes of ...
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  16.  29
    A Hamblin Semantics for Evidentials.Sarah E. Murray - 2011 - In Ed Cormany, Satoshi Ito & David Lutz (eds.), Proceedings From Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) XIX (2009). CLC Publications. pp. 324--341.
    In this paper, I propose that the distinction between what is at-issue and what is not can be modeled as a distinction between two components of assertion. These two components affect the common ground in different ways. The at-issue component of an assertion, which is negotiable, is treated as a proposal to update the common ground. The not-at-issue component of an assertion, which is not negotiable, is added directly to the common ground. Evidence for this proposal comes from evidentials, which (...)
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  17.  5
    Empowerment Through Care: Using Dialogue Between the Social Model of Disability and an Ethic of Care to Redraw Boundaries of Independence and Partnership Between Disabled People and Services.Sarah E. Keyes, Sarah H. Webber & Kevin Beveridge - 2015 - Alter - European Journal of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche Sur le Handicap 9 (3):236-248.
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  18.  35
    Moving Through Time: The Role of Personality in Three Real‐Life Contexts.Sarah E. Duffy, Michele I. Feist & Steven McCarthy - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1662-1674.
    In English, two deictic space-time metaphors are in common usage: the Moving Ego metaphor conceptualizes the ego as moving forward through time and the Moving Time metaphor conceptualizes time as moving forward toward the ego . Although earlier research investigating the psychological reality of these metaphors has typically examined spatial influences on temporal reasoning , recent lines of research have extended beyond this, providing initial evidence that personality differences and emotional experiences may also influence how people reason about events in (...)
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  19.  8
    Management Education and Earth System Science: Transformation as If Planetary Boundaries Mattered.Sarah E. Cornell, Jose M. Alcaraz & Mark G. Edwards - 2021 - Business and Society 60 (1):26-56.
    Earth system science has identified worrying trends in the human impact on fundamental planetary systems. In this conceptual article, we discuss the implications of this research for business schools and management education. We argue that ESS findings raise significant concerns about the relationship between business and nature and, consequently, a radical reframing is required to embed economic and social activity within the global sustainability of natural systems. This has transformative implications for ME. To illustrate this reframing, we apply the ESS (...)
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  20.  11
    Sender Gender Influences Emoji Interpretation in Text Messages.Sarah E. Butterworth, Traci A. Giuliano, Justin White, Lizette Cantu & Kyle C. Fraser - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  21.  20
    Grammatical Aspect and Temporal Distance in Motion Descriptions.Sarah E. Anderson, Teenie Matlock & Michael Spivey - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  22.  8
    Reacting to Consecrating Science: What Might Amateurs Do?Sarah E. Fredericks - 2019 - Zygon 54 (2):354-381.
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  23.  20
    Informed Consent in the Psychosis Prodrome: Ethical, Procedural and Cultural Considerations.Sarah E. Morris & Robert K. Heinssen - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:19.
    Research focused on the prodromal period prior to the onset of psychosis is essential for the further development of strategies for early detection, early intervention, and disease pre-emption. Such efforts necessarily require the enrollment of individuals who are at risk of psychosis but have not yet developed a psychotic illness into research and treatment protocols. This work is becoming increasingly internationalized, which warrants special consideration of cultural differences in conceptualization of mental illness and international differences in health care practices and (...)
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  24.  48
    Scholars, Amateurs, and Artists as Partners for the Future of Religion and Science.Sarah E. Fredericks & Lea F. Schweitz - 2015 - Zygon 50 (2):418-438.
    We recommend that the future of religion and science involve more partnerships between scholars, amateurs, and artists. This reimagines an underdeveloped aspect of the history of religion and science. Case studies of an undergraduate course examining religious ritual and technology, seminarians reflecting on memory and identity in light of Alzheimer's disease, environmentalists responding to their guilt and shame about climate change, and Chicagoans recognizing the presence of nature in the city show how these partnerships respect insights and experiences of our (...)
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  25.  5
    Social Identity Threat in Interpersonal Relationships: Activating Negative Stereotypes Decreases Social Approach Motivation.Sarah E. Martiny & Jana Nikitin - 2019 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 25 (1):117-128.
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  26.  47
    Evidentials and Questions in Cheyenne.Sarah E. Murray - 2010 - In Suzi Lima (ed.), Proceedings of SULA 5: Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas (2009). GLSA Publications. pp. 139--155.
    On one view, the point of an assertion is to update the common ground (Stalnaker 1978, Karttunen 1974). On another, the point of an assertion is to propose an update to the com- mon ground (Groenendijk 2009, Mascarenhas 2009, and related work on the structure of discourse, e.g., Ginzburg 1996, Roberts 1996, Gunlogson 2001). In Murray (to appear), I merge these two views. I argue based on evidence from declarative sentences with eviden- tials that assertion has two components: what is (...)
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  27.  5
    Understanding the Needs of Young People Who Engage in Self-Harm: A Qualitative Investigation.Sarah E. Hetrick, Aruni Subasinghe, Kate Anglin, Laura Hart, Amy Morgan & Jo Robinson - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  28.  12
    Elucidating Sensorimotor Control Principles with Myoelectric Musculoskeletal Models.Sarah E. Goodman & Christopher J. Hasson - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  29. Why We Are Not Morally Required to Select the Best Children: A Response to Savulescu.Sarah E. Stoller - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (7):364-369.
    The purpose of this paper is to review critically Julian Savulescu's principle of 'Procreative Beneficence,' which holds that prospective parents are morally obligated to select, of the possible children they could have, those with the greatest chance of leading the best life. According to this principle, prospective parents are obliged to use the technique of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select for the 'best' embryos, a decision that ought to be made based on the presence or absence of both disease (...)
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  30.  58
    Reflexivity and Reciprocity with(Out) Underspecification.Sarah E. Murray - 2008 - In Alte Grønn (ed.), Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 12 (2007). ILOS. pp. 455--469.
    In languages like English, reflexivity and reciprocity are expressed by distinct proforms. However, many languages, such as Cheyenne, express reflexivity and reciprocity with a single proform. In this paper I utilize Dynamic Plural Logic (van den Berg, 1996) to a draw a semantic parallel between reflexive and reciprocal anaphors in English. I propose that they contribute overlapping but distinct requirements on the relations introduced by transitive verbs, requirements which fully specify reflexivity and reciprocity. This parallel is then extended to Cheyenne (...)
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  31.  34
    Multiple Relationships Between Graduate Assistants and Students: Ethical and Practical Considerations.Sarah E. Oberlander & Jeffrey E. Barnett - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (1):49 – 63.
    Most, if not all, psychologists have served as teaching or research assistants during graduate school, been instructed by teaching assistants, or both. As both faculty and students themselves, graduate assistants are faced with several dilemmas for which they typically have little preparation or guidance. These issues are explored in the context of the existing literature on multiple relationships in academic settings. Recommendations are made for graduate assistants, their faculty supervisors or mentors, and administrators to proactively address and confront these challenges (...)
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  32.  91
    Storytelling and Narrative Knowing: An Examination of the Epistemic Benefits of Well-Told Stories.Sarah E. Worth - 2008 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 42 (3):pp. 42-56.
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  33.  17
    Sounding Black or White: Priming Identity and Biracial Speech.Sarah E. Gaither, Ariel M. Cohen-Goldberg, Calvin L. Gidney & Keith B. Maddox - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  34.  27
    Social Norm Theory and Male Circumcision: Why Parents Circumcise.Sarah E. Waldeck - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):56-57.
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  35. Wittgenstein's Musical Understanding.Sarah E. Worth - 1997 - British Journal of Aesthetics 37 (2):158-167.
  36.  54
    The Genetics of Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Ageing in Healthy Older People.Sarah E. Harris & Ian J. Deary - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (9):388-394.
  37.  45
    Quantificational and Illocutionary Variability in Cheyenne.Sarah E. Murray - 2012 - In Elizabeth Bogal-Allbritten (ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on the Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas and SULA-Bar. Glsa Publications. pp. 149--170.
    In this paper, I discuss the quantificational variability of Cheyenne indeterminates: the variety of interpretations they can receive and the grammatical contexts that condition these interpretations. Building on analyses of indeterminates in other languages, such as Kratzer and Shimoyama (2002), I present a Hamblin-style analysis of Cheyenne indeter- minates. The proposal builds on the analysis of declaratives and interrogatives argued for in Murray (2010). This analysis can account for the quantificational variability of indeterminates in the scope of propositional operators as (...)
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  38.  15
    "Without Respect of Persons": Gender Equality, Theology, and the Law in the Writing of Margaret Fell.Sarah E. Skwire - 2015 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (2):137-157.
  39.  38
    Aristotle, Thought, and Mimesis: Our Responses to Fiction.Sarah E. Worth - 2000 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (4):333-339.
  40. Comprehending Negated Sentences with Binary States and Locations.Sarah E. Anderson, Stephanie Huette, Teenie Matlock & M. Spivey - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
     
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  41.  56
    Dynamics of Reflexivity and Reciprocity.Sarah E. Murray - 2007 - In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. ILLC/Department of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam. pp. 157--162.
    Plural reflexives and reciprocals are anaphoric not only to antecedent pluralities but also to relations between the members of those pluralities. In this paper, I utilize Dynamic Plural Logic (van den Berg 1996) to analyze reflexives and reciprocals as anaphors that elaborate on relations introduced by the verb, which can be collective, cumulative, or distributive. This analysis generalizes to languages like Cheyenne (Algonquian) where reflexivity and reciprocity are expressed by a single proform that I argue is underspecified, not ambiguous.
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  42.  26
    The Aesthetics of Mimesis Ancient Texts and Modern Problems. [REVIEW]Sarah E. Worth - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):194-194.
    Steven Halliwell’s book has set a new standard in the scholarship on the philosophical aspects of mimesis. The book is clearly written, extensively researched, and, most importantly, it is a comprehensive analysis of the history and development of the complex, but often oversimplified, notion of mimesis. This is the kind of book scholars are lucky to come across in doing their own research, and a book of this level of achievement is something that we can all use as a model (...)
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  43.  49
    Recipient Design in Tacit Communication.Sarah E. Newman-Norlund, Matthijs L. Noordzij, Roger D. Newman-Norlund, Inge A. C. Volman, Jan Peter de Ruiter, Peter Hagoort & Ivan Toni - 2009 - Cognition 111 (1):46-54.
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  44.  37
    Attitudes Towards Business Ethics Held by South African Students.Robert S. Moore & Sarah E. Radloff - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (8):863 - 869.
    This study uses the ATBEQ, as published by J.F. Preble and A. Reichel (1988) to measure attitudes towards ethical business attitudes held by final year South African Bachelor of Commerce students at Rhodes University. Three samples of students were assessed over three consecutive years of 1989, 1990 and 1991, and results are compared with samples (1988) of American and Israeli students and a sample (1991) of Western Australian students. A significant difference in attitudes was found to exist between the Israeli (...)
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  45.  13
    Does Exposure to Counterstereotypical Role Models Influence Girls’ and Women’s Gender Stereotypes and Career Choices? A Review of Social Psychological Research.Maria Olsson & Sarah E. Martiny - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  46. Art and Epistemology.Sarah E. Worth - 2003 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  47.  45
    Fictional Spaces.Sarah E. Worth - 2004 - Philosophical Forum 35 (4):439–455.
  48.  20
    Damage Compounded or Damage Lessened? Disparate Impact or the Compromises of Multiculturalism?Sarah E. Shannon - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (5):27 – 28.
  49.  44
    A Semantic Account of Mirative Evidentials.Jessica Rett & Sarah E. Murray - 2013 - In Todd Snider (ed.), Proceedings From Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) XXIII. CLC Publications. pp. 453--472.
    Many if not all evidential languages have a mirative evidential: an indirect evidential that can, in some contexts, mark mirativity (the expression of speaker surprise) instead of indirect evidence. We address several questions posed by this systematic polysemy: What is the affinity between indirect evidence and speaker surprise? What conditions the two interpretations? And how do mirative evidentials relate to other mirative markers? We propose a unified analysis of mirative evidentials where indirect evidentiality and mirativity involve a common epistemic component. (...)
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  50.  7
    Looking Ahead: Addressing Ethical Challenges in Public Health Practice.Nancy M. Baum, Sarah E. Gollust, Susan D. Goold & Peter D. Jacobson - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4):657-667.
    In recent years, scholars have begun to lay the groundwork to justify a distinct application of ethics to the field of public health. They have highlighted important features that differentiate public health ethics from bioethics, especially public health’s emphasis on population health rather than issues of individual health. Articulations of public health ethics also tend to emphasize the role of social justice compared to the predominance of autonomy in the bioethical literature. Now that the field of public health ethics is (...)
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