Results for 'Sarah‐Jane Leslie'

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  1. The Original Sin of Cognition: Fear Prejudice, and Generalization.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy 114 (8):393-421.
    Generic generalizations such as ‘mosquitoes carry the West Nile virus’ or ‘sharks attack bathers’ are often accepted by speakers despite the fact that very few members of the kinds in question have the predicated property. Previous work suggests that such low-prevalence generalizations may be accepted when the properties in question are dangerous, harmful, or appalling. This paper argues that the study of such generic generalizations sheds light on a particular class of prejudiced social beliefs, and points to new ways in (...)
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  2. Generics: Cognition and Acquisition.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2008 - Philosophical Review 117 (1):1-47.
    Ducks lay eggs' is a true sentence, and `ducks are female' is a false one. Similarly, `mosquitoes carry the West Nile virus' is obviously true, whereas `mosquitoes don't carry the West Nile virus' is patently false. This is so despite the egg-laying ducks' being a subset of the female ones and despite the number of mosquitoes that don't carry the virus being ninety-nine times the number that do. Puzzling facts such as these have made generic sentences defy adequate semantic treatment. (...)
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  3. “Hillary Clinton is the Only Man in the Obama Administration”: Dual Character Concepts, Generics, and Gender.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2015 - Analytic Philosophy 56 (2):111-141.
  4. Generics Oversimplified.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2015 - Noûs 49 (1):28-54.
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  5. Essence and Natural Kinds: When Science Meets Preschooler Intuition.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Epistemology 4:108-66.
  6. Generics and the Structure of the Mind.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2007 - Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):375–403.
  7.  32
    Generic Generalizations.Sarah-Jane Leslie & Adam Lerner - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  8.  58
    Quantified Statements Are Recalled as Generics: Evidence From Preschool Children and Adults.Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman - 2012 - Cognitive Psychology 64 (186):214.
  9.  48
    All Ducks Lay Eggs: The Generic Overgeneralization Effect.Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sangeet Khemlani & Sam Glucksberg - 2011 - Journal of Memory and Language 65:15-31.
  10. Carving Up the Social World with Generics.Sarah-Jane Leslie - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy.
  11.  67
    Generics Articulate Default Generalizations.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2012 - Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes 41:25-45.
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  12. Essence, Plenitude, and Paradox.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2011 - Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):277-296.
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  13. Generics.Sarah-Jane Leslie - forthcoming - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  14.  79
    Generics.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2012 - In Gillian Russell & Delia Fara (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Routledge. pp. 355--366.
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  15.  41
    Conceptual and Linguistic Distinctions Between Singular and Plural Generics.Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sangeet Khemlani, Sandeep Prasada & Sam Glucksberg - 2009 - Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  16. 'If', 'Unless', and Quantification.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2008 - In R. Stainton & C. Viger (eds.), Compositionality, Context, and Semantic Values: Essays in Honor of Ernie Lepore.
    Higginbotham argues that conditionals embedded under quantifiers constitute a counterexample to the thesis that natural language is semantically compositional. More recently, Higginbotham and von Fintel and Iatridou have suggested that compositionality can be upheld, but only if we assume the validity of the principle of Conditional Excluded Middle. I argue that these authors’ proposals deliver unsatisfactory results for conditionals that, at least intuitively, do not appear to obey Conditional Excluded Middle. Further, there is no natural way to extend their accounts (...)
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  17. 'Real Men': Polysemy or Implicature?Sarah-Jane Leslie - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
  18.  70
    Cultural Transmission of Social Essentialism.Marjorie Rhodes, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Christina Tworek - 2012 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (34):13526-13531.
  19. What a Loaded Generalization: Generics and Social Cognition.Daniel Wodak, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Marjorie Rhodes - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (9):625-635.
    This paper explores the role of generics in social cognition. First, we explore the nature and effects of the most common form of generics about social kinds. Second, we discuss the nature and effects of a less common but equally important form of generics about social kinds. Finally, we consider the implications of this discussion for how we ought to use language about the social world.
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  20. The Mark of the Plural: Generic Generalizations and Race.Daniel Wodak & Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2017 - In Paul C. Taylor, Linda Martín Alcoff & Luvell Anderson (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Race. Routledge. pp. 277-289.
    We argue that generic generalizations about racial groups are pernicious in what they communicate (both to members of that racial group and to members of other racial groups), and may be central to the construction of social categories like racial groups. We then consider how we should change and challenge uses of generic generalizations about racial groups.
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  21.  85
    Moderately Sensitive Semantics.Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2007 - In G. Preyer (ed.), Context Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism. Oxford University Press. pp. 133--168.
  22. Concepts, Analysis, Generics and the Canberra Plan.Mark Johnston & Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2012 - Philosophical Perspectives 26 (1):113-171.
  23.  93
    Essentialist Beliefs About Bodily Transplants in the United States and India.Meredith Meyer, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Susan A. Gelman & Sarah M. Stilwell - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):668-710.
    Psychological essentialism is the belief that some internal, unseen essence or force determines the common outward appearances and behaviors of category members. We investigated whether reasoning about transplants of bodily elements showed evidence of essentialist thinking. Both Americans and Indians endorsed the possibility of transplants conferring donors' personality, behavior, and luck on recipients, consistent with essentialism. Respondents also endorsed essentialist effects even when denying that transplants would change a recipient's category membership (e.g., predicting that a recipient of a pig's heart (...)
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  24. Generics, Generalism, and Reflective Equilibrium: Implications for Moral Theorizing From the Study of Language.Adam Lerner & Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):366-403.
  25.  93
    Generics, Prevalence, and Default Inferences.Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg - 2009 - Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society:443--8.
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  26.  52
    Inferences About Members of Kinds: The Generics Hypothesis.Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg - 2012 - Language and Cognitive Processes 27:887-900.
  27.  37
    Do Ducks Lay Eggs? How People Interpret Generic Assertions.Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sam Glucksberg & Paula Rubio-Fernandez - 2007 - Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  28. Conceptual Distinctions Amongst Generics.Sandeep Prasada, Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg - 2013 - Cognition 126 (3):405-422.
    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as “dogs have four legs” and “mosquitoes carry malaria”) are used to talk about kinds of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and normalcy in licensing generics. Two classes of generic sentences that pose challenges to both the conceptually based and formal semantic approaches to generics were investigated. Striking property generics (e.g. “sharks (...)
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  29.  30
    Syllogistic Reasoning with Generic Premises: The Generic Overgeneralization Effect.Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
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  30.  61
    Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are About Kinds, Not Quantities.Amanda Brandone, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman - 2012 - Child Development 83:423-433.
  31.  18
    Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance.Meredith Meyer, Andrei Cimpian & Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  32.  30
    Redemption and the Sacred Subject: Themes From Wagner.Sarah-Jane Leslie - forthcoming - In A. Hamilton & N. Zangwill (eds.), Scruton's Aesthetics.
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  33.  53
    Memory Errors Reveal a Bias to Spontaneously Generalize to Categories.Shelbie L. Sutherland, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan A. Gelman - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):1021-1046.
    Much evidence suggests that, from a young age, humans are able to generalize information learned about a subset of a category to the category itself. Here, we propose that—beyond simply being able to perform such generalizations—people are biased to generalize to categories, such that they routinely make spontaneous, implicit category generalizations from information that licenses such generalizations. To demonstrate the existence of this bias, we asked participants to perform a task in which category generalizations would distract from the main goal (...)
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  34. Current Controversies in Philosophy of Cognitive Science.Adam Lerner, Simon Cullen & Sarah-Jane Leslie (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    Cognitive science poses a variety of philosophical questions. In this forthcoming volume, leading researchers debate five core questions in the Philosophy of Cognitive Science: Is Universal Grammar required to explain our linguistic capacities? Are some of our concepts innate or are they all learned? What role do our bodies play in cognition? Can neuroscience help us understand the mind? Can cognitive science help us understand human morality? The volume contains two accessible essays on each topic, each advocating for an opposing (...)
     
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  35.  21
    My Heart Made Me Do It: Children's Essentialist Beliefs About Heart Transplants.Meredith Meyer, Susan A. Gelman, Steven O. Roberts & Sarah‐Jane Leslie - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (6):1694-1712.
    Psychological essentialism is a folk theory characterized by the belief that a causal internal essence or force gives rise to the common outward behaviors or attributes of a category's members. In two studies, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-old children evidenced essentialist reasoning about heart transplants by asking them to predict whether trading hearts with an individual would cause them to take on the donor's attributes. Control conditions asked children to consider the effects of trading money with an individual. Results (...)
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  36.  18
    Expanding Nurses' Participation in Ethics: An Empirical Examination of Ethical Activism and Ethical Assertiveness.Sarah-Jane Dodd, Bruce S. Jansson, Katherine Brown-Saltzman, Marilyn Shirk & Karen Wunch - 2004 - Nursing Ethics 11 (1):15-27.
    This research project investigated the extent to which nurses engage in two important kinds of ethical behaviours: ethical activism (where they try to make hospitals more receptive to nurses’ participation in ethics deliberations) and ethical assertiveness (where they participate in ethics deliberations even when not formally invited). This research probed not only the extent to which nurses engage in these ethical behaviours but also whether this is influenced by professional, training and organizational factors. A random sample of 165 nurses from (...)
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  37.  24
    Equality, Justice and Gender: Barriers to the Ethical University for Women.Sarah Jane Aiston - 2011 - Ethics and Education 6 (3):279 - 291.
    Academic women experience working in higher education differently to their male counterparts. This article argues that the unequal position of women academics is unethical, irrespective of whether one takes a consequentialist or deontological ethical position. By drawing on a range of international studies, the article explores the reasons for this inequity, suggesting that the ?cult of individual responsibility?, the positioning of women academics as ?other? and the impact of having a family are significant factors. Having identified the reasons why university (...)
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  38. The Myth of 'Scientific Method' in Contemporary Educational Research.Darrell Patrick Rowbottom & Sarah Jane Aiston - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (2):137–156.
    Whether educational research should employ the ‘scientific method’ has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: ‘positivist’ or ‘interpretivist’. In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research methods textbooks on the market—namely Research Methods in Education by Cohen, Manion, and Morrison—this paper demonstrates the misconception of science in operation and the perversely false dichotomy that has become enshrined (...)
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  39.  21
    Metaphysics and Cognitive Science.Alvin I. Goldman & Brian P. McLaughlin (eds.) - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction Alvin I. Goldman and Brian P. McLaughlin Section I: What Might Be the Role of Cognitive Science in Metaphysics? Chapter 1: Time Lost, Time Regained Craig Callender Chapter 2: Cognitive Science and Metaphysics: Partners in Debunking Jonathan Schaffer Section II: Ethics and Cognitive Science Chapter 3: Moral Metaphysics, Moral Psychology, and the Cognitive Sciences Peter Railton Chapter 4: Debunking and Vindicating in Moral Psychology Shaun Nichols Section III: God and Cognitive Science Chapter 5: On Perceiving God: Prospects for a (...)
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  40.  8
    The Myth of 'Scientific Method' in Contemporary Educational Research.Darrell Patrick Rowbottom & Sarah Jane Aiston - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (2):137-156.
    Whether educational research should employ the ‘scientific method’ has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: ‘positivist’ or ‘interpretivist’. In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research methods textbooks on the market—namely Research Methods in Education by Cohen, Manion, and Morrison—this paper demonstrates the misconception of science in operation and the perversely false dichotomy that has become enshrined (...)
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  41.  61
    Research Led by Participants: A New Social Contract for a New Kind of Research.Effy Vayena, Roger Brownsword, Sarah Jane Edwards, Bastian Greshake, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Navjoyt Ladher, Jonathan Montgomery, Daniel O'Connor, Onora O'Neill, Martin P. Richards, Annette Rid, Mark Sheehan, Paul Wicks & John Tasioulas - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (4):216-219.
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  42.  15
    The Role of BMI Group on the Impact of Weight Bias Versus Body Positivity Terminology on Behavioral Intentions and Beliefs: An Experimental Study.Sarah-Jane F. Stewart & Jane Ogden - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  43.  9
    Ethical Considerations in Shaping the Police Force.Sarah Jane Toledano - 2009 - Asian Bioethics Review 1 (1):56-58.
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  44.  21
    Response.Sarah Jane Toledano & Leonardo D. de Castro - 2007 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (3):241-242.
    Fast food companies like Siam Burger that participate in health awareness campaigns create a conflict of interest between the social responsibility of promoting health and the business interest of increasing sales through marketing strategies like advertising. Alternative options of raising health awareness without mitigating the involvement of fast food companies either by denying advertisements or having a third party foundation should be explored.
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  45.  22
    Taming the River: Negotiating the Academic, Financial, and Social Currents in Selective Colleges and Universities ‐ Edited by C. Z. Charles, M. J. Fischer, M. A. Mooney and D. S. Massey. [REVIEW]Sarah Jane Aiston - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (4):449-451.
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  46.  3
    Camouflaged Collectives: Managing Stigma and Identity at Gun Events.Sarah Jane Blithe & Jennifer Lanterman - 2017 - Studies in Social Justice 11 (1):113-135.
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  47.  13
    Deification: The Mariology of the Ordinary Faithful.Sarah Jane Boss - 2017 - New Blackfriars 98 (1074):188-202.
    Popular devotion to the Virgin Mary can often be understood as implying a doctrine of deification, that is, of becoming perfect as our Heavenly Father is perfect. The Mother of God herself is the primary example of the deified person, and she in turn assists her devotees in their own process of becoming deified. The doctrine of deification articulated by Maximus the Confessor and John Scotus Eriugena provides an account that explains particularly well the theology implicit in much Marian devotion, (...)
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  48. Ramon Llull's Llibre de Santa Maria: Theodicy, Ontology and Initiation.Sarah Jane Boss - 2011 - Studia Lulliana 51 (106):25-51.
  49.  27
    Autonomy, Trust and Ante-Mortem Interventions to Facilitate Organ Donation.Sarah-Jane Brown - 2018 - Clinical Ethics 13 (3):143-150.
    Over the last few years, policies have been introduced in the UK that identify and treat patients as potential organ donors before death. Patients incapacitated due to catastrophic brain injury may now undergo intensive ante-mortem interventions to improve the chances of successfully transplanting their organs into third parties after death. The most significant ethical and legal problem with these policies is that they are not based on the individual’s specific wishes in the circumstances. Policy-makers appear reluctant to inform potential registrants (...)
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  50. Book Review: Expansion of Publicly Funded Health Insurance in the United States: The Children's Health Insurance Program and Its Implications. By Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006. 161 Pp., $60.00. [REVIEW]Sarah Jane Brubaker - 2008 - Gender and Society 22 (1):134-136.
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