Results for 'Sean A. Riley'

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  1.  76
    Building a High School Philosophy Program.Sean A. Riley - 2013 - Teaching Philosophy 36 (3):239-252.
    Building a high school philosophy program from scratch requires vision, creativity, determination, and patience. I recount the steps my colleagues and I took to implement philosophy courses at The Stony Brook School and discuss the challenges that arose along the way. I also offer general outlines of the three courses we have implemented (Critical Reading and Reasoning, History of Philosophy, and Ethics and Politics), discuss pedagogical approaches that we have found to work with high school students, and share feedback on (...)
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  2.  26
    The Unexamined Benefits of the Expansive Legalization of Medical Assistance-in-Dying.Sean Riley & Ben Sarbey - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (4):655-665.
    If you slide far enough down the slippery slope envisioned by opponents of medical assistance-in-dying (MAiD), you eventually land in a ghastly society with industrialized euthanasia, rampant suicide, and devalued life. But what if the slippery slope leads us somewhere better? This paper explores the benefits of eliminating nearly all MAiD prohibitions and regulations. We anticipate three positive effects for public health: 1. Expanded access to those currently not qualified from MAiD by removing ineffective access criteria; 2. Harm reduction by (...)
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  3.  10
    Watching the watchmen: changing tides in the oversight of medical assistance in dying.Sean Riley - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (7):453-457.
    The recent wave of medical assistance in dying legalisation raises questions about proper oversight of the practice as new systems for data collection, case assessment and public reporting emerge. Newer systems, such as in Spain, New Zealand and Colombia, are eschewing the retrospective approach used for case assessment in older systems, particularly those in the Netherlands, Belgium and the USA, in favour of an approach requiring more extensive review prior to the procedure. This shift aims to increase compliance with each (...)
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  4.  59
    Philosophy of Population Health: Philosophy for a New Public Health Era.Sean A. Valles - 2018 - Abingdon OX14, UK: Routledge.
    Population health has recently grown from a series of loosely connected critiques of twentieth-century public health and medicine into a theoretical framework with a corresponding field of research—population health science. Its approach is to promote the public’s health through improving everyday human life: affordable nutritious food, clean air, safe places where children can play, living wages, etc. It recognizes that addressing contemporary health challenges such as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will take much more than good hospitals and public (...)
  5.  42
    A pluralistic and socially responsible philosophy of epidemiology field should actively engage with social determinants of health and health disparities.Sean A. Valles - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2589-2611.
    Philosophy of epidemiology has recently emerged as a distinct branch of philosophy. The field will surely benefit from pluralism, reflected in the broad range of topics and perspectives in this special issue. Here, I argue that a healthy pluralistic field of philosophy of epidemiology has social responsibilities that require the field as a whole to engage actively with research on social determinants of health and health disparities. Practicing epidemiologists and the broader community of public health scientists have gradually acknowledged that (...)
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  6.  19
    Heterogeneity of Risk within Racial Groups, a Challenge for Public Health Programs.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Preventive Medicine 55 (5):405-408.
    Targeting high-risk populations for public health interventions is a classic tool of public health promotion programs. This practice becomes thornier when racial groups are identified as the at-risk populations. I present the particular ethical and epistemic challenges that arise when there are low-risk subpopulations within racial groups that have been identified as high-risk for a particular health concern. I focus on two examples. The black immigrant population does not have the same hypertension risk as US-born African Americans. Similarly, Finnish descendants (...)
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  7.  13
    What is in it for Me? Middle Manager Behavioral Integrity and Performance.Sean A. Way, Tony Simons, Hannes Leroy & Elizabeth A. Tuleja - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):765-777.
    We propose that middle managers’ perceived organizational support enhances their performance through the sequential mediation of their behavioral integrity and follower organizational citizenship behaviors. We test our model with data collected from middle managers, their direct subordinates, and their direct superiors at 18 hotel properties in China. The current study’s findings contribute to the existing literature on perceived organizational support and behavioral integrity. They also add a practical self-interest argument for middle managers’ efforts to maintain their word-action alignment by demonstrating (...)
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  8.  35
    Towards a functional anatomy of volition.Sean A. Spence & Chris D. Frith - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (8-9):8-9.
    In this paper we examine the functional anatomy of volition, as revealed by modern brain imaging techniques, in conjunction with neuropsychological data derived from human and non-human primates using other methodologies. A number of brain regions contribute to the performance of consciously chosen, or ‘willed', actions. Of particular importance is dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , together with those brain regions with which it is connected, via cortico-subcortical and cortico-cortical circuits. That aspect of free will which is concerned with the voluntary selection (...)
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  9.  33
    Bioethics and the Framing of Climate Change's Health Risks.Sean A. Valles - 2014 - Bioethics 29 (5):334-341.
    Cheryl Cox MacPherson recently argued, in an article for this journal, that ‘Climate Change is a Bioethics Problem’. This article elaborates on that position, particularly highlighting bioethicists' potential ability to help reframe the current climate change discourse to give more attention to its health risks. This reframing process is especially important because of the looming problem of climate change skepticism. Recent empirical evidence from science framing experiments indicates that the public reacts especially positively to climate change messages framed in public (...)
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  10.  34
    Why Race and Ethnicity Are Not Like Other Risk Factors.Sean A. Valles - 2021 - Philosophy of Medicine 2 (1).
    Since early in the Covid-19 pandemic, there have been wide disparities observed between different US racial groups’ rates of Covid-19 infections and deaths. This challenges physicians and patients to untangle what these race-associated risks mean for an individual patient. I argue that this task of providing individualized risk advice requires physicians to apply two skills: structural competency and epistemic humility.
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  11. Race in Medicine.Sean A. Valles - 2016 - In Miriam Solomon, Jeremy R. Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine. Routledge.
     
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  12.  47
    Validity and Utility in Biological Traits.Sean A. Valles - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (1):93-102.
    “Trait” is a ubiquitous term in biology, but its precise meaning and theoretical foundations remain opaque. After distinguishing between “trait” and “character,” I argue for the value of adopting Theodosius Dobzhansky’s 1956 definition and framework for understanding “trait,” which holds that traits are just “semantic devices” that artificially impose order on continuous biological phenomena. I elaborate on this definition to distinguish between trait validity (compliance with Dobzhansky’s trait definition) and trait utility (usefulness of a trait). As a consequence of this (...)
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  13.  8
    Fifty Years of U.S. Mass Incarceration and What It Means for Bioethics.Sean A. Valles - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (6):25-35.
    A growing body of literature has engaged with mass incarceration as a public health problem. This article reviews some of that literature, illustrating why and how bioethicists can and should engage with the problem of mass incarceration as a remediable cause of health inequities. “Mass incarceration” refers to a phenomenon that emerged in the United States fifty years ago: imprisoning a vastly larger proportion of the population than peer countries do, with a greatly disproportionate number of incarcerated people being members (...)
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  14.  32
    Coupled Ethical-Epistemic Analysis as a Tool for Environmental Science.Sean A. Valles, Michael O’Rourke & Zachary Piso - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (3):267-286.
    This paper presents a new model for how to jointly analyze the ethical and evidentiary dimensions of environmental science cases, with an eye toward making science more participatory and publically...
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  15.  31
    Does a philosophy of the brain tell us anything new about psychomotor disorders?Sean A. Spence - 1999 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 6 (3):227-229.
  16.  29
    The cycle of action: A commentary on Garry young (2006).Sean A. Spence - 2006 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (3):69-72.
    As the emphasis in the title of his article indicates, Garry Young (2006) wishes to retain a role for conscious intention in the initiation of intentional acts, a proposal he contrasts with the findings and writings of Benjamin Libet, and also my own comments upon the latter (Libet et al., 1983; Spence, 1996). While Libet's classic series of experiments (and their replication by others) established that the conscious intention to act is itself preceded by predictive trains of electrical activity in (...)
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  17.  26
    One’s Own Brain as Trickster.Sean A. Day - 1998 - American Journal of Semiotics 14 (1-4):157-165.
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  18.  7
    One’s Own Brain as Trickster.Sean A. Day - 1998 - American Journal of Semiotics 14 (1-4):157-165.
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  19.  22
    Thinking beyond the Bereitschaftspotential: Consciousness of Self and Others as a Necessary Condition for Change.Sean A. Spence - 2009 - In Nancey Murphy, George Ellis, O. ’Connor F. R. & Timothy (eds.), Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will. Springer Verlag. pp. 211--223.
  20.  48
    The challenges of choosing and explaining a phenomenon in epidemiological research on the “Hispanic Paradox”.Sean A. Valles - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (2):129-148.
    According to public health data, the US Hispanic population is far healthier than would be expected for a population with low socioeconomic status. Ever since Kyriakos Markides and Jeannine Coreil highlighted this in a seminal 1986 article, public health researchers have sought to explain the so-called “Hispanic paradox.” Several candidate explanations have been offered over the years, but the debate goes on. This article offers a philosophical analysis that clarifies how two sets of obstacles make it particularly difficult to explain (...)
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  21.  32
    Lionel Penrose and the concept of normal variation in human intelligence.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):281-289.
    Lionel Penrose (1898–1972) was an important leader during the mid-20th century decline of eugenics and the development of modern medical genetics. However, historians have paid little attention to his radical theoretical challenges to mainline eugenic concepts of mental disease. Working from a classification system developed with his colleague, E. O. Lewis, Penrose developed a statistically sophisticated and clinically grounded refutation of the popular position that low intelligence is inherently a disease state. In the early 1930s, Penrose advocated dividing “mental defect” (...)
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  22.  40
    Lionel Penrose and the concept of normal variation in human intelligence.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):281-289.
  23.  57
    Semantic bootstrapping of type-logical grammar.Sean A. Fulop - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):49-86.
    A two-stage procedure is described which induces type-logical grammar lexicons from sentences annotated with skeletal terms of the simply typed lambda calculus. First, a generalized formulae-as-types correspondence is exploited to obtain all the type-logical proofs of the sample sentences from their lambda terms. The resulting lexicons are then optimally unified. The first stage constitutes the semantic bootstrapping (Pinker, Language Learnability and Language Development, Harvard University Press, 1984), while the unification procedure of Buszkowski and Penn represents a first attempt at structure-dependent (...)
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  24.  32
    Semantic bootstrapping of type-logical grammar.Sean A. Fulop - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):49-86.
    A two-stage procedure is described which induces type-logical grammar lexicons from sentences annotated with skeletal terms of the simply typed lambda calculus. First, a generalized formulae-as-types correspondence is exploited to obtain all the type-logical proofs of the sample sentences from their lambda terms. The resulting lexicons are then optimally unified. The first stage constitutes the semantic bootstrapping (Pinker, Language Learnability and Language Development, Harvard University Press, 1984), while the unification procedure of Buszkowski and Penn represents a first attempt at structure-dependent (...)
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  25.  30
    Environmental Justice for Whom?Sean A. Valles - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):24-26.
    Ray and Cooper (2024) make a very compelling argument for vastly increasing bioethicists’ engagement with environmental justice. I strongly support this proposal and agree with their arguments. Yet...
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  26.  97
    The mystery of the mystery of common genetic diseases.Sean A. Valles - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):183-201.
    Common monogenic genetic diseases, ones that have unexpectedly high frequencies in certain populations, have attracted a great number of conflicting evolutionary explanations. This paper will attempt to explain the mystery of why two particularly extensively studied common genetic diseases, Tay Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis, remain evolutionary mysteries despite decades of research. I review the most commonly cited evolutionary processes used to explain common genetic diseases: reproductive compensation, random genetic drift (in the context of founder effect), and especially heterozygote advantage. (...)
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  27.  39
    The Predictable Inequities of COVID-19 in the US: Fundamental Causes and Broken Institutions.Sean A. Valles - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 30 (3):191-214.
    “Nobody had ever seen anything like this before.”“Nobody would have ever thought a thing like this could have happened.”There is a lot at stake in the current and forthcoming debates over what/why/how the COVID-19 pandemic’s effects on the US were unpredictable. These debates are crucial to both our assessments of backward-looking culpability and in the related but even more socially important task of guiding decisions about how to rebuild society after the pandemic subsides. The more we treat the harm as (...)
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  28.  43
    Felix culpa: The doctrine of original sin as doctrine of hope in aquinas'ssumma contra gentiles.Sean A. Otto - 2009 - Heythrop Journal 50 (5):781-792.
  29.  12
    Late antique trade: Research methodologies.Sean A. Kingsley - 2003 - In Luke Lavan & William Bowden (eds.), Theory and Practice in Late Antique Archaeology. Brill. pp. 1--113.
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  30. Risks associated with genetic modification: – An annotated bibliography of Peer reviewed natural science publications. [REVIEW]Sean A. Weaver & Michael C. Morris - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):157-189.
    We present an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scientific research highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks associated with genetic modification. Risks associated with the expression of the transgenic material include concerns over resistance and non-target effects of crops expressing Bt toxins, consequences of herbicide use associated with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant plants, and transfer of gene expression from genetically modified crops through vertical and horizontal gene transfer. These risks are not connected to the technique of genetic modification as (...)
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  31.  7
    The Coupled Ethical-Epistemic Model as a Resource for Feminist Philosophy of Science, and a Case Study Applying the Model to the Demography of Hispanic Identity.Sean A. Valles - 2021 - In Heidi Elizabeth Grasswick & Nancy Arden McHugh (eds.), Making the Case: Feminist and Critical Race Philosophers Engage Case Studies. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 47-71.
  32.  49
    Grammar induction by unification of type-logical lexicons.Sean A. Fulop - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (3):353-381.
    A method is described for inducing a type-logical grammar from a sample of bare sentence trees which are annotated by lambda terms, called term-labelled trees . Any type logic from a permitted class of multimodal logics may be specified for use with the procedure, which induces the lexicon of the grammar including the grammatical categories. A first stage of semantic bootstrapping is performed, which induces a general form lexicon from the sample of term-labelled trees using Fulop’s (J Log Lang Inf (...)
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  33.  13
    The Dynamics of Public Health Responsibility: A Commentary on "Public Health and Precarity" by Michael D. Doan and Ami Harbin.Sean A. Valles - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (2):135-140.
    Health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and love. Health is created by caring for oneself and others, by being able to take decisions and have control over one's life circumstances, and by ensuring that the society one lives in creates conditions that allow the attainment of health by all its members.To begin, I largely agree with Doan and Harbin's argument in "Public Health and Precarity," and by extension (...)
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  34.  27
    Review Essay: Theism, Evil, and the Search for Answers: Some Recent Scholarship on Theodicy and the Problem of Evil.Sean A. Otto - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (1):136-140.
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  35.  22
    Kierkegaard's Echo in the Early Theology of Karl Barth.Sean A. Turchin - 2012 - Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2012 (1).
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  36.  40
    Chronic toxicity of 1080 and its implications for conservation management: A new zealand case study. [REVIEW]Sean A. Weaver - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (4):367-389.
    Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a mammalian pesticide used in different parts of the world for the control of mammalian pest species. In New Zealand it is used extensively and very successfully as a conservation management tool for the control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) – an introduced marsupial that has become a substantial agricultural and conservation management pest. Possums pose a threat to cattle farming in New Zealand as they are a vector for bovine tuberculosis. In protected natural areas, possum (...)
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  37.  84
    Evolutionary medicine at twenty: rethinking adaptationism and disease. [REVIEW]Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):241-261.
    Two decades ago, the eminent evolutionary biologist George C. Williams and his physician coauthor, Randolph Nesse, formulated the evolutionary medicine research program. Williams and Nesse explicitly made adaptationism a core component of the new program, which has served to undermine the program ever since, distorting its practitioners’ perceptions of evidentiary burdens and in extreme cases has served to warp practitioner’s understandings of the relationship between evolutionary benefits/detriments and medical ones. I show that the Williams and Nesse program more particularly embraces (...)
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  38.  11
    Memory for tastes in an operant delayed discrimination.Doris A. Bitler & Anthony L. Riley - 1992 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (5):385-388.
  39.  25
    Scientific Method in Brief by Hugh G. Gauch Jr. [REVIEW]Sean A. Valles - 2013 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (3):488--489.
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  40.  51
    Reflecting on what philosophy of epidemiology is and does, as the field comes into its own: Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophy of Epidemiology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Sean A. Valles - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2383-2392.
    This article is an introduction to the Synthese Special Issue, Philosophy of Epidemiology. The overall goals of the issue are to revisit the state of philosophy of epidemiology and to provide a forum for new voices, approaches, and perspectives in the philosophy of epidemiology literature. The introduction begins by drawing on Geoffrey Rose’s work on how to conceptualize and design interventions for populations, rather than individuals. It then goes on to highlight some themes that emerged in the articles that make (...)
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  41.  38
    Minimizing harm in possum control operations and experiments in new zealand.Michael C. Morris & Sean A. Weaver - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4):367-385.
    Pest control operations andexperimentation on sentient animals such as thebrushtail possum can cause unnecessary andavoidable suffering in the animal subjects.Minimizing animal suffering is an animalwelfare goal and can be used as a guide in thedesign and execution of animal experimentationand pest control operations.The public has little sympathy for the possum,which can cause widespread environmentaldamage, but does believe that control should beas painless as possible. Trapping and poisoningprovide only short-term solutions to the possumproblem and often involve methods that causesuffering. Intrusive experiments (...)
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  42.  20
    Erratum to: Grammar Induction by Unification of Type-logical Lexicons. [REVIEW]Sean A. Fulop - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (1):135-136.
  43.  29
    White Privilege, White Poverty: Reckoning with Class and Race in America.Erika Blacksher & Sean A. Valles - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (S1):51-57.
    This essay argues that a failure to think and talk critically and candidly about White privilege and White poverty is a key threat to the United States of America's precarious democracy. Whiteness frames one of America's most pressing collective challenges—the poor state of the nation's health, which lags behind other wealthy nations and is marred by deep and entrenched class‐ and race‐based inequities. The broadscale remedies experts recommend demand what is in short supply: trust in evidence, experts, government, and one (...)
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  44.  35
    Exploring the potential utility of AI large language models for medical ethics: an expert panel evaluation of GPT-4.Michael Balas, Jordan Joseph Wadden, Philip C. Hébert, Eric Mathison, Marika D. Warren, Victoria Seavilleklein, Daniel Wyzynski, Alison Callahan, Sean A. Crawford, Parnian Arjmand & Edsel B. Ing - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (2):90-96.
    Integrating large language models (LLMs) like GPT-4 into medical ethics is a novel concept, and understanding the effectiveness of these models in aiding ethicists with decision-making can have significant implications for the healthcare sector. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of GPT-4 in responding to complex medical ethical vignettes and to gauge its utility and limitations for aiding medical ethicists. Using a mixed-methods, cross-sectional survey approach, a panel of six ethicists assessed LLM-generated responses to eight (...)
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  45. Commentaries on David Hodgson's "a plain person's free will".Graham Cairns-Smith, Thomas W. Clark, Ravi Gomatam, Robert H. Kane, Nicholas Maxwell, J. J. C. Smart, Sean A. Spence & Henry P. Stapp - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (1):20-75.
    REMARKS ON EVOLUTION AND TIME-SCALES, Graham Cairns-Smith; HODGSON'S BLACK BOX, Thomas Clark; DO HODGSON'S PROPOSITIONS UNIQUELY CHARACTERIZE FREE WILL?, Ravi Gomatam; WHAT SHOULD WE RETAIN FROM A PLAIN PERSON'S CONCEPT OF FREE WILL?, Gilberto Gomes; ISOLATING DISPARATE CHALLENGES TO HODGSON'S ACCOUNT OF FREE WILL, Liberty Jaswal; FREE AGENCY AND LAWS OF NATURE, Robert Kane; SCIENCE VERSUS REALIZATION OF VALUE, NOT DETERMINISM VERSUS CHOICE, Nicholas Maxwell; COMMENTS ON HODGSON, J.J.C. Smart; THE VIEW FROM WITHIN, Sean Spence; COMMENTARY ON HODGSON, Henry (...)
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  46.  37
    A context maintenance and retrieval model of organizational processes in free recall.Sean M. Polyn, Kenneth A. Norman & Michael J. Kahana - 2009 - Psychological Review 116 (1):129-156.
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  47.  29
    Unintended, but still blameworthy: the roles of awareness, desire, and anger in negligence, restitution, and punishment.Sean M. Laurent, Narina L. Nuñez & Kimberly A. Schweitzer - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (7).
  48.  54
    Effectiveness of a responsible conduct of research course: A preliminary study.Sean T. Powell, Matthew A. Allison & Michael W. Kalichman - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):249-264.
    Training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is required for many research trainees nationwide, but little is known about its effectiveness. For a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of a short-term course in RCR, medical students participating in an NIH-funded summer research program at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) were surveyed using an instrument developed through focus group discussions. In the summer of 2003, surveys were administered before and after a short-term RCR course, as well as to (...)
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  49.  42
    Punishing hypocrisy: The roles of hypocrisy and moral emotions in deciding culpability and punishment of criminal and civil moral transgressors.Sean M. Laurent, Brian A. M. Clark, Stephannie Walker & Kimberly D. Wiseman - 2014 - Cognition and Emotion 28 (1):59-83.
    Three experiments explored how hypocrisy affects attributions of criminal guilt and the desire to punish hypocritical criminals. Study 1 established that via perceived hypocrisy, a hypocritical criminal was seen as more culpable and was punished more than a non-hypocritical criminal who committed an identical crime. Study 2 expanded on this, showing that negative moral emotions (anger and disgust) mediated the relationships between perceived hypocrisy, criminal guilt, and punishment. Study 3 replicated the emotion finding from Study 2 using new scenarios where (...)
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  50.  23
    Protecting the Free Exercise of Religion in Health Care Delivery.Christine A. O’Riley - 2017 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 17 (3):425-434.
    Not all actions that are legal are necessarily morally correct. However, there are few protections for providers who are pressured to comply with actions and procedures that infringe on their religious beliefs regarding human dignity. The right of health care providers to freely act on religious convictions and refrain from cooperating with morally reprehensible tasks is often eschewed in favor of political correctness or is branded as discrimination. Adequate safeguards are urgently needed for health care workers at all levels to (...)
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