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  1.  74
    The Impact of Ethical Ideologies, Moral Intensity, and Social Context on Sales-Based Ethical Reasoning.Sean R. Valentine & Connie R. Bateman - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):155-168.
    Previous research indicates that ethical ideologies, issue-contingencies, and social context can impact ethical reasoning in different business situations. However, the manner in which these constructs work together to shape different steps of the ethical decision-making process is not always clear. The purpose of this study was to address these issues by exploring the influence of idealism and relativism, perceived moral intensity in a decision-making situation, and social context on the recognition of an ethical issue and ethical intention. Utilizing a sales-based (...)
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  2.  10
    Ethics Versus Outcomes: Managerial Responses to Incentive-Driven and Goal-Induced Employee Behavior.Gary M. Fleischman, Eric N. Johnson, Kenton B. Walker & Sean R. Valentine - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (4):951-967.
    Management plays an important role in reinforcing ethics in organizations. To support this aim, managers must use incentive and goal programs in ethical ways. This study examines experimentally the potential ethical costs associated with incentive-driven and goal-induced employee behavior from a managerial perspective. In a quasi-experimental setting, 243 MBA students with significant professional work experience evaluated a hypothetical employee’s ethical behavior under incentive pay systems modeled on a business case. In the role of the employee’s manager, participants evaluated the ethicality (...)
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  3.  20
    The Ethical Decision Making of Men and Women Executives in International Business Situations.Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):125-134.
    While a number of studies have examined the impact of gender/sex on ethical decision-making, the findings of this body of research do not provide consistent answers. Furthermore, very few of these studies have incorporated cross-cultural samples. Consequently, this study of 222 American and Spanish business executives explored sex differences in ethical judgments and intentions to act ethically. While no significant differences between males and females were found with respect to ethical judgments, females exhibited higher intentions to act more ethically than (...)
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  4.  82
    Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers' Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393 - 414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender (defined as sex differences) is related to consumers' moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rulebased moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and (...)
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  5.  64
    The Ethical Decision Making of Men and Women Executives in International Business Situations.Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):125 - 134.
    While a number of studies have examined the impact of gender/sex on ethical decision-making, the findings of this body of research do not provide consistent answers. Furthermore, very few of these studies have incorporated cross-cultural samples. Consequently, this study of 222 American and Spanish business executives explored sex differences in ethical judgments and intentions to act ethically. While no significant differences between males and females were found with respect to ethical judgments, females exhibited higher intentions to act more ethically than (...)
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  6.  20
    Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers’ Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393-414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender is related to consumers’ moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rule-based moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and women had higher intentions (...)
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  7.  38
    Spanish and American Business Professionals' Ethical Evaluations in Global Situations.Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 51 (1):1-14.
    More ethics research needs to explore the global differences in ethical evaluations. This study explored the relationships among nationality, teleological evaluations, ethical judgments, and ethical intentions using a sample of 222 American and Spanish business professionals. The path analysis indicated that teleological evaluations were related to ethical judgments and that both ethical judgments and teleological evaluations were related to ethical intentions. Executive nationality was related to teleological evaluations and ethical intentions with American individuals having higher teleological assessments and intentions to (...)
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  8.  35
    Spanish and American Executives' Ethical Judgments and Intentions.Terri L. Rittenburg & Sean R. Valentine - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (4):291 - 306.
    This study explores differences between executives in the U.S. and Spain in their perceptions of ethical issues in pricing, specifically comparing a domestic firm's actions affecting a foreign market versus a foreign firm's actions affecting the domestic market. Overall, Spanish and American executives provided somewhat different responses to the scenarios. Findings indicate that ethical judgments and intentions among Spanish executives did not vary based on which country was harmed. U.S. executives generally perceived that a morally questionable act directed at a (...)
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  9.  62
    Positive Group Context, Work Attitudes, and Organizational Misbehavior: The Case of Withholding Job Effort.Roland E. Kidwell & Sean R. Valentine - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):15-28.
    Considering the organization’s ethical context as a framework to investigate workplace phenomena, this field study of military reserve personnel examines the relationships among perceptions of psychosocial group variables, such as cohesiveness, helping behavior and peer leadership, employee job attitudes, and the likelihood of individuals’ withholding on-the-job effort, a form of organizational misbehavior. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 290 individuals using structural equation modeling, and support for negative relationships between perceptions of positive group context and withholding effort by individual (...)
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  10.  43
    Cynicism as a Fundamental Dimension of Moral Decision-Making: A Scale Development. [REVIEW]James H. Turner & Sean R. Valentine - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2):123 - 136.
    Altruism and cynicism are two fundamental algorithms of moral decision-making. This derives from the evolution of cooperative behavior and reciprocal altruism and the need to avoid being taken advantage of. Rushton (1986) developed a self-report scale to measure altruism, however no scale to measure cynicism has been developed for use in ethics research. Following a discussion of reciprocal altruism and cynicism, this article presents an 11-item self-report scale to measure cynicism, developed and validated using a sample of 271 customer-service and (...)
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  11.  3
    Consumers’ Personality Characteristics, Judgment of Salesperson Ethical Treatment, and Nature of Purchase Involvement.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 169 (2):309-331.
    Successful marketing efforts and professional sales encounters often depend on consumer involvement in the purchase decision process itself, which in turn may impact firm performance. Despite the importance of consumer involvement, research has yet to fully explain the relationship between consumer personality characteristics and the nature of consumer purchase involvement. This study explores the degree to which consumer perception of salesperson ethical treatment helps explain the relationship between consumer personality characteristics and nature of involvement. Data were collected from a large (...)
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  12.  49
    An Ethical Decision-Making Framework for Competitor Intelligence Gathering.Terri L. Rittenburg, Sean R. Valentine & James B. Faircloth - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):235-245.
    Competitor intelligence gathering involves the aggregation of competitive information to facilitate strategic development and a competitive advantage. Unfortunately, companies are sometimes willing to carry out questionable gathering practices to collect such information. An ethical decision making framework for competitor intelligence gathering is presented in this paper that outlines the impact of several strengthening and weakening factors on individual ethical reasoning. Dialogue is provided about the management of intelligence gathering from various viewpoints, and the implications of these managerial suggestions are discussed.
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  13.  3
    Good Barrels Yield Healthy Apples: Organizational Ethics as a Mechanism for Mitigating Work-Related Stress and Promoting Employee Well-Being.Charles H. Schwepker, Sean R. Valentine, Robert A. Giacalone & Mark Promislo - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.
    Little is known about how ethical organizational contexts influence employees’ perceived stress levels and well-being. This study used two theoretical lenses, ethical impact theory and ethical decision-making theory : 755–776, 2016), to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational ethics, work-related stress, and employee well-being. Findings across two studies indicated that organizational ethics was negatively related to work-related stress, and that work-related stress was negatively related to employee well-being. Perceived organizational ethics is positively related to employee well-being, with post hoc mediation (...)
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  14.  16
    The Presence of Ethics Codes and Employees’ Internal Locus of Control, Social Aversion/Malevolence, and Ethical Judgment of Incivility: A Study of Smaller Organizations.Sean R. Valentine, Sheila K. Hanson & Gary M. Fleischman - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (3):657-674.
    Workplace incivility is a current challenge in organizations, including smaller firms, as is the development of programs that enhance employees’ treatment of coworkers and ethical decision making. Ethics programs in particular might attenuate tendencies toward interpersonal misconduct, which can harm ethical reasoning. Consequently, this study evaluated the relationships among the presence of ethics codes and employees’ locus of control, social aversion/malevolence, and ethical judgments of incivility using information secured from a sample of businesspersons employed in smaller organizations. Results indicated that (...)
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