Background Moral distress is a major issue in intensive care units that requires immediate attention since it can cause nurses to burnout. Given the special conditions of patients in intensive care units and the importance of the mental health of nurses, the present study was designed to systematically review the factors affecting moral distress in nurses working in intensive care units. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Science Direct were systematically searched for papers published between 2009 and 2019. (...) Original articles from quantitative and qualitative studies were reviewed. The CONSORT and STROBE checklists were used to assess the quality of the quantitative papers. The JBI checklist was applied for qualitative studies. Results Factors affecting moral distress in nurses include lack of nursing staff, nurses with inadequate experience, lack of support from organizations and colleagues, inadequate education and lack of knowledge of nurses, poor collaboration of physicians with nurses, ethical insensitivity and lack of teamwork, heavy workload, poor quality of care and moral violence and they are considered as risk factors for moral distress. Conclusion Many of the related causes are due to the nature of nurses’ work and it is necessary to manage the underlying conditions of this phenomenon so that it can be effectively prevented from spreading. Levels of moral distress require more attention of authorities in the use of prevention strategies and the reduction of effective factors in distress. (shrink)
Eigenfeatures are created by the principal component approach (PCA) used on objects described by a low-level code (i.e., pixels, Gabor jets). We suggest that eigenfeatures act like the flexible features described by Schyns et al. They are particularly suited for face processing and give rise to class-specific effects such as the other-race effect. The PCA approach can be modified to accommodate top-down constraints.
Professional ethics is one of the important topics, which includes various rights such as respecting the patient’s right to choose, being useful, being harmless, and respecting the justice, integrity, and confidentiality of information. Adherence to these principles can increase the quality of care and patient satisfaction. Since determining the current attitude of students towards ethics plays an important role in educational programs, this study was conducted to evaluate the attitude of nursing and midwifery students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (...) towards six principles of professional ethics. In this cross-sectional study, 76 undergraduate nursing and midwifery students were selected to participate in this study by census method. The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire on the principles of medical ethics. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study sample consisted of 49 nursing and 27 midwifery students with an average age of 23 ± 1.4 years. The mean score of nursing and midwifery students’ attitude towards medical ethics was 95.01 ± 4.8 in basis of 100, and was 94.56 ± 4.9 for nursing students and 96.04 ± 4.7 for midwifery students. Majority of the samples had positive attitude towards medical ethics and 3.73% had a relatively positive attitude. No statistically significant relationship was found between the attitude of students and variables of gender, field of study, marital status, and age. All students in this study had a positive attitude towards the principles of medical ethics, and this is a valuable asset for clinical environments. To increase the generalizability of the study, further studies with bigger sample size on the students of various disciplines of medical sciences is recommended. (shrink)
Un expert en vin perçoit-il et décrit-il l’odeur d’un vin de façon plus analytique qu’un novice ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous avons demandé à un groupe d’experts et un groupe de novices de décrire des vins à l’aide d’une liste de termes organisée en trois niveaux de catégorisation allant du plus général au plus spécifique. Nous avons ensuite demandé aux mêmes sujets d’apparier les descriptions réalisées par une autre personne avec les vins correspondants. Les résultats montrent que les (...) descriptions effectuées par les experts sont plus précises et conduisent à de meilleures performances d’appariement que celles effectuées par les novices. De plus, la distance entre les descriptions d’experts et celles de novices augmente avec le niveau de précision des termes. (shrink)
The current research addressed the issue of challenges faced by the rural women in Balochistan. A qualitative research were conducted on various parts of the Balochistan, Data were collected from 300 respondents five districts of Balochistan i.e. Turbat, Gawader, Sibbi, Pashen and Khuzdar Districts by using simple random technique. It was revealed that women in Balochistan are facing lot f problems like karo Kari, sexual harassments by their Tribal Waderas and feeling unsecure. Women are totally deprived from the basic rights. (...) According to our research about 80% of the Karo Kari cases are based on Bias basis there was no reality. It was further revealed that women are facing difficulties and after Watta satta marriages they feel unsecure. Government and NGOs can play role to educate those women about their basic rights. Women are deprived from their basic rights in Balochistan. In most of the cases they are illegally raped with their feudal and in many cases they were married with 60 years old man without their wishes. (shrink)
Containing both theoretical discussions of globalization and specific case analyses of individual African countries, this collection of essays examines the intersections of African education and globalization with multiple analytical and geographical emphases and intentions.
BackgroundBreaking bad news to parents whose newborn has a major disease is an ethical dilemma. In Saudi Arabia, BBN about newborns is performed according to the parental preferences that have been reported from non-Arabic/non-Islamic countries. Saudi mothers' preferences about BBN have not yet been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elicit the preferences of Saudi mothers about BBN concerning newborns.MethodsWe selected a convenience sample of 402 Saudi mothers, aged 18-50 years, who had no previous experience with BBN. We selected them via (...) a simple number-randomization scheme from the premises of a level III Saudi hospital between October of 2009 and January of 2011. We used a hypothetical situation to elicit their preferences about BBN concerning newborns via a structured verbal questionnaire composed of 12 multiple-choice questions. We expressed their preferences as percentages , and we used the Kendall's W test to assess the degree of agreement in preferences.ResultsThe Saudi mothers preferred that BBN be conducted with both parents together , albeit with weak levels of agreement . They showed moderate agreement in their preferences that BBN should be conducted early , in detail , in person , and in a quiet setting . With extremely weak agreement, they preferred to have a known person present for support during BBN , to have close bodily contact with their babies , and to have no another patients present . They showed moderate levels of agreement in their desires to detail, in advance, their preferences about process of BBN by giving a reversible, written informed consent that could be utilized for guidance, if needed .ConclusionsIn our experience, Saudi mothers' preferences about BBN concerning newborns are varied, suggesting that a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. A reversible, written informed consent detailing their preferences about BBN that would be kept in their medical records and utilized for guidance, if needed, may be the best solution, given this level of diversity. These findings merit further study. (shrink)
This multiple-case study examined the rationales and instructional strategies for teaching history of science of 16 instructors of a history of science course for undergraduate preservice teachers in the USA. Based on instructor syllabi, instructional materials, and instructor interviews, we conducted single-case and cross-case analyses to identify why they teach HOS, how they teach HOS, and what possible relationships might underlie instructor rationales and their instructional strategy choices for teaching HOS. We found 10 rationales in three overarching categories and 9 (...) active-learning instructional strategies. Moreover, we found that instructors with skills rationales implemented active-learning instructional strategies, whereas instructors who only cited knowledge rationales relied only on lectures and reading discussions. We discuss implications and recommendations for the design of HOS courses. (shrink)