Results for 'Sean Draine'

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  1.  78
    Replicable unconscious semantic priming.Sean Draine & Anthony G. Greenwald - 1998 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 127 (3):286-303.
  2.  91
    Modeling unconscious gender bias in fame judgments.Sean C. Draine, Anthony G. Greenwald & Mahzarin R. Banaji - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 5 (1-2):221-225.
    In the preceding article, Buchner and Wippich used a guessing-corrected, multinomial process-dissociation analysis to test whether a gender bias in fame judgments reported by Banaji and Greenwald was unconscious. In their two experiments, Buchner and Wippich found no evidence for unconscious mediation of this gender bias. Their conclusion can be questioned by noting that the gender difference in familiarity of previously seen names that Buchner and Wippich modeled was different from the gender difference in criterion for fame judgments reported by (...)
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  3. Do subliminal stimuli enter the mind unnoticed? Tests with a new method.Anthony G. Greenwald & Sean Draine - 1997 - In Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 83--108.
  4. Reality as a Vector in Hilbert Space.Sean M. Carroll - 2022 - In Valia Allori (ed.), Quantum Mechanics and Fundamentality: Naturalizing Quantum Theory between Scientific Realism and Ontological Indeterminacy. Cham: Springer. pp. 211-224.
    I defend the extremist position that the fundamental ontology of the world consists of a vector in Hilbert space evolving according to the Schrödinger equation. The laws of physics are determined solely by the energy eigenspectrum of the Hamiltonian. The structure of our observed world, including space and fields living within it, should arise as a higher-level emergent description. I sketch how this might come about, although much work remains to be done.
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  5.  43
    Overcoming Barriers to Cross-cultural Cooperation in AI Ethics and Governance.Seán S. ÓhÉigeartaigh, Jess Whittlestone, Yang Liu, Yi Zeng & Zhe Liu - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):571-593.
    Achieving the global benefits of artificial intelligence (AI) will require international cooperation on many areas of governance and ethical standards, while allowing for diverse cultural perspectives and priorities. There are many barriers to achieving this at present, including mistrust between cultures, and more practical challenges of coordinating across different locations. This paper focuses particularly on barriers to cooperation between Europe and North America on the one hand and East Asia on the other, as regions which currently have an outsized impact (...)
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  6.  53
    How to avoid unfair discrimination against disabled patients in healthcare resource allocation.Sean Sinclair - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (3):158-162.
    The paper proposes a new method of researching public opinion for the purposes of valuing the outcomes of healthcare interventions. The issue I address is that, under the quality-adjusted life-year system, disabled patients face a higher cost-effectiveness hurdle than able-bodied patients. This seems inequitable. The author considers the alternative approaches to valuing healthcare interventions that have been proposed, and shows that all of them face the same problem. It is proposed that to value an outcome, instead of researching the general (...)
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  7. Beyond Falsifiability: Normal Science in a Multiverse.Sean M. Carroll - 2019 - In Dawid Richard, Dardashti Radin & Thebault Karim (eds.), Epistemology of Fundamental Physics: Why Trust a Theory? Cambridge University Press.
    Cosmological models that invoke a multiverse - a collection of unobservable regions of space where conditions are very different from the region around us - are controversial, on the grounds that unobservable phenomena shouldn't play a crucial role in legitimate scientific theories. I argue that the way we evaluate multiverse models is precisely the same as the way we evaluate any other models, on the basis of abduction, Bayesian inference, and empirical success. There is no scientifically respectable way to do (...)
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  8.  38
    Elusive Reasons 1.Sean McKeever & Michael Ridge - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7.
    The present chapter attempts to resolve a puzzle about normative testimony. On the one hand, agents act on the advice of others, advice which purports to tell them what they have reason to do. When they do so, they can act for good reason. This thought, though, sits uneasily with another: that the mere fact that someone has advised a course of action is not itself a reason. An interesting view of reasons recently defended by Stephen Kearns and Daniel Star (...)
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  9. Relationships between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors.Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio & Fred O. Walumbwa - 2011 - Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (4):555-578.
    ABSTRACT:Organizations constitute morally-complex environments, requiring organization members to possess levels of moral courage sufficient to promote their ethical action, while refraining from unethical actions when faced with temptations or pressures. Using a sample drawn from a military context, we explored the antecedents and consequences of moral courage. Results from this four-month field study demonstrated that authentic leadership was positively related to followers’ displays of moral courage. Further, followers’ moral courage fully mediated the effects of authentic leadership on followers’ ethical and (...)
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  10.  53
    Public Justification and the Veil of Testimony.Sean Donahue - 2020 - Journal of Political Philosophy 28 (4):378-396.
    The Public Justification Principle requires that coercive institutions be justified to all who live under them. I argue that this principle often cannot be satisfied without persons depending on the pure informative testimony of others, even under realistically idealized situations. Two main results follow. First, the sense of justification relevant to this principle has a strongly externalist component. Second, normative expectations of trust are essential to public justification. On the view I propose, whether the Public Justification Principle is satisfied depends (...)
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  11. Heidegger and Duns Scotus on Truth and Language.Sean J. McGrath - 2003 - Review of Metaphysics 57 (2):339-358.
    In his 1916 _Habilitationsschrift Heidegger enriched Husserl's notion of categorial intuition with Scotus's theory of intellection. The individual is entirely intelligible, even if its intelligibility is never fully defined. The historically singularized thing (essence modified by _haecceitas) speaks a primal word to us, and this original verbum makes possible the inner word of understanding, the _verbum interius. Heidegger argues that if the thing is actually intelligible in its singularity, history cannot be disregarded as ineffable: it becomes a domain of fore-theoretical (...)
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  12.  57
    Marx and alienation: essays on Hegelian themes.Sean Sayers - 2011 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The concept of alienation: Hegelian themes in modern social thought -- Creative activity and alienation in Hegel and Marx -- The concept of labour -- The individual and society -- Freedom and the "realm of necessity" -- Alienation as a critical concept -- Private property and communism -- The division of labour and its overcoming -- Marx's concept of communism.
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  13.  39
    The Intensive Expression of the Virtual: Revisiting the Relation of Expression in Difference and Repetition.Sean Bowden - 2017 - Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 11 (2):216-239.
    In Difference and Repetition, Deleuze claims that it is in virtue of a relation of expression which holds between intensive processes of individuation and virtual Ideas that the former determines the latter to be actualised in concrete entities. He is, however, less than forthcoming in this book about exactly how we should understand the relation of expression. This article addresses itself to this lacuna. It clarifies five characteristic features of the expressive relation, partly by drawing on Deleuze's discussion of the (...)
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  14. What happened to sin?Seán Fagan - 2009 - In Enda McDonagh & Vincent MacNamara (eds.), An Irish reader in moral theology: the legacy of the last fifty years. Dublin: Columba Press.
     
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  15. Quantum Mereology: Factorizing Hilbert Space into Subsystems with Quasi-Classical Dynamics.Sean M. Carroll & Ashmeet Singh - 2021 - Physical Review A 103 (2):022213.
    We study the question of how to decompose Hilbert space into a preferred tensor-product factorization without any pre-existing structure other than a Hamiltonian operator, in particular the case of a bipartite decomposition into "system" and "environment." Such a decomposition can be defined by looking for subsystems that exhibit quasi-classical behavior. The correct decomposition is one in which pointer states of the system are relatively robust against environmental monitoring (their entanglement with the environment does not continually and dramatically increase) and remain (...)
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  16.  7
    Strategic Fit to Political Factors and Subsequent Performance: Evidence From the U.S. Coal Industry, 1986 to 2000.Sean Lux - 2016 - Business and Society 55 (1):130-147.
    Several scholars have asserted strategic fit to nonmarket factors is positively related to economic performance. Political strategic fit has traditionally been conceptualized as an incremental decision: firms engage in political activities to the extent nonmarket factors suggest firm political actions will improve economic performance. However, the decision to engage in political activity is more of a dichotomous decision. Both incremental and dichotomous political strategic fit are empirically evaluated in the U.S. coal industry from 1986 to 2000. Empirical evidence suggests that (...)
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  17.  92
    Color, Transparency, and Light in Aristotle.Sean Kelsey - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (2):209-210.
    _ Source: _Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 209 - 210 Aristotle says that it is in the nature of color to impart movement to transparent media. Typically this is interpreted as implying that these media must be transparent before color moves them. I argue that this is a mistake.
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  18.  66
    Moral Intensity, Issue Importance, and Ethical Reasoning in Operations Situations.Sean Valentine & David Hollingworth - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):509 - 523.
    Previous work suggests that moral intensity and the perceived importance of an ethical issue can influence individual ethical decision making. However, prior research has not explored how the various dimensions of moral intensity might differentially affect PIE, or how moral intensity might function together with (or in the presence of) PIE to influence ethical decision making. In addition, prior work has also not adequately investigated how the operational context of an organization, which may embody conditions or practices that create barriers (...)
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  19. The Quantum Field Theory on Which the Everyday World Supervenes.Sean M. Carroll - 2022 - In Meir Hemmo, Stavros Ioannidis, Orly Shenker & Gal Vishne (eds.), Levels of Reality in Science and Philosophy: Re-Examining the Multi-Level Structure of Reality. Springer. pp. 27-46.
    Effective Field Theory (EFT) is the successful paradigm underlying modern theoretical physics, including the "Core Theory" of the Standard Model of particle physics plus Einstein's general relativity. I will argue that EFT grants us a unique insight: each EFT model comes with a built-in specification of its domain of applicability. Hence, once a model is tested within some domain (of energies and interaction strengths), we can be confident that it will continue to be accurate within that domain. Currently, the Core (...)
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  20. Philosophy of Time: A Contemporary Introduction.Sean Enda Power - 2021 - Routledge.
    As a growing area of research, the philosophy of time is increasingly relevant to different areas of philosophy and even other disciplines. This book describes and evaluates the most important debates in philosophy of time, under several subject areas: metaphysics, epistemology, physics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, cognitive science, rationality, and art. -/- Questions this book investigates include: Can we know what time really is? Is time possible, especially given modern physics? Must there be time because we cannot think (...)
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  21.  91
    Disagreement and epistemic arguments for democracy.Sean Ingham - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (2):136-155.
    Recent accounts of epistemic democracy aim to show that in some qualified sense, democratic institutions have a tendency to produce reasonable outcomes. Epistemic democrats aim to offer such accounts without presupposing any narrow, controversial view of what the outcomes of democratic procedures should be, much as a good justification of a particular scientific research design does not presuppose the hypothesis that the research aims to test. The article considers whether this aim is achievable. It asks, in particular, whether accounts of (...)
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  22.  23
    Paper: The challenge of defining standards of prevention in HIV prevention trials.Sean Philpott, Lori Heise, Elizabeth McGrory, Lynn Paxton & Catherine Hankins - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):244-248.
    As new HIV prevention tools are developed, researchers face a number of ethical and logistic questions about how and when to include novel HIV prevention strategies and tools in the standard prevention package of ongoing and future HIV prevention trials. Current Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS /World Health Organization guidance recommends that participants in prevention trials receive ‘access to all state of the art HIV risk reduction methods’, and that decisions about adding new tools to the prevention package be (...)
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  23. Pneuma and the Pneumatist School of Medicine.Sean Coughlin & Orly Lewis - 2020 - In Sean Coughlin, David Leith & Orly Lewis (eds.), The Concept of Pneuma after Aristotle. Berlin: Edition Topoi. pp. 203-236.
    The Pneumatist school of medicine has the distinction of being the only medical school in antiquity named for a belief in a part of a human being. Unlike the Herophileans or the Asclepiadeans, their name does not pick out the founder of the school. Unlike the Dogmatists, Empiricists, or Methodists, their name does not pick out a specific approach to medicine. Instead, the name picks out a belief: the fact that pneuma is of paramount importance, both for explaining health and (...)
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  24. Athenaeus of Attalia on the Psychological Causes of Bodily Health.Sean Coughlin - 2018 - In Chiara Thumiger & Peter N. Singer (eds.), Mental Illness in Ancient Medicine: From Celsus to Paul of Aegina. Studies in Ancient Medicine. pp. 107-142.
    Athenaeus of Attalia distinguishes two types of exercise or training (γυμνασία) that are required at each stage of life: training of the body and training of the soul. He says that training of the body includes activities like physical exercises, eating, drinking, bathing and sleep. Training of the soul, on the other hand, consists of thinking, education, and emotional regulation (in other words, 'philosophy'). The notion of 'training of the soul' and the contrast between 'bodily' and 'psychic' exercise is common (...)
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  25.  32
    The Actor's Brain: Exploring the Cognitive Neuroscience of Free Will.Sean Spence - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Is free will just an illusion? What is it in the brain that allows us to pursue our own actions and objectives? What is it about this organ that permits seemingly purposeful behaviour, giving us the impression we are free? This book takes a journey into the brain to examine what is about known voluntary behaviour, and why it can go wrong.
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  26. Comparing Peano arithmetic, Basic Law V, and Hume’s Principle.Sean Walsh - 2012 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (11):1679-1709.
    This paper presents new constructions of models of Hume's Principle and Basic Law V with restricted amounts of comprehension. The techniques used in these constructions are drawn from hyperarithmetic theory and the model theory of fields, and formalizing these techniques within various subsystems of second-order Peano arithmetic allows one to put upper and lower bounds on the interpretability strength of these theories and hence to compare these theories to the canonical subsystems of second-order arithmetic. The main results of this paper (...)
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  27.  28
    The Neurobiology of Sorcery: Deleuze and Guattari's Brain.Sean Watson - 1998 - Body and Society 4 (4):23-45.
    This article is intended to work on a number of different levels. First it is concerned with the brain-become-subject as hypothesized by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari in their book What is Philosophy?. It is concerned with demonstrating the convergence between Deleuze and Guattari's work and the claims of some contemporary neuro-biological theories of consciousness. In particular, I will be comparing Deleuze and Guattari's hypothesis to the work of Gerald Edelman and Daniel Dennett. Second, it is my contention that the (...)
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  28.  27
    Chiasmic Wildness.Sean Williams - 2006 - Environmental Philosophy 3 (1):6-12.
    Whether one’s attention lies with the big wilderness outside or the wild people and places that survive amidst our ecologically impoverished cities and towns, a thorough and rigorous reflection on wildness remains as a task for environmental philosophy. The political and literary movements concerned with the wilderness have sparked passion, insight, and moments of brilliance, but by and large leave us today at best confused, and at worst naïve, with respect to our thinking of wildness. The attempts at philosophical rigor (...)
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  29. Why (Almost All) Cosmologists Are Atheists.Sean Carroll - 2005 - Faith and Philosophy 22 (5):622-635.
    Science and religion both make claims about the fundamental workings of the universe. Although these claims are not a priori incompatible (we could imaginebeing brought to religious belief through scientific investigation), I will argue that in practice they diverge. If we believe that the methods of science can be used to discriminate between fundamental pictures of reality, we are led to a strictly materialist conception of the universe. While the details of modern cosmology are not a necessary part of this (...)
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  30.  79
    Dispositional Theories of Value Meet Moral Twin Earth.Sean Holland - 2001 - American Philosophical Quarterly 38 (2):177 - 195.
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  31.  50
    Recollection in the Phaedo.Sean Kelsey - 2000 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 16 (1):91-121.
  32.  11
    Sentiment Analysis and the Sentimental Novel.Sean Silver & Andrew Franta - 2024 - Critical Inquiry 50 (3):402-424.
    This article asks what the emerging computational field of sentiment analysis can teach us about the sentimental novel, and vice versa. It argues that, despite humanistic skepticism about quantitative methods and sentiment analysis’s well-known limitations (in recognizing irony, for example), sentiment analysis can help us better to understand the novel form and the sentimental novel in particular. The literary approach to computational analysis taken in this article demonstrates the ability of sentiment analysis to link large-scale observations about text data to (...)
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  33.  31
    PFA and Ideals on $\omega_{2}$ Whose Associated Forcings Are Proper.Sean Cox - 2012 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (3):397-412.
    Given an ideal $I$ , let $\mathbb{P}_{I}$ denote the forcing with $I$ -positive sets. We consider models of forcing axioms $MA(\Gamma)$ which also have a normal ideal $I$ with completeness $\omega_{2}$ such that $\mathbb{P}_{I}\in \Gamma$ . Using a bit more than a superhuge cardinal, we produce a model of PFA (proper forcing axiom) which has many ideals on $\omega_{2}$ whose associated forcings are proper; a similar phenomenon is also observed in the standard model of $MA^{+\omega_{1}}(\sigma\mbox{-closed})$ obtained from a supercompact cardinal. (...)
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  34.  76
    “Friedman’s Stockholder Theory of Corporate Moral Responsibility.Sean McAleer - 2003 - Teaching Business Ethics 7 (4):437-51.
  35.  33
    Physics 199a8-12.Sean Kelsey - 2011 - Apeiron 44 (1):1-12.
    This paper concerns an argument for natural teleology that is often taken to rest on an analogy between nature and art; I present an alternative reading. This reading can be found in some older commentaries; I hope to add to their discussions by making the case explicitly, as well as by clarifying some points of detail.
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  36.  72
    Marxism and Human Nature.Sean Sayers - 1998
    Something about my book, Marxism and Human Nature,1 seems to have provoked Eagleton's hostility and clouded his mind, but it is difficult to figure out what. All that is evident from his review is that he has not read the book carefully or taken the trouble to understand it properly.
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  37.  61
    Jus Ad Bellum, Values, and the Contemporary Structure of International Law.Sean D. Murphy - 2013 - Journal of Religious Ethics 41 (1):20-26.
    In “Religion, Violence, and Human Rights: Protection of Human Rights as Justification for the Use of Armed Force,” James Johnson discusses an important dilemma for contemporary society: when should transnational military force be permitted to protect human rights? Professor Johnson uses the relatively recent doctrine of a “responsibility to protect” as the centerpiece of his paper, characterizing it as a reaction to legal concepts that emerged in the “Westphalian system.” Yet the doctrine, at least as it relates to the use (...)
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  38.  48
    Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: Individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses☆.Sean M. Barnes, Steven Jay Lynn & Ronald J. Pekala - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):255-265.
    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A . Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale . The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523–535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability . (...)
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  39.  8
    Phage lysis‐lysogeny switches and programmed cell death: Danse macabre.Sean Benler & Eugene V. Koonin - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (12):2000114.
    Exploration of immune systems in prokaryotes, such as restriction‐modification or CRISPR‐Cas, shows that both innate and adaptive systems possess programmed cell death (PCD) potential. The key outstanding question is how the immune systems sense and “predict” infection outcomes to “decide” whether to fight the pathogen or induce PCD. There is a striking parallel between this life‐or‐death decision faced by the cell and the decision by temperate viruses to protect or kill their hosts, epitomized by the lysis‐lysogeny switch of bacteriophage Lambda. (...)
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  40.  31
    Fetish-Oriented Ontology.Sean Braune - 2020 - Open Philosophy 3 (1):298-313.
    In her essay, “After de Brosses” (2017), Rosalind C. Morris briefly considers the historical importance of the concept of the fetish on the relatively recent movements of new materialism, but she does not engage with Speculative Realism and Object-Oriented Ontology. This essay addresses this gap and focuses on the influence of the fetish on Speculative Realism and Object-Oriented Ontology by focusing on Graham Harman’s conception of objects and Quentin Meillassoux’s theory of arche-fossils. In short, I am offering a posthumanist theorization (...)
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  41. The Narrative Style of the Priestly Writer.Sean Mcevenue - 1971
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  42.  11
    Masks, mechanisms and Covid-19: the limitations of randomized trials in pandemic policymaking.Seán M. Muller - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    Reluctance to endorse mask wearing to slow transmission of SARS-Cov-2 has been rationalized by the failure of randomized control trials (RCTs) to provide supportive evidence. In contrast, a mechanism-based approach suggests that mask wearing should be expected to reduce transmission: so that contrary evidence from RCTs likely reflects the need to focus policy attention on addressing interacting or mediating factors that offset the basic positive effect. The differing conclusions that result from these two approaches reflect the limitations of RCT-based approaches (...)
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  43.  39
    Husserlian Mereology and Intimate Community Membership.Sean Petranovich - 2018 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 32 (3):462-474.
    Edmund Husserl’s understanding of personal communities as “personalities of a higher order” is controversial. He claims that these communities are intimately bound social groups that have their own memories and that they exhibit something like their own consciousness, self-consciousness, or self-awareness.1 For Husserl, PHO are communities of a “preeminent” or “outstanding” level, but it is not immediately clear what criteria to appeal to in understanding this preeminence.2 Interpretive disagreements on this topic suggest that there is an ambiguity in Husserl’s account. (...)
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  44.  4
    Pretexts for Writing: German Romantic Prefaces, Literature, and Philosophy.Seán M. Williams - 2019 - Bucknell University Press.
    Around 1800, print culture became a particularly rich source for metaphors about thinking as well as writing, nowhere more so than in the German tradition of _Dichter und Denker_. Goethe, Jean Paul, and Hegel used the _preface_ in order to reflect on the problems of writing itself, and its interpretation. If Sterne teaches us that a material book enables mind games as much as it gives expression to them, the Germans made these games more theoretical still. Weaving in authors from (...)
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  45.  77
    Maximality, duplication, and intrinsic value.Sean Drysdale Walsh - 2011 - Ratio 24 (3):311-325.
    In this paper, I develop an argument for the thesis that ‘maximality is extrinsic’, on which a whole physical object is not a whole of its kind in virtue of its intrinsic properties. Theodore Sider has a number of arguments that depend on his own simple argument that maximality is extrinsic. However, Peter van Inwagen has an argument in defence of his Duplication Principle that, I will argue, can be extended to show that Sider's simple argument fails. However, van Inwagen's (...)
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  46.  25
    Limiting democracy and framing the economy: Hayek, Schmitt and ordoliberalism.Sean Irving - 2018 - History of European Ideas 44 (1):113-127.
    ABSTRACTThis article shows how Hayek’s understanding of ‘unlimited democracy’ was influenced by the work of Carl Schmitt. It goes on to make the case that ordoliberal ideas informed his suggestions for limiting democracy, made in response to Schmitt’s work. A number of authors have drawn attention to the influence of Schmitt on Hayek’s thought. Similarly, the ordoliberal relationship has been explored. However, these two influences must be read alongside each other in order to arrive at a full understanding of Hayek’s (...)
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  47. Knowledge as a Social Phenomenon.Sean Sayers - 1989 - Radical Philosophy 52 (52):34-7.
    The idea that knowledge is a social phenomenon is no longer either novel or unfamiliar. With the growth of the social sciences, we are accustomed to seeing ideas and beliefs in social and historical terms, and trying to understand how they arise and why they take the forms that they do. Philosophers, however, are only gradually coming to terms with these views. For they call in question ideas about the nature of knowledge which have dominated epistemology since the seventeenth century.
     
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  48.  7
    Materialism, Realism and the Reflection Theory.Sean Sayers - 1983 - Radical Philosophy 33 (33):16-26.
  49.  36
    The need to reform our assessment of evidence from clinical trials: A commentary.Sean M. Bagshaw & Rinaldo Bellomo - 2008 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3:23.
    The ideology of evidence-base medicine (EBM) has dramatically altered the way we think, conceptualize, philosophize and practice medicine. One of its major pillars is the appraisal and classification of evidence. Although important and beneficial, this process currently lacks detail and is in need of reform. In particular, it largely focuses on three key dimensions (design, [type I] alpha error and beta [type II] error) to grade the quality of evidence and often omits other crucial aspects of evidence such as biological (...)
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  50. Defining 'democracy': Are we staying on topic?Sean Ingham & David Wiens - manuscript
    Political scientists' failure to pay careful attention to the content (as opposed to the operationalization) of their chosen definition of 'democracy' can make them liable to draw invalid inferences from their empirical research. With this problem in mind, we argue for the following proposition: if one wishes to conduct empirical research that contributes to an existing conversation about democracy, then one must choose a definition of 'democracy' that picks out the topic of that conversation as opposed to some other (perhaps (...)
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