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Scott J. Vitell [58]Scott John Vitell [5]Scott Vitell [1]
  1.  76
    Consumer Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis and Suggestions for the Future. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):33 - 47.
    This manuscript reviews and synthesizes most of the major research studies in the area of consumer ethics that have appeared since 1990. It examines both conceptual and empirical works with an objective of encouraging researchers to pursue research in the consumer ethics area. Toward this end, the paper also suggests directions for future research.
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  2.  36
    A Case for Consumer Social Responsibility : Including a Selected Review of Consumer Ethics/Social Responsibility Research.Scott J. Vitell - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (4):767-774.
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  3.  49
    The Role of Money and Religiosity in Determining Consumers' Ethical Beliefs.Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Jatinder J. Singh - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):117 - 124.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the roles that religiosity and ones money ethic play in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. One dimension of religiosity – intrinsic religiousness – was studied. Four separate dimensions of a money ethic scale were initially examined, but only one was used in the final analyses. Results indicated that both intrinsic religiousness and one’s money ethic were significant determinants of most types of consumer ethical beliefs.
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  4. The Effects of Culture on Ethical Decision-Making: An Application of Hofstede's Typology. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell, Saviour L. Nwachukwu & James H. Barnes - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (10):753 - 760.
    This paper addresses a significant gap in the conceptualization of business ethics within different cultural influences. Though theoretical models of business ethics have recognized the importance of culture in ethical decision-making, few have examinedhow this influences ethical decision-making. Therefore, this paper develops propositions concerning the influence of various cultural dimensions on ethical decision-making using Hofstede''s typology.
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  5.  85
    Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Ethical Judgments of the Final Consumer. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):585 - 597.
    Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs concerning various questionable consumer practices. The results show that consumers'' ethical beliefs are determined, in part, by who is at fault (...)
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  6.  78
    An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Selected Personal, Organizational and Moral Intensity Factors on Ethical Decision Making.Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Scott J. Vitell - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (1):65 - 74.
    This exploratory study of ethical decision making by individuals in organizations found moral intensity, as defined by Jones (1991), to significantly influence ethical decision making intentions of managers. Moral intensity explained 37% and 53% of the variance in ethical decision making in two decision-making scenarios. In part, the results of this research support our theoretical understanding of ethical/unethical decision-making and serve as a foundation for future research.
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  7.  83
    Consumers' Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money, Religiosity and Attitude Toward Business. [REVIEW]Scott John Vitell, Jatinder J. Singh & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):369 - 379.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the roles that one’s money ethic, religiosity and attitude toward business play in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. Two dimensions of religiosity – intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness – were studied. A global scale of money ethic was examined, as was a global measure of attitude toward business. Results indicate that both types of religiosity as well as one’s money ethic and attitude toward business were significant (...)
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  8.  60
    The Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility: A Scale Development. [REVIEW]Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, Kumar C. Rallapalli & Kenneth L. Kraft - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (11):1131 - 1140.
    Marketers must first perceive ethics and social responsibility to be important before their behaviors are likely to become more ethical and reflect greater social responsibility. However, little research has been conducted concerning marketers' perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility as components of business decisions. The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring marketers' perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility. The authors develop an instrument for the measurement of (...)
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  9.  65
    Consumer Ethics: The Role of Religiosity.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 46 (2):151-162.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the role that religiosity plays in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs regarding various questionable consumer practices. Additionally, other personal factors were examined including idealism, relativism, consumer alienation and selected demographics such as income and age. All of these constructs were examined as antecedents of consumer ethical beliefs. The results of a post hoc analysis indicated that religiosity was a significant determinate of both idealism and relativism, and since idealism and relativism determine consumer (...)
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  10.  89
    The Muncy–Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification and Application.Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):267-275.
    This study compares college students with other adults in terms of the Muncy–Vitell (1992) consumer ethics scale. Further, the study updates the Muncy–Vitell consumer ethics scale with modifications that include rewording and the addition of new items. These new items can be grouped into three distinct categories – (1) downloading/buying counterfeit goods, (2) recycling/environmental awareness and (3) doing the right thing/doing good. The study also compares these two groups in terms of their attitude toward business. Results show that there is (...)
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  11.  53
    The Impact of Corporate Ethical Values and Enforcement of Ethical Codes on the Perceived Importance of Ethics in Business: A Comparison of U.S. And Spanish Managers.Scott J. Vitell & Encarnación Ramos Hidalgo - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):31-43.
    This two country study examines the effect of corporate ethical values and enforcement of a code of ethics on perceptions of the role of ethics in the overall success of the firm. Additionally, the impact of organizational commitment and of individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism was examined. The rationale for examining the perceived importance of the role of ethics in this manner is to determine the extent to which the organization itself can influence employee perceptions regarding ethics (...)
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  12.  50
    Consumer Ethics: An Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Elderly Consumers. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell, James R. Lumpkin & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):365 - 375.
    Business and especially marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their perceptions of ethical consumer practices. In addition, few studies have examined the ethical beliefs of elderly consumers even though they are an important and rapidly growing segment. This research investigates the relationship between Machiavellianism, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs for elderly consumers. The results indicate that (...)
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  13.  52
    Religiosity and Consumer Ethics.Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Jatinder J. Singh - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):175-181.
    This article presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the role that religiosity plays in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. Two dimensions of religiosity – intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness – were studied. Results indicated that an intrinsic religiousness was a significant determinant of consumer ethical beliefs, but extrinsic religiousness was not related to those beliefs.
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  14.  14
    Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money, Religiosity and Attitude Toward Business.Scott John Vitell, Jatinder J. Singh & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):369-379.
    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the roles that one's money ethic, religiosity and attitude toward business play in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. Two dimensions of religiosity - intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness - were studied. A global scale of money ethic was examined, as was a global measure of attitude toward business. Results indicate that both types of religiosity as well as one's money ethic and attitude toward business were significant (...)
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  15.  64
    The Role of Religiosity in Business and Consumer Ethics: A Review of the Literature.Scott J. Vitell - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S2):155 - 167.
    In 1949 Culliton noted that "... religion has something to offer business" (Culliton, 1949, p. 265). While religion definitely does have something to offer business, especially business ethics, it is only recently that empirical research linking religiosity and business ethics has been conducted. Indeed, religiosity affords a background, against which the ethical nature of business, including marketing and consumer behavior, can be interpreted. This article offers a descriptive, rather than normative, perspective in reviewing articles linking religion to business and consumer (...)
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  16.  34
    Consumer Ethical Beliefs and Personality Traits: An Exploratory Analysis. [REVIEW]Kumar C. Rallapalli, Scott J. Vitell, Frank A. Wiebe & James H. Barnes - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (7):487 - 495.
    The present study examines the relationships between consumers'' ethical beliefs and personality traits. Based on a survey of 295 undergraduate business students, the authors found that individuals with high needs for autonomy, innovation, and aggression, as well as individuals with a high propensity for taking risks tend to have less ethical beliefs concerning possible consumer actions. Individuals with a high need for social desirability and individuals with a strong problem solving coping style tend to have more ethical beliefs concerning possible (...)
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  17.  10
    An Integrative Model of the Influence of Parental and Peer Support on Consumer Ethical Beliefs: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem, Power, and Materialism.Elodie Gentina, L. J. Shrum, Tina M. Lowrey, Scott J. Vitell & Gregory M. Rose - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (4):1173-1186.
    What causes adolescents to develop consumer’ ethical beliefs? Prior research has largely focused on the negative influence of peers and negative patterns of parent–child interactions to explain risky and unethical consumer behaviors. We take a different perspective by focusing on the positive support of parents and peers in adolescent social development. An integrative model is developed that links parental and peer support with adolescents’ self-worth motives, their materialistic tendencies, and their consumer ethical beliefs. In a study of 984 adolescents, we (...)
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  18.  30
    The Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility: A Study of Marketing Professionals.Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & James L. Thomas - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1):63-86.
    This study examined the effect of various antecedent variables on marketers’ perceptions of the role of ethics and socialresponsibility in the overall success of the firm. Variables examined included Hofstede’s cultural dimensions , as well as corporate ethical values and enforcement ofan ethics code. Additionally, individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism were included. Results indicated that most ofthese variables impacted marketers’ perceptions of the importance of ethics and social responsibility, although to varying degrees.
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  19.  55
    Business Ethics: Conflicts, Practices and Beliefs of Industrial Executives. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & Troy A. Festervand - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):111 - 122.
    This paper presents the responses of 118 executives to a mail survey which examined their views of business ethics and various business practices. In addition to identifying various sources of ethical conflict, current business practices are also examined with respect to how ethical or unethical each is believed to be. Results are also presented which outline executive responses to four ethical business situations. Overall conclusions to the study are outlined, as well as future research needs.
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  20.  21
    A Cross-Cultural Study of the Antecedents of the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  21.  22
    Consumer Ethics: The Possible Effects of Terrorism and Civil Unrest on the Ethical Values of Consumers. [REVIEW]Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Scott J. Vitell & Jamal A. Al-Khatib - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (3):223 - 231.
    Research investigating the consumer's ethical beliefs, ideologies and orientation has been limited. Additionally, despite the repeated call in the literature for cross cultural research, virtually no studies have examined the ethical beliefs and ideologies of consumers from cultures other than those in North America. This study partially fills this gap in the literature by investigating the ethical beliefs, preferred ethical ideology, and degree of Machiavellianism of consumers from Egypt and Lebanon. The results indicate that consumers in Lebanon, which has been (...)
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  22.  26
    Ethical Judgments and Intentions: A Multinational Study of Marketing Professionals.Scott J. Vitell, Aysen Bakir, Joseph G. P. Paolillo, Encarnacion Ramos Hidalgo, Jamal Al-Khatib & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 2003 - Business Ethics 12 (2):151–171.
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  23.  15
    A Cross-Cultural Study of the Antecedents of the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility.Scott J. Vitell & Joseph G. P. Paolillo - 2004 - Business Ethics: A European Review 13 (2-3):185-199.
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  24.  7
    The Role of Moral Intensity and Moral Philosophy in Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the European Union.Scott J. Vitell & Abhijit Patwardhan - 2008 - Business Ethics: A European Review 17 (2):196-209.
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  25.  51
    The Role of Ethics Institutionalization in Influencing Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Esprit de Corps.Scott John Vitell & Anusorn Singhapakdi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):343-353.
    Given increasing ethical problems in business, many organizations have tried to control these problems by institutionalizing ethics such as by creating new ethics positions and formulating and enforcing codes of ethics. In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit forms of institutionalization of ethics on job satisfaction, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment for marketing professionals is investigated. Additionally, the influence of organizational socialization, ethical relativism, and age relative to each of the above organizational climate constructs is examined. Results (...)
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  26.  41
    The Role of Moral Intensity and Moral Philosophy in Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China and the European Union.Scott J. Vitell & Abhijit Patwardhan - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (2):196–209.
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  27.  12
    Ethical Consumer Decision‐Making: The Role of Need for Cognition and Affective Responses.Omneya Mokhtar Yacout & Scott Vitell - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (2):178-194.
    Most of the academic research in the field of consumer ethics has focused on the cognitive antecedents and processes of unethical consumer behavior. However, the specific roles of discrete emotions such as fear have not yet been investigated thoroughly. This research examines the role of the need for cognition, the three affective responses—fear, power, and excitement—and perceived issue importance on moral intensity, ethical perceptions, and ethical intentions for four types of unethical consumer behaviors. A sample of consumers from the two (...)
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  28.  32
    The Influence of Love of Money and Religiosity on Ethical Decision-Making in Marketing.Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, Dong-Jin Lee, Amiee Mellon Nisius & Grace B. Yu - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):183-191.
    The impact of “love of money” on different aspects of consumers’ ethical beliefs has been investigated by previous research. In this study we investigate the potential impact of “love of money” on a manager’s ethical decision-making in marketing. Another objective of the current study is to investigate the potential impacts of extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity on ethical marketing decision-making. We also include ethical judgments as an element of ethical decision-making. We found “love of money”, both dimensions of religiosity, and ethical (...)
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  29.  8
    Spirituality, Moral Identity, and Consumer Ethics: A Multi-Cultural Study.Scott J. Vitell, Robert Allen King, Katharine Howie, Jean-François Toti, Lumina Albert, Encarnación Ramos Hidalgo & Omneya Yacout - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (1):147-160.
    This article presents the results of a cross-cultural study that examines the relationship between spirituality and a consumer’s ethical predisposition, and further examines the relationship between the internalization of one’s moral identity and a consumer’s ethical predisposition. Finally, the moderating impact of cultural factors on the above relationships is tested using Hofstede’s five dimensions. Data were gathered from young adult, well-educated consumers in five different countries, namely the U.S., France, Spain, India, and Egypt. The results indicate that the more spiritual (...)
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  30.  40
    Consumer Ethics: Determinants of Ethical Beliefs of African Americans.Ziad Swaidan, Scott J. Vitell & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 46 (2):175-186.
    This study explores the ethical ideologies and ethical beliefs of African American consumers using the Forsyth ethical position questionnaire and the Muncy-Vitell consumer ethics questionnaire. The two dimensions of the EPQ were the independent constructs and the four dimensions of the MVQ were the dependent variables. In addition, this paper explores the consumer ethics of African Americans across four demographic factors. A sample of 315 African American consumers was used to explore these relationships. Results confirmed that consumers who score high (...)
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  31.  58
    The Relationship Between Ethics and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & D. L. Davis - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (6):489 - 494.
    The relationship between ethics and job satisfaction for MIS professionals is examined empirically. Five dimensions of job satisfaction are examined: (1) satisfaction with pay, (2) satisfaction with promotions, (3) satisfaction with co-workers, (4) satisfaction with supervisors and (5) satisfaction with the work itself. These dimensions of satisfaction are compared to top management's ethical stance, one's overall sense of social responsibility and an ethical optimism scale (i.e., the degree of optimism that one has concerning the positive relationship between ethics and success (...)
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  32.  12
    Ethical Judgments and Intentions: A Multinational Study of Marketing Professionals.Scott J. Vitell, Aysen Bakir, Joseph G. P. Paolillo, Encarnacion Ramos Hidalgo, Jamal Al‐Khatib & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 2003 - Business Ethics: A European Review 12 (2):151-171.
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  33.  53
    The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility in Organizational Success: A Spanish Perspective.Scott John Vitell, Encarnación Ramos & Ceri M. Nishihara - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):467-483.
    Ethics has assumed a dominant position in the current economic debate, and this study focuses on ethics as a legitimate underpinning to good business decision making. Using a self-response survey of marketing managers in Spain, the current theory on ethical decision making is extended. Results support the mediating influence of the PRESOR construct (an individual’s perception of the importance of ethics and social responsibility for the effectiveness of the organization) on relativistic and idealistic moral thinking when one is considering the (...)
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  34.  72
    Ethical Beliefs of Mis Professionals: The Frequency and Opportunity for Unethical Behavior. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & Donald L. Davis - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (1):63 - 70.
    The frequency and opportunity for unethical behavior by MIS professionals is examined empirically. In addition, the importance of top management's ethical stance, one's sense of social responsibility and the existence of codes of ethics in determining perceptions of the frequency and opportunity for unethical behavior are tested.Results indicate that MIS professionals are perceived as having the opportunity to engage in unethical practices, but that they seldom do so. Additionally, successful MIS professionals are perceived as ethical. Finally, while company codes of (...)
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  35.  5
    Anger Strays, Fear Refrains: The Differential Effect of Negative Emotions on Consumers’ Ethical Judgments.Jatinder J. Singh, Nitika Garg, Rahul Govind & Scott J. Vitell - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (1):235-248.
    Although various factors have been studied for their influence on consumers’ ethical judgments, the role of incidental emotions has received relatively less attention. Recent research in consumer behavior has focused on studying the effect of specific incidental emotions on various aspects of consumer decision making. This paper investigates the effect of two negative, incidental emotional states of anger and fear on ethical judgment in a consumer context using a passive unethical behavior scenario. The paper presents two experimental studies. Study 1 (...)
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  36. The Ethics of Food Advertising Targeted Toward Children: Parental Viewpoint.Aysen Bakir & Scott J. Vitell - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):299-311.
    The children’s market has become significantly more important to marketers in recent years. They have been spending increasing amounts on advertising, particularly of food and beverages, to reach this segment. At the same time, there is a critical debate among parents, government agencies, and industry experts as to the ethics of food advertising practices aimed toward children. The␣present study examines parents’ ethical views of food advertising targeting children. Findings indicate that parents’ beliefs concerning at least some dimensions of moral intensity (...)
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  37.  8
    Ethics During Adolescence: A Social Networks Perspective.Elodie Gentina, Gregory M. Rose & Scott J. Vitell - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (1):185-197.
    Marketing research on adolescents’ ethical predispositions and risky behaviors has focused primarily on individual difference variables. The present study, in contrast, examines the social network positions that an adolescent occupies within a group. A survey of 984 adolescents demonstrates that EP and RB stem from a balance between assimilation and individuation. In particular, we show that adolescents with close first-degree relationships within a specific peer group and/or high need for uniqueness have lower EP and engage in more RB, while adolescents (...)
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  38.  55
    A Global Analysis of Corporate Social Performance: The Effects of Cultural and Geographic Environments. [REVIEW]Foo Nin Ho, Hui-Ming Deanna Wang & Scott J. Vitell - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):423-433.
    As more and more multi-national companies expand their operations globally, their responsibilities extend beyond not only the economic motive of profitability but also other social and environmental factors. The objective of this article is to examine the impact of national culture and geographic environment on firms’ corporate social performance (CSP). Empirical tests are based on a global CSP database of companies from 49 countries. Results show that the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are significantly associated with CSP. In addition, European companies are (...)
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  39.  33
    The Influence of Corporate Culture on Managerial Ethical Judgments.Saviour L. S. Nwachukwu & Scott J. Vitell - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (8):757-776.
    The contention that organizational culture influences ethical decision making is not disputable. However, the extent to which it influences ethical decision making in the workplace is a topic for scholarly debate and investigation. There are scholars who argue that, though corporate values are a powerful force in explaining the behavior of individuals and groups within organizations, these values are unperceived, unspoken, and taken for granted. However, there are others who argue that the formalization of corporate values facilitates job and role (...)
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  40.  17
    A Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Ethical Values of Consumers: The Potential Effect of War and Civil Disruption. [REVIEW]Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Gordon L. Patzer & Scott J. Vitell - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):435 - 448.
    Past research has examined the ethical judgments of consumers in the U.S., but few studies have investigated such attitudes in foreign-market settings. The current study compares ethical attitudes of consumers in two countries (Ireland and Lebanon) which share a cultural similarity of ongoing war and terrorism. The findings reveal that both cultures exhibit low sensitivity to ethical issues. Furthermore, the findings show that the Irish consumers are less sensitive to consumer ethical practices, less idealistic, more relativistic, and more Machiavellian than (...)
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  41.  27
    Antecedents to the Justification of Norm Violating Behavior Among Business Practitioners.Scott J. Vitell, Megan Keith & Manisha Mathur - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (1):163 - 173.
    This study investigates the role that moral identity, religiosity, and the institutionalization of ethics play in determining the extent of justification of norm violating behavior among business practitioners. Moral justification is where a person, rather than assuming responsibility for an outcome, attempts to legitimize ethically questionable behavior. Results of the study indicate that both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity as well as intrinsic religiosity and the explicit institutionalization of ethics within the organization are significant determinants of the (...)
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  42.  19
    Ethical Problems, Conflicts and Beliefs of Small Business Professionals.Scott J. Vitell, Erin Baca Dickerson & Troy A. Festervand - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 28 (1):15 - 24.
    This paper presents the results of a national study of the beliefs and perceptions of small business professionals concerning ethics within their company and business in general. The study examined their views on the relationship between success and ethical conduct as well as the extent and nature of ethical conflicts experienced by the respondents. Some comparisons are made with similar studies that have been conducted in the past. Respondents have the most ethical conflicts with customers and employees, and with regard (...)
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  43.  23
    Religiosity, Attitude Toward Business, and Ethical Beliefs: Hispanic Consumers in the United States. [REVIEW]Abhijit M. Patwardhan, Megan E. Keith & Scott J. Vitell - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):61-70.
    Growth of the Hispanic consumer population in America is changing the marketplace landscape. Due to their considerable buying power, a better understanding of Hispanic consumer behavior has become a necessity. The marketing literature has examined issues regarding religiosity and attitude toward business in regards to consumer ethical beliefs as well as research differentiating consumers on the basis of ethnicity due to their inherently different religious principles. Therefore, the present study contributes to the existing consumer ethics literature by examining the roles (...)
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  44.  10
    Consumer Participation in Cause-Related Marketing: An Examination of Effort Demands and Defensive Denial.Katharine M. Howie, Lifeng Yang, Scott J. Vitell, Victoria Bush & Doug Vorhies - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (3):679-692.
    This article presents two studies that examine cause-related marketing promotions that require consumers’ active participation. Requiring a follow-up behavior has very valuable implications for maximizing marketing expenditures and customer relationship management. Theories related to ethical behavior, like motivated reasoning and defensive denial, are used to explain when and why consumers respond negatively to these effort demands. The first study finds that consumers rationalize not participating in CRM by devaluing the sponsored cause. The second study identifies a tactic marketers can utilize (...)
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  45.  31
    Personal and Professional Values Underlying the Ethical Judgments of Marketers.Anusorn Singhapakdi & Scott J. Vitell - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (7):525 - 533.
    This study explores the relative influences of two levels of value orientations, personal values and professional values, underlying the ethical judgments of marketing practitioners. The data were obtained from a mail survey of the American Marketing Association''s professional members. The results generally indicate that a marketer''s ethical judgments can be partially explained by his/her personal and professional values.
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  46.  50
    Marketing Ethics and the Techniques of Neutralization.Scott J. Vitell & Stephen J. Grove - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (6):433 - 438.
    The need for conceptual work in marketing ethics is addressed by examining the five techniques of neutralization as a means for partially explaining unethical behaviors by marketing practitioners. These techniques are often used by individuals to lessen the possible impact of norm-violating behaviors upon their self-concept and their social relationships. Borrowed from the social disorganization and deviance literature, the five techniques of neutralization are: (1) denial of responsibility, (2) denial of injury, (3) denial of victim, (4) condemning the condemners and (...)
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  47.  54
    Ethical Decision Making in Marketing: A Synthesis and Evaluation of Scales Measuring the Various Components of Decision Making in Ethical Situations. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & Foo Nin Ho - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (7):699-717.
    The authors present a comprehensive synthesis and evaluation of the published scales measuring the components of the decision making process in ethical situations using the Hunt-Vitell (1993) theory of ethics as a framework to guide the research. Suggestions for future scale development are also provided.
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  48.  30
    Consumer Ethics: The Role of Acculturation in U.S. Immigrant Populations.Ziad Swaidan, Scott J. Vitell, Gregory M. Rose & Faye W. Gilbert - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (1):1-16.
    This study examines the role of acculturation in shaping consumers’ views of ethics. Specifically, it examines the relationships between the desire to keep one’s original culture, the desire to adopt the host culture, and the four dimensions of the Muncy and Vitell (Journal of Business Research Ethics 24(4), 297, 1992) consumer ethics scale. Using two separate immigrant populations – one of former Middle-Eastern residents now living in the U.S. and the other of Asian immigrants in the U.S. – results indicate (...)
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  49.  13
    Organizational Ethics in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis. [REVIEW]Jamal A. Al-Khatib, Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas & Scott J. Vitell - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4):309 - 322.
    Relationships with one's employees, co-workers, or superiors create ethical dilemmas. Employees' judgments and ethical perceptions have been extensively studied in Western cultures, but not in developing countries. The purpose of this investigation is to examine employees' self-reported work-related ethics and compare them to their perceptions of co-workers' and top managements' along various morally challenging situations in three developing countries' organizations. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Oman, known as the Gulf countries, were selected as the research setting - and provided the sampling (...)
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  50.  43
    Ethics Gap: Comparing Marketers with Consumers on Important Determinants of Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW]Anusorn Singhapakdi, Scott J. Vitell, C. P. Rao & David L. Kurtz - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (4):317 - 328.
    Studies in marketing ethics often revealed that ethical gaps do exist between marketers and other groups in society. The existence of these ethical gaps could be extremely counterproductive for marketing management. In order to effectively narrow these gaps, a marketing manager must first have a better understanding of causes of these gaps. To this end, this study compares marketing professionals with consumers on some important determinants of the ethical decision-making process. In particular, the marketers and consumers were compared with respect (...)
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