Results for 'Satoru Niki'

105 found
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  1.  1
    Subminimal Logics in Light of Vakarelov’s Logic.Satoru Niki - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-21.
    We investigate a subsystem of minimal logic related to D. Vakarelov’s logic \, using the framework of subminimal logics by A. Colacito, D. de Jongh and A. L. Vargas. In the course of it, the relationship between the two semantics in the respective frameworks is clarified. In addition, we introduce a sequent calculus for the investigated subsystem, and some proof-theoretic properties are established. Lastly, we formulate a new infinite class of subsystems of minimal logics.
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  2.  2
    Role of Frontal Functions in Executing Routine Sequential Tasks.Chiharu Niki, Takatsune Kumada, Takashi Maruyama, Manabu Tamura & Yoshihiro Muragaki - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  3.  4
    Thirst for Intention? Grasping a Glass Is a Thirst-Controlled Action.Patrice Revol, Sarah Collette, Zoe Boulot, Alexandre Foncelle, Chiharu Niki, David Thura, Akila Imai, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Michel Cabanac, François Osiurak & Yves Rossetti - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  4. A Brain Structural Hub of Interhemispheric Information Integration for Apparent Motion Perception.Masanori Shimono, Hiroaki Mano & Kazuhisa Niki - 2012 - Cerebral Cortex 2012 (22):337.
    We investigated the key anatomical structures mediating interhemispheric integration during the perception of apparent motion across the retinal midline. Previous studies of commissurotomized patients suggest that subcortical structures mediate interhemispheric transmission but the specific regions involved remain unclear. Here, we exploit interindividual variations in the propensity of normal subjects to perceive horizontal motion, in relation to vertical motion. We characterize these differences psychophysically using a Dynamic Dot Quartet (an ambiguous stimulus that induces illusory motion). We then tested for correlations between (...)
     
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  5. Global Mapping of the Whole-Brain Network Underlining Binocular Rivalry.Masanori Shimono & Kazuhisa Niki - 2013 - Brain Connectivity 3 (2):212.
    We investigated how the structure of the brain network relates to the stability of perceptual alternation in binocular rivalry. Historically, binocular rivalry has provided important new insights to our understandings in neuroscience. Although various relationships between the local regions of the human brain structure and perceptual switching phenomena have been shown in previous researches, the global organization of the human brain structural network relating to this phenomenon has not yet been addressed. To approach this issue, we reconstructed fiber-tract bundles using (...)
     
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  6.  16
    Niki Goes to School: Autonomy, Control, and Psychiatric Hospitalization.Gerald P. Koocher - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior.
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  7.  31
    Bart Penders, Niki Vermeulen, and John N. Parker : Collaboration Across Health Research and Medical Care: Healthy Collaboration.Massimiliano Colucci - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (6):445-447.
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  8.  15
    Der heilige Raum: Eine Überlegung angesichts der Grotte in den Herrenhäuser Gärten, eingerichtet und neu ausgestattet von Niki de St. Phalle.Reinhard Knodt - 2010 - In Georgios Terizakis & Peter Nickl (eds.), Die Seele: Metapher Oder Wirklichkeit?: Philosophische Ergründungen. Texte Zum Ersten Festival der Philosophie in Hannover 2008. Transcript Verlag. pp. 115-124.
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  9.  2
    Book Review: Supersizing Science. On Building Large-Scale Research Projects in Biology, by Niki Vermeulen, Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht [Maastricht University Press]. [REVIEW]Bart Penders - 2009 - Genomics, Society and Policy 5 (1):1-5.
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  10.  3
    Commentary On: Satoru Aonuma's "Dialectic of/or Agitation? Rethinking Argumentative Virtues in Proletarian Elocution".Jeff Noonan - unknown
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  11. Whale Rider, Directed by Niki Caro and Winged Migration, Directed by Jacques Perrin.Jonathan Burt - 2003 - Society and Animals 11 (4):419-424.
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  12. Reasoning About Uncertain Conditionals.Niki Pfeifer - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):849-866.
    There is a long tradition in formal epistemology and in the psychology of reasoning to investigate indicative conditionals. In psychology, the propositional calculus was taken for granted to be the normative standard of reference. Experimental tasks, evaluation of the participants’ responses and psychological model building, were inspired by the semantics of the material conditional. Recent empirical work on indicative conditionals focuses on uncertainty. Consequently, the normative standard of reference has changed. I argue why neither logic nor standard probability theory provide (...)
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  13.  71
    The New Psychology of Reasoning: A Mental Probability Logical Perspective.Niki Pfeifer - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):329-345.
  14. Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (2):199-221.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses recent work on the (...)
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  15.  71
    Framing Human Inference by Coherence Based Probability Logic.Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2009 - Journal of Applied Logic 7 (2):206--217.
  16. Experiments on Aristotle’s Thesis: Towards an Experimental Philosophy of Conditionals.Niki Pfeifer - 2012 - The Monist 95 (2):223-240.
    Two experiments investigate two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis for the first time. Aristotle’s Thesis is a negated conditional, which consists of one propositional variable with a negation either in the antecedent or in the consequent. This task allows us to infer if people interpret indicative conditionals as material conditionals or as conditional events. In the first experiment I investigate between-participants the two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis crossed with abstract versus concrete task material. The modal response for all four groups is (...)
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  17. How People Interpret Conditionals: Shifts Towards the Conditional Event.A. J. B. Fugard, Niki Pfeifer, B. Mayerhofer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2011 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (3):635-648.
    We investigated how people interpret conditionals and how stable their interpretation is over a long series of trials. Participants were shown the colored patterns on each side of a six-sided die, and were asked how sure they were that a conditional holds of the side landing upwards when the die is randomly thrown. Participants were presented with 71 trials consisting of all combinations of binary dimensions of shape (e.g., circles and squares) and color (e.g., blue and red) painted onto the (...)
     
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  18. The Conditional in Mental Probability Logic.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2010 - In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 153--173.
    The present chapter describes a probabilistic framework of human reasoning. It is based on probability logic. While there are several approaches to probability logic, we adopt the coherence based approach.
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  19. Inference in Conditional Probability Logic.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2006 - Kybernetika 42 (2):391--404.
    An important field of probability logic is the investigation of inference rules that propagate point probabilities or, more generally, interval probabilities from premises to conclusions. Conditional probability logic (CPL) interprets the common sense expressions of the form “if . . . , then . . . ” by conditional probabilities and not by the probability of the material implication. An inference rule is probabilistically informative if the coherent probability interval of its conclusion is not necessarily equal to the unit interval (...)
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  20. The Properties and the Nature of Light: The Study of Newton’s Work and the Teaching of Optics.Athanasios Raftopoulos, Niki Kalyfommatou & Constantinos P. Constantinou - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (7-8):649-673.
  21.  72
    Spiraling Down Into Corruption: A Dynamic Analysis of the Social Identity Processes That Cause Corruption in Organizations to Grow. [REVIEW]Niki A. den Nieuwenboer & Muel Kaptein - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (2):133-146.
    To date, theory and research on corruption in organizations have primarily focused on its static antecedents. This article focuses on the spread and growth of corruption in organizations. For this purpose, three downward organizational spirals are formulated: the spiral of divergent norms, the spiral of pressure, and the spiral of opportunity. Social Identity Theory is used to explain the mechanisms of each of these spirals. Our dynamic perspective contributes to a greater understanding of the development of corruption in organizations and (...)
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  22.  84
    Coherence and Nonmonotonicity in Human Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):93-109.
    Nonmonotonic reasoning is often claimed to mimic human common sense reasoning. Only a few studies, though, have investigated this claim empirically. We report four experiments which investigate three rules of SYSTEMP, namely the AND, the LEFT LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE, and the OR rule. The actual inferences of the subjects are compared with the coherent normative upper and lower probability bounds derived from a non-infinitesimal probability semantics of SYSTEM P. We found a relatively good agreement of human reasoning and principles of nonmonotonic (...)
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  23. Uncertain Deductive Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2011 - In K. Manktelow, D. E. Over & S. Elqayam (eds.), The Science of Reason: A Festschrift for Jonathan St B.T. Evans. Psychology Press. pp. 145--166.
    Probabilistic models have started to replace classical logic as the standard reference paradigm in human deductive reasoning. Mental probability logic emphasizes general principles where human reasoning deviates from classical logic, but agrees with a probabilistic approach (like nonmonotonicity or the conditional event interpretation of conditionals). -/- This contribution consists of two parts. In the first part we discuss general features of reasoning systems including consequence relations, how uncertainty may enter argument forms, probability intervals, and probabilistic informativeness. These concepts are of (...)
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  24. Towards a Mental Probability Logic.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2005 - Psychologica Belgica 45 (1):71--99.
    We propose probability logic as an appropriate standard of reference for evaluating human inferences. Probability logical accounts of nonmonotonic reasoning with system p, and conditional syllogisms (modus ponens, etc.) are explored. Furthermore, we present categorical syllogisms with intermediate quantifiers, like the “most . . . ” quantifier. While most of the paper is theoretical and intended to stimulate psychological studies, we summarize our empirical studies on human nonmonotonic reasoning.
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  25.  15
    Operationalizing Local Food: Goals, Actions, and Indicators for Alternative Food Systems.David A. Cleveland, Allison Carruth & Daniella Niki Mazaroli - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (2):281-297.
    Spatial localization, often demarcated by food miles, has emerged as the dominant theme in movements for more socially just and environmentally benign alternative food systems, especially in industrialized countries such as the United States. We analyze how an emphasis on spatial localization, combined with the difficulty of defining and measuring adequate indicators for alternative food systems, can challenge efforts by food system researchers, environmental writers, the engaged public, and advocacy groups wanting to contribute to alternative food systems, and facilitates exploitation (...)
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  26.  29
    A Dual-Process Specification of Causal Conditional Reasoning.Niki Verschueren, Walter Schaeken & Géry D'Ydewalle - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (3):239-278.
  27.  7
    A Process Model of the Understanding of Uncertain Conditionals.Gernot D. Kleiter, Andrew J. B. Fugard & Niki Pfeifer - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (3):386-422.
    ABSTRACTTo build a process model of the understanding of conditionals we extract a common core of three semantics of if-then sentences: the conditional event interpretation in the coherencebased probability logic, the discourse processingtheory of Hans Kamp, and the game-theoretical approach of Jaakko Hintikka. The empirical part reports three experiments in which each participant assessed the probability of 52 if-then sentencesin a truth table task. Each experiment included a second task: An n-back task relating the interpretation of conditionals to working memory, (...)
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  28.  34
    The Source of Consciousness.Ken A. Paller & Satoru Suzuki - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (8):387-389.
  29. Probabilistic Theories of Reasoning Need Pragmatics Too: Modulating Relevance in Uncertain Conditionals.A. J. B. Fugard, Niki Pfeifer & B. Mayerhofer - 2011 - Journal of Pragmatics 43:2034–2042.
    According to probabilistic theories of reasoning in psychology, people's degree of belief in an indicative conditional `if A, then B' is given by the conditional probability, P(B|A). The role of language pragmatics is relatively unexplored in the new probabilistic paradigm. We investigated how consequent relevance a ects participants' degrees of belief in conditionals about a randomly chosen card. The set of events referred to by the consequent was either a strict superset or a strict subset of the set of events (...)
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  30.  34
    Transitivity in Coherence-Based Probability Logic.Angelo Gilio, Niki Pfeifer & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2016 - Journal of Applied Logic 14:46-64.
    We study probabilistically informative (weak) versions of transitivity by using suitable definitions of defaults and negated defaults in the setting of coherence and imprecise probabilities. We represent p-consistent sequences of defaults and/or negated defaults by g-coherent imprecise probability assessments on the respective sequences of conditional events. Moreover, we prove the coherent probability propagation rules for Weak Transitivity and the validity of selected inference patterns by proving p-entailment of the associated knowledge bases. Finally, we apply our results to study selected probabilistic (...)
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  31. A Dual-Process Specification of Causal Conditional Reasoning.Niki Verschueren, Walter Schaeken & G. - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (3):239 – 278.
    There are two accounts describing causal conditional reasoning: the probabilistic and the mental models account. According to the probabilistic account, the tendency to accept a conclusion is related to the probability by which cause and effect covary. According to the mental models account, the tendency to accept a conclusion relates to the availability of counterexamples. These two accounts are brought together in a dual-process theory: It is argued that the probabilistic reasoning process can be considered as a heuristic process whereas (...)
     
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  32. A Constructive Look at the Completeness of the Space $\Mathcal{D} (\Mathbb{R})$.Hajime Ishihara & Satoru Yoshida - 2002 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (4):1511-1519.
    We show, within the framework of Bishop's constructive mathematics, that (sequential) completeness of the locally convex space $\mathcal{D} (\mathbb{R})$ of test functions is equivalent to the principle BD-N which holds in classical mathemtatics, Brouwer's intuitionism and Markov's constructive recursive mathematics, but does not hold in Bishop's constructivism.
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  33.  16
    Long-Lasting Effects of Subliminal Affective Priming From Facial Expressions.Timothy D. Sweeny, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki & Ken A. Paller - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):929-938.
    Unconscious processing of stimuli with emotional content can bias affective judgments. Is this subliminal affective priming merely a transient phenomenon manifested in fleeting perceptual changes, or are long-lasting effects also induced? To address this question, we investigated memory for surprise faces 24 h after they had been shown with 30-ms fearful, happy, or neutral faces. Surprise faces subliminally primed by happy faces were initially rated as more positive, and were later remembered better, than those primed by fearful or neutral faces. (...)
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  34.  17
    3D Bioprint Me: A Socioethical View of Bioprinting Human Organs and Tissues.Niki Vermeulen, Gill Haddow, Tirion Seymour, Alan Faulkner-Jones & Wenmiao Shu - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (9):618-624.
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  35.  20
    Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape.Timothy D. Sweeny, Emmanuel Guzman-Martinez, Laura Ortega, Marcia Grabowecky & Satoru Suzuki - 2012 - Cognition 124 (2):194-200.
  36.  51
    Mental Probability Logic.Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):98-99.
    We discuss O&C's probabilistic approach from a probability logical point of view. Specifically, we comment on subjective probability, the indispensability of logic, the Ramsey test, the consequence relation, human nonmonotonic reasoning, intervals, generalized quantifiers, and rational analysis.
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  37.  4
    Probability Propagation in Selected Aristotelian Syllogisms.Niki Pfeifer - 2019 - In G. Kern-Isberner & Zoran Ognjanović (eds.), ECSQARU 2019: Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty. Cham: Springer. pp. 419-431.
    This paper continues our work on a coherence-based probability semantics for Aristotelian syllogisms (Gilio, Pfeifer, and Sanfilippo, 2016; Pfeifer and Sanfilippo, 2018) by studying Figure III under coherence. We interpret the syllogistic sentence types by suitable conditional probability assessments. Since the probabilistic inference of P|S from the premise set {.
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  38.  31
    Systematic Rationality Norms Provide Research Roadmaps and Clarity.Niki Pfeifer - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):263-264.
    Normative theories like probability logic provide roadmaps for psychological investigations. They make theorizing precise. Therefore, normative considerations should not be subtracted from psychological research. I explain why conditional elimination inferences involve at least two norm paradigms; why reporting agreement with rationality norms is informative; why alleged asymmetric relations between formal and psychological theories are symmetric; and I discuss the arbitration problem.
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  39. Human Reasoning with Imprecise Probabilities: Modus Ponens and Denying the Antecedent.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2007 - In Proceedings of the 5 T H International Symposium on Imprecise Probability: Theories and Applications. pp. 347--356.
    The modus ponens (A -> B, A :. B) is, along with modus tollens and the two logically not valid counterparts denying the antecedent (A -> B, ¬A :. ¬B) and affirming the consequent, the argument form that was most often investigated in the psychology of human reasoning. The present contribution reports the results of three experiments on the probabilistic versions of modus ponens and denying the antecedent. In probability logic these arguments lead to conclusions with imprecise probabilities. In the (...)
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  40.  31
    A Constructive Look at the Completeness of the Space (ℝ).Hajime Ishihara & Satoru Yoshida - 2002 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (4):1511-1519.
    We show, within the framework of Bishop's constructive mathematics, that (sequential) completeness of the locally convex space $\mathcal{D} (\mathbb{R})$ of test functions is equivalent to the principle BD-N which holds in classical mathemtatics, Brouwer's intuitionism and Markov's constructive recursive mathematics, but does not hold in Bishop's constructivism.
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  41. Contemporary Syllogistics: Comparative and Quantitative Syllogisms.Niki Pfeifer - 2006 - In G. Kreuzbauer & G. J. W. Dorn (eds.), Argumentation in Theorie Und Praxis: Philosophie Und Didaktik des Argumentierens. Lit. pp. 57--71.
    Traditionally, syllogisms are arguments with two premises and one conclusion which are constructed by propositions of the form “All… are…” and “At least one… is…” and their respective negated versions. Unfortunately, the practical use of traditional syllogisms is quite restricted. On the one hand, the “All…” propositions are too strict, since a single counterexample suffices for falsification. On the other hand, the “At least one …” propositions are too weak, since a single example suffices for verification. The present contribution studies (...)
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  42.  65
    Phenomenology and the Third Generation of Cognitive Science: Towards a Cognitive Phenomenology of the Body.Shoji Nagataki & Satoru Hirose - 2007 - Human Studies 30 (3):219-232.
    Phenomenology of the body and the third generation of cognitive science, both of which attribute a central role in human cognition to the body rather than to the Cartesian notion of representation, face the criticism that higher-level cognition cannot be fully grasped by those studies. The problem here is how explicit representations, consciousness, and thoughts issue from perception and the body, and how they cooperate in human cognition. In order to address this problem, we propose a research program, a cognitive (...)
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  43. How People Interpret an Uncertain If.Andrew Jb Fugard, Niki Pfeifer, Bastian Mayerhofer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2009 - In T. Kroupa & J. Vejnarova (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Uncertainty Processing. pp. 80-91.
    Conditionals are central to inference. Before people can draw inferences about a natural language conditional, they must interpret its meaning. We investigated interpretation of uncertain conditionals using a probabilistic truth table task, focussing on (i) conditional event, (ii) material conditional, and (iii) conjunction interpretations. The order of object (shape) and feature (color) in each conditional's antecedent and consequent was varied between participants. The conditional event was the dominant interpretation, followed by conjunction, and took longer to process than conjunction (mean di (...)
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  44. Nonmonotonicity and Human Probabilistic Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2003 - In Proceedings of the 6 T H Workshop on Uncertainty Processing. pp. 221--234.
    Nonmonotonic logics allow—contrary to classical (monotone) logics— for withdrawing conclusions in the light of new evidence. Nonmonotonic reasoning is often claimed to mimic human common sense reasoning. Only a few studies, though, have investigated this claim empirically. system p is a central, broadly accepted nonmonotonic reasoning system that proposes basic rationality postulates. We previously investigated empirically a probabilistic interpretation of three selected rules of system p. We found a relatively good agreement of human reasoning and principles of nonmonotonic reasoning according (...)
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  45. Is Human Reasoning About Nonmonotonic Conditionals Probabilistically Coherent?Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2006 - In Proceedings of the 7 T H Workshop on Uncertainty Processing. pp. 138--150.
    Nonmonotonic conditionals (A |∼ B) are formalizations of common sense expressions of the form “if A, normally B”. The nonmonotonic conditional is interpreted by a “high” coherent conditional probability, P(B|A) > .5. Two important properties are closely related to the nonmonotonic conditional: First, A |∼ B allows for exceptions. Second, the rules of the nonmonotonic system p guiding A |∼ B allow for withdrawing conclusions in the light of new premises. This study reports a series of three experiments on reasoning (...)
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  46.  12
    Emotional Discrimination During Viewing Unpleasant Pictures: Timing in Human Anterior Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala.Satoru Kohno, Madoka Noriuchi, Yoshinobu Iguchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi & Yoko Hoshi - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  47.  13
    Transitive Reasoning with Imprecise Probabilities.Angelo Gilio, Niki Pfeifer & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2015 - In S. Destercke & T. Denoeux (eds.), Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty (ECSQARU 2015). Springer LNAI 9161. pp. 95-105.
    We study probabilistically informative (weak) versions of transitivity by using suitable definitions of defaults and negated defaults in the setting of coherence and imprecise probabilities. We represent p-consistent sequences of defaults and/or negated defaults by g-coherent imprecise probability assessments on the respective sequences of conditional events. Finally, we present the coherent probability propagation rules for Weak Transitivity and the validity of selected inference patterns by proving p-entailment of the associated knowledge bases.
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  48.  29
    High-Level Pattern Coding Revealed by Brief Shape Aftereffects.Satoru Suzuki - 2005 - In Colin W. G. Clifford & Gillian Rhodes (eds.), Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and After-Effects in High-Level Vision. Oxford University Press. pp. 135--172.
  49.  82
    Towards a Probability Logic Based on Statistical Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2006 - In Proceedings of the 11 T H Ipmu International Conference (Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems). pp. 2308--2315.
    Logical argument forms are investigated by second order probability density functions. When the premises are expressed by beta distributions, the conclusions usually are mixtures of beta distributions. If the shape parameters of the distributions are assumed to be additive (natural sampling), then the lower and upper bounds of the mixing distributions (P´olya-Eggenberger distributions) are parallel to the corresponding lower and upper probabilities in conditional probability logic.
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  50.  21
    The Influences of Working Memory Representations on Long-Range Regression in Text Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study.Teppei Tanaka, Masashi Sugimoto, Yuki Tanida & Satoru Saito - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
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