Results for 'Sean A. Riley'

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  1.  62
    Building a High School Philosophy Program.Sean A. Riley - 2013 - Teaching Philosophy 36 (3):239-252.
    Building a high school philosophy program from scratch requires vision, creativity, determination, and patience. I recount the steps my colleagues and I took to implement philosophy courses at The Stony Brook School and discuss the challenges that arose along the way. I also offer general outlines of the three courses we have implemented (Critical Reading and Reasoning, History of Philosophy, and Ethics and Politics), discuss pedagogical approaches that we have found to work with high school students, and share feedback on (...)
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  2.  40
    The Promise of Publicness: Intellectual Elites and Participatory Politics in Postwar Heidelberg*: Sean A. Forner.Sean A. Forner - 2012 - Modern Intellectual History 9 (3):641-660.
    This essay explores how the experience of National Socialism provoked German intellectuals to rethink elitist conventions in politics. It focuses on three figures in the town of Heidelberg—Alexander Mitscherlich, Dolf Sternberger, and Alfred Weber—as well as on a journal and a discussion forum that they established after 1945. Breaking with both mandarin and vanguardist traditions, they conceived a politics that neither transpired over the masses’ heads nor sought to organize them from above but rested on the people's participation from below. (...)
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  3.  10
    Coupled Ethical-Epistemic Analysis as a Tool for Environmental Science.Sean A. Valles, Michael O’Rourke & Zachary Piso - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (3):267-286.
    This paper presents a new model for how to jointly analyze the ethical and evidentiary dimensions of environmental science cases, with an eye toward making science more participatory and publically...
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  4. Free Will in the Light of Neuropsychiatry.Sean A. Spence - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (2):75-90.
    If the notion of free will is to be retained by philosophers, psychiatrists and psychologists, then it will be a free will which is essentially non-conscious. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a conscious free will (in the sense of consciousness initiating action) is incompatible with the evidence of neuroscience, and the phenomenology described in the literature of normal creativity, psychotic passivity, and the neurological syndrome of the alien limb or hand. In particular the work of Libet (...)
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  5.  18
    Towards a Functional Anatomy of Volition.Sean A. Spence & Chris D. Frith - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (8-9):8-9.
    In this paper we examine the functional anatomy of volition, as revealed by modern brain imaging techniques, in conjunction with neuropsychological data derived from human and non-human primates using other methodologies. A number of brain regions contribute to the performance of consciously chosen, or ‘willed', actions. Of particular importance is dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , together with those brain regions with which it is connected, via cortico-subcortical and cortico-cortical circuits. That aspect of free will which is concerned with the voluntary selection (...)
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  6.  21
    Philosophy of Population Health: Philosophy for a New Public Health Era.Sean A. Valles - 2018 - Abingdon OX14, UK: Routledge.
    Population health has recently grown from a series of loosely connected critiques of twentieth-century public health and medicine into a theoretical framework with a corresponding field of research—population health science. Its approach is to promote the public’s health through improving everyday human life: affordable nutritious food, clean air, safe places where children can play, living wages, etc. It recognizes that addressing contemporary health challenges such as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will take much more than good hospitals and public (...)
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  7. Alien Control: From Phenomenology to Cognitive Neurobiology.Sean A. Spence - 2001 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (2-3):163-172.
    People experiencing alien control report that their thoughts, movements, actions, and emotions have been replaced by those of an "other." The latter is commonly a perceived persecutor of the patient. Here I describe the clinical phenomenology of alien control, mechanistic models that have been used to explain it, problems inherent in these models, the brain deficits and functional abnormalities associated with this symptom, and the means by which disordered agency may be examined in this perplexing condition. Our current state of (...)
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  8.  51
    Evolutionary Medicine at Twenty: Rethinking Adaptationism and Disease. [REVIEW]Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):241-261.
    Two decades ago, the eminent evolutionary biologist George C. Williams and his physician coauthor, Randolph Nesse, formulated the evolutionary medicine research program. Williams and Nesse explicitly made adaptationism a core component of the new program, which has served to undermine the program ever since, distorting its practitioners’ perceptions of evidentiary burdens and in extreme cases has served to warp practitioner’s understandings of the relationship between evolutionary benefits/detriments and medical ones. I show that the Williams and Nesse program more particularly embraces (...)
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  9.  11
    Heterogeneity of Risk Within Racial Groups, a Challenge for Public Health Programs.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Preventive Medicine 55 (5):405-408.
    Targeting high-risk populations for public health interventions is a classic tool of public health promotion programs. This practice becomes thornier when racial groups are identified as the at-risk populations. I present the particular ethical and epistemic challenges that arise when there are low-risk subpopulations within racial groups that have been identified as high-risk for a particular health concern. I focus on two examples. The black immigrant population does not have the same hypertension risk as US-born African Americans. Similarly, Finnish descendants (...)
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  10.  2
    Drawing and Emerging Research: The Acquisition of Experiential Knowledge Through Drawing as a Methodological Strategy.A. Roberts & H. Riley - 2014 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 13 (3):292-302.
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  11.  17
    Bioethics and the Framing of Climate Change's Health Risks.Sean A. Valles - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (5):334-341.
    Cheryl Cox MacPherson recently argued, in an article for this journal, that ‘Climate Change is a Bioethics Problem’. This article elaborates on that position, particularly highlighting bioethicists' potential ability to help reframe the current climate change discourse to give more attention to its health risks. This reframing process is especially important because of the looming problem of climate change skepticism. Recent empirical evidence from science framing experiments indicates that the public reacts especially positively to climate change messages framed in public (...)
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  12.  86
    Risks Associated with Genetic Modification: – An Annotated Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Natural Science Publications. [REVIEW]Sean A. Weaver & Michael C. Morris - 2005 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):157-189.
    We present an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scientific research highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks associated with genetic modification. Risks associated with the expression of the transgenic material include concerns over resistance and non-target effects of crops expressing Bt toxins, consequences of herbicide use associated with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant plants, and transfer of gene expression from genetically modified crops through vertical and horizontal gene transfer. These risks are not connected to the technique of genetic modification as (...)
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  13.  28
    Should Direct-to-Consumer Personalized Genomic Medicine Remain Unregulated?: A Rebuttal of the Defenses.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (2):250-265.
    Direct-to-consumer personalized genomic medicine has recently grown into a small industry that sells mail-order DNA sample kits and then provides disease risk assessments, typically based upon results from genome-trait association studies. The companies selling these services have been largely exempted from FDA regulation in the United States. Testing kit companies and their supporters have defended the industry's unregulated status using two arguments. First, defenders have argued that mere absence of harm is all that must be proved for mail-order tests to (...)
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  14.  77
    The Mystery of the Mystery of Common Genetic Diseases.Sean A. Valles - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):183-201.
    Common monogenic genetic diseases, ones that have unexpectedly high frequencies in certain populations, have attracted a great number of conflicting evolutionary explanations. This paper will attempt to explain the mystery of why two particularly extensively studied common genetic diseases, Tay Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis, remain evolutionary mysteries despite decades of research. I review the most commonly cited evolutionary processes used to explain common genetic diseases: reproductive compensation, random genetic drift (in the context of founder effect), and especially heterozygote advantage. (...)
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  15.  5
    What is in It for Me? Middle Manager Behavioral Integrity and Performance.Sean A. Way, Tony Simons, Hannes Leroy & Elizabeth A. Tuleja - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):765-777.
    We propose that middle managers’ perceived organizational support enhances their performance through the sequential mediation of their behavioral integrity and follower organizational citizenship behaviors. We test our model with data collected from middle managers, their direct subordinates, and their direct superiors at 18 hotel properties in China. The current study’s findings contribute to the existing literature on perceived organizational support and behavioral integrity. They also add a practical self-interest argument for middle managers’ efforts to maintain their word-action alignment by demonstrating (...)
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  16.  31
    Chronic Toxicity of 1080 and its Implications for Conservation Management: A New Zealand Case Study. [REVIEW]Sean A. Weaver - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (4):367-389.
    Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a mammalian pesticide used in different parts of the world for the control of mammalian pest species. In New Zealand it is used extensively and very successfully as a conservation management tool for the control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) – an introduced marsupial that has become a substantial agricultural and conservation management pest. Possums pose a threat to cattle farming in New Zealand as they are a vector for bovine tuberculosis. In protected natural areas, possum (...)
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  17.  32
    Felix Culpa: The Doctrine of Original Sin as Doctrine of Hope in Aquinas'ssumma Contra Gentiles.Sean A. Otto - 2009 - Heythrop Journal 50 (5):781-792.
  18.  17
    Lionel Penrose and the Concept of Normal Variation in Human Intelligence.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):281-289.
    Lionel Penrose (1898–1972) was an important leader during the mid-20th century decline of eugenics and the development of modern medical genetics. However, historians have paid little attention to his radical theoretical challenges to mainline eugenic concepts of mental disease. Working from a classification system developed with his colleague, E. O. Lewis, Penrose developed a statistically sophisticated and clinically grounded refutation of the popular position that low intelligence is inherently a disease state. In the early 1930s, Penrose advocated dividing “mental defect” (...)
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  19.  27
    Lionel Penrose and the Concept of Normal Variation in Human Intelligence.Sean A. Valles - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):281-289.
  20. J. S. Mill's Liberal Utilitarian Assessment of Capitalism Versus Socialism: Jonathan Riley.Jonathan Riley - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (1):39-71.
    John Stuart Mill argued, in his Principles of Political Economy, that existing laws and customs of private property ought to be reformed to promote a far more egalitarian form of capitalism than hitherto observed anywhere. He went on to suggest that such an ideal capitalism might evolve spontaneously into a decentralized socialism involving a market system of competing worker co-operatives. That possibility of market socialism emerged only as the working classes gradually developed the intellectual and moral qualities required for worker (...)
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  21. Millian Qualitative Superiorities and Utilitarianism, Part I*: Jonathan Riley.Jonathan Riley - 2008 - Utilitas 20 (3):257-278.
    Arrhenius and Rabinowicz have argued that Millian qualitative superiorities are possible without assuming that any pleasure, or type of pleasure, is infinitely superior to another. But AR's analysis is fatally flawed in the context of ethical hedonism, where the assumption in question is necessary and sufficient for Millian qualitative superiorities. Marginalist analysis of the sort pressed by AR continues to have a valid role to play within any plausible version of hedonism, provided the fundamental incoherence that infects AR's use of (...)
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  22.  40
    Semantic Bootstrapping of Type-Logical Grammar.Sean A. Fulop - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):49-86.
    A two-stage procedure is described which induces type-logical grammar lexicons from sentences annotated with skeletal terms of the simply typed lambda calculus. First, a generalized formulae-as-types correspondence is exploited to obtain all the type-logical proofs of the sample sentences from their lambda terms. The resulting lexicons are then optimally unified. The first stage constitutes the semantic bootstrapping (Pinker, Language Learnability and Language Development, Harvard University Press, 1984), while the unification procedure of Buszkowski and Penn represents a first attempt at structure-dependent (...)
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  23.  17
    A Pluralistic and Socially Responsible Philosophy of Epidemiology Field Should Actively Engage with Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities.Sean A. Valles - forthcoming - Synthese:1-23.
    Philosophy of epidemiology has recently emerged as a distinct branch of philosophy. The field will surely benefit from pluralism, reflected in the broad range of topics and perspectives in this special issue. Here, I argue that a healthy pluralistic field of philosophy of epidemiology has social responsibilities that require the field as a whole to engage actively with research on social determinants of health and health disparities. Practicing epidemiologists and the broader community of public health scientists have gradually acknowledged that (...)
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  24.  20
    Does a Philosophy of the Brain Tell Us Anything New About Psychomotor Disorders?Sean A. Spence - 1999 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 6 (3):227-229.
  25.  24
    Reflecting on What Philosophy of Epidemiology is and Does, as the Field Comes Into its Own: Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophy of Epidemiology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Sean A. Valles - forthcoming - Synthese:1-10.
    This article is an introduction to the Synthese Special Issue, Philosophy of Epidemiology. The overall goals of the issue are to revisit the state of philosophy of epidemiology and to provide a forum for new voices, approaches, and perspectives in the philosophy of epidemiology literature. The introduction begins by drawing on Geoffrey Rose’s work on how to conceptualize and design interventions for populations, rather than individuals. It then goes on to highlight some themes that emerged in the articles that make (...)
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  26.  21
    The Cycle of Action: A Commentary on Garry Young (2006).Sean A. Spence - 2006 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (3):69-72.
    As the emphasis in the title of his article indicates, Garry Young (2006) wishes to retain a role for conscious intention in the initiation of intentional acts, a proposal he contrasts with the findings and writings of Benjamin Libet, and also my own comments upon the latter (Libet et al., 1983; Spence, 1996). While Libet's classic series of experiments (and their replication by others) established that the conscious intention to act is itself preceded by predictive trains of electrical activity in (...)
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  27.  1
    The Dynamics of Public Health Responsibility: A Commentary on "Public Health and Precarity" by Michael D. Doan and Ami Harbin.Sean A. Valles - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (2):135-140.
    Health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and love. Health is created by caring for oneself and others, by being able to take decisions and have control over one's life circumstances, and by ensuring that the society one lives in creates conditions that allow the attainment of health by all its members.To begin, I largely agree with Doan and Harbin's argument in "Public Health and Precarity," and by extension (...)
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  28.  17
    Thinking Beyond the Bereitschaftspotential: Consciousness of Self and Others as a Necessary Condition for Change.Sean A. Spence - 2009 - In Nancey Murphy, George Ellis, O. ’Connor F. R. & Timothy (eds.), Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will. Springer Verlag. pp. 211--223.
  29.  18
    Millian Qualitative Superiorities and Utilitarianism, Part II: Jonathan Riley.Jonathan Riley - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (2):127-143.
    I continue my argument that Millian qualitative superiorities are infinite superiorities: one pleasant feeling, or type of pleasant feeling, is qualitatively superior to another in Mill's sense if and only if even a bit of the superior is more pleasant than any finite quantity of the inferior, however large. This gives rise to a hierarchy of higher and lower pleasures such that a reasonable hedonist always refuses to sacrifice a higher for a lower irrespective of the finite amounts of each. (...)
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  30.  25
    Validity and Utility in Biological Traits.Sean A. Valles - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (1):93-102.
    “Trait” is a ubiquitous term in biology, but its precise meaning and theoretical foundations remain opaque. After distinguishing between “trait” and “character,” I argue for the value of adopting Theodosius Dobzhansky’s 1956 definition and framework for understanding “trait,” which holds that traits are just “semantic devices” that artificially impose order on continuous biological phenomena. I elaborate on this definition to distinguish between trait validity (compliance with Dobzhansky’s trait definition) and trait utility (usefulness of a trait). As a consequence of this (...)
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  31.  6
    The Predictable Inequities of COVID-19 in the US: Fundamental Causes and Broken Institutions.Sean A. Valles - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 30 (3):191-214.
    “Nobody had ever seen anything like this before.”“Nobody would have ever thought a thing like this could have happened.”There is a lot at stake in the current and forthcoming debates over what/why/how the COVID-19 pandemic’s effects on the US were unpredictable. These debates are crucial to both our assessments of backward-looking culpability and in the related but even more socially important task of guiding decisions about how to rebuild society after the pandemic subsides. The more we treat the harm as (...)
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  32.  26
    Minimizing Harm in Possum Control Operations and Experiments in New Zealand.Michael C. Morris & Sean A. Weaver - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (4):367-385.
    Pest control operations andexperimentation on sentient animals such as thebrushtail possum can cause unnecessary andavoidable suffering in the animal subjects.Minimizing animal suffering is an animalwelfare goal and can be used as a guide in thedesign and execution of animal experimentationand pest control operations.The public has little sympathy for the possum,which can cause widespread environmentaldamage, but does believe that control should beas painless as possible. Trapping and poisoningprovide only short-term solutions to the possumproblem and often involve methods that causesuffering. Intrusive experiments (...)
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  33.  6
    Late Antique Trade: Research Methodologies.Sean A. Kingsley - 2003 - In Luke Lavan & William Bowden (eds.), Theory and Practice in Late Antique Archaeology. Brill. pp. 1--113.
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  34.  19
    Review Essay: Theism, Evil, and the Search for Answers: Some Recent Scholarship on Theodicy and the Problem of Evil.Sean A. Otto - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (1):136-140.
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  35.  59
    Sean A. Spence, The Actor’s Brain: Exploring the Cognitive Neuroscience of Free Will: Oxford University Press, 2009, 395 Pp. ISBN: 978-0-19-852666-7, US $79.95. [REVIEW]James Rocha - 2010 - Journal of Value Inquiry 44 (3):401-405.
  36.  11
    Response to the Commentaries.Sean A. Spence - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (2):99-100.
  37.  16
    Kierkegaard's Echo in the Early Theology of Karl Barth.Sean A. Turchin - 2012 - Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2012 (1).
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  38.  13
    Scientific Method in Brief by Hugh G. Gauch Jr. [REVIEW]Sean A. Valles - 2013 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (3):488--489.
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  39. Principled Ethics: Generalism as a Regulative Ideal.Sean McKeever & Michael Ridge - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Moral philosophy has long been dominated by the aim of understanding morality and the virtues in terms of principles. However, the underlying assumption that this is the best approach has received almost no defence, and has been attacked by particularists, who argue that the traditional link between morality and principles is little more than an unwarranted prejudice. In Principled Ethics, Michael Ridge and Sean McKeever meet the particularist challenge head-on, and defend a distinctive view they call "generalism as a (...)
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  40.  35
    Grammar Induction by Unification of Type-Logical Lexicons.Sean A. Fulop - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (3):353-381.
    A method is described for inducing a type-logical grammar from a sample of bare sentence trees which are annotated by lambda terms, called term-labelled trees . Any type logic from a permitted class of multimodal logics may be specified for use with the procedure, which induces the lexicon of the grammar including the grammatical categories. A first stage of semantic bootstrapping is performed, which induces a general form lexicon from the sample of term-labelled trees using Fulop’s (J Log Lang Inf (...)
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  41.  16
    Semantic Bootstrapping of Type-Logical Grammar.Sean A. Fulop - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):49-86.
    A two-stage procedure is described which induces type-logical grammar lexicons from sentences annotated with skeletal terms of the simply typed lambda calculus. First, a generalized formulae-as-types correspondence is exploited to obtain all the type-logical proofs of the sample sentences from their lambda terms. The resulting lexicons are then optimally unified. The first stage constitutes the semantic bootstrapping, while the unification procedure of Buszkowski and Penn represents a first attempt at structure-dependent distributional learning of the syntactic and semantic categories. This effort (...)
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  42.  17
    One’s Own Brain as Trickster.Sean A. Day - 1997 - American Journal of Semiotics 14 (1/4):157-165.
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  43.  8
    Erratum To: Grammar Induction by Unification of Type-Logical Lexicons. [REVIEW]Sean A. Fulop - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (1):135-136.
  44.  19
    A Context Maintenance and Retrieval Model of Organizational Processes in Free Recall.Sean M. Polyn, Kenneth A. Norman & Michael J. Kahana - 2009 - Psychological Review 116 (1):129-156.
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  45.  39
    Effectiveness of a Responsible Conduct of Research Course: A Preliminary Study.Sean T. Powell, Matthew A. Allison & Michael W. Kalichman - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):249-264.
    Training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is required for many research trainees nationwide, but little is known about its effectiveness. For a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of a short-term course in RCR, medical students participating in an NIH-funded summer research program at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) were surveyed using an instrument developed through focus group discussions. In the summer of 2003, surveys were administered before and after a short-term RCR course, as well as to (...)
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  46.  5
    Memory for Tastes in an Operant Delayed Discrimination.Doris A. Bitler & Anthony L. Riley - 1992 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (5):385-388.
  47.  84
    Learning From the Body About the Mind.Michael A. Riley, Kevin Shockley & Guy Van Orden - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):21-34.
    In some areas of cognitive science we are confronted with ultrafast cognition, exquisite context sensitivity, and scale-free variation in measured cognitive activities. To move forward, we suggest a need to embrace this complexity, equipping cognitive science with tools and concepts used in the study of complex dynamical systems. The science of movement coordination has benefited already from this change, successfully circumventing analogous paradoxes by treating human activities as phenomena of self-organization. Therein, action and cognition are seen to be emergent in (...)
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  48.  27
    Rights to Liberty in Purely Private Matters: Part II: Jonathan Riley.Jonathan Riley - 1990 - Economics and Philosophy 6 (1):27-64.
    A claim that certain purely private matters should be beyond the reach of society's laws, moral rules, and other customs is central to the distinctive liberalism of John Stuart Mill. On Liberty, perhaps the most eloquent defense of individual liberty ever written, laments the hostility allegedly displayed in modern mass societies toward “the right of each individual to act [in private matters] as seems good to his judgement and inclinations”. In Mill's view, a free society must design its institutions with (...)
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  49. Will and Political Legitimacy : A Critical Exposition of Social Contract Theory in Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, and Hegel.Patrick Riley (ed.) - 2000 - Replica Books.
    Presents an historical analysis of social contract theory by considering the works of prominent philosophers.
     
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  50. The Quantum Field Theory on Which the Everyday World Supervenes.Sean M. Carroll - manuscript
    Effective Field Theory (EFT) is the successful paradigm underlying modern theoretical physics, including the "Core Theory" of the Standard Model of particle physics plus Einstein's general relativity. I will argue that EFT grants us a unique insight: each EFT model comes with a built-in specification of its domain of applicability. Hence, once a model is tested within some domain (of energies and interaction strengths), we can be confident that it will continue to be accurate within that domain. Currently, the Core (...)
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