Americans are increasingly turning to hospice services to provide them with medical care, pain management, and emotional support at the end of life. The increase in the rates of hospice utilization is explained by a number of factors including a “hospice movement” dating to the 1970s which emphasized hospice as a tool to promote dignity for the terminally ill; coverage of hospice services by Medicare beginning in 1983; and, the market for hospice services provision, sustained almost entirely by governmental reimbursement. (...) On the one hand, the growing acceptance of hospice may be seen as a sign of trends giving substance to the death-with-dignity movement and the growing strength of end-of-life decision-makers and planners who integrate medical, community, family and spiritual networks. On the other hand, the precise relationship between the death-with-dignity and commercial processes driving hospice utilization rates are not well understood. On May 2, 2013, the U.S. Government intervened in a lawsuit brought by former hospice employees alleging that behind Vitas Innovative Hospice Care, the largest for-profit hospice service provider in the United States, lie an intricate web of incentives for patient intake nurses, physicians and marketers which not only drove hospice patients to use more expensive crisis care services, but influenced patient and family decisions as to whether or not to discontinue curative treatment. The corporate, investment, and regulatory history behind Vitas provides an important insight into the market realities behind Americans' embrace of hospice care and the risks to patient autonomy and health that accompany the commercialization of this ethically and morally complex health care service. (shrink)
An outcome study of the Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO) programme is used to illustrate a developmental evaluation methodology developed by the Group for the Study of Interpersonal Development (GSID). The GSID approach to programme evaluation of character development programmes embeds the evaluation into a theoretical framework consonant with the theoretical underpinnings of the programme, using measures sharing the same theoretical assumptions as the practice. The subjects in this study were students in eighth-grade social studies and language arts classes in (...) public schools located in suburban and urban communities in the United States. The sample included 346 subjects in 14 FHAO classes (212 FH AO students) and eight comparison classes (134 comparison students). A 10-week Facing History and Ourselves curriculum was taught in the FH AO classrooms either in late winter or spring. The study demonstrated that eighth-grade students in Facing History classrooms showed increases across the school year in relationship maturity and decreases in racist attitudes and self-reported fighting behaviour relative to comparison students, although these findings were complicated by interaction effects with gender. The gains Facing History students made in moral reasoning and in civic attitudes and participation were not significantly greater than the comparison students, although there was a significant difference between the groups on the civic measure at post-test. The study highlights the benefits of using a developmental measure of social competence to evaluate character development programmes that are based on similar assumptions. (shrink)
Abstract: A cognitive?developmental approach to the phenomenon of empathy attempts to describe the age related (but not age specific) development of empathic understanding as a function of the development of basic social?cognitive processes and concepts. Recent research indicates that there are developmental levels in the process by which the child comes to know how his own view of self and other relates to the view of other (social perspective?taking) and related levels in conceptions of persons. Drawing upon our own research (...) as well as the theory of J. M. Baldwin, G. H. Mead, and L. Kohlberg, we describe these developing processes and concepts and hypothesize as to the relation of social perspective?taking to each level of developing forms of empathic understanding. (shrink)
Stochastic dynamical reduction for the case of spin-z measurement of a spin-1/2 particle describes a random walk on the spin-z axis. The measurement’s result depends on which of the two points: spin-z=±ħ/2 is reached first. Born’s rule is recovered as long as the expected step size in spin-z is independent of proximity to endpoints. Here, we address the questions raised by this description: (1) When is collapse triggered, and what triggers it? (2) Why is the expected step size in spin-z (...) (as opposed to polar angle) independent of proximity to endpoints? (3) Why does spin “lock” in the vertical directions? The difficulties associated with (1) are rooted, as is Bell’s theorem, in the time-asymmetric assumption that the present distribution over hidden variables is independent of future settings. We believe, a priori of any of the experiments of modern physics, that such a time-asymmetric assumption is dubious when probing the microscopic scale. As for (2) and (3), they are simultaneously resolved by abandoning the fundamental distinction drawn between spin and spatial angular momentum, and by appealing to very tiny (in both magnitude and spatial extent) but numerous patches of magnetic noise in the Stern-Gerlach’s field. (shrink)
A correspondence allows application of Landau and Lifshitz’ formulation of Le Chatelier’s principle from statistical physics to a simple 2-D model of biological symbiosis. The insight: symbionts stabilize the occupation of narrow peaks on fitness landscape.
While research in HCI on dealing with cultural issues when designing ICTs tended to adopt fixed and taxonomic views, recent theoretical perspectives closer to the social sciences have called for attending to the contingent, fluid, and dynamic aspects of the notion of culture. In this article, we contribute to translating these perspectives into an approach for informing design. We focus on abandoning prior conceptions of culture to allow the discovery of cultural differences through inductive field research while engaging with the (...) target community. This allows a view on cultural difference that is generative for design: it is unique to each case, and it also remains close to the concerns of community members. We base our approach on Basile Zimmermann’s waves and forms framework, and we illustrate it through our engagement and design with VOCI, a local voluntary community of tech-savvy university students in Syria between 2011 and 2015. (shrink)
We group encephalitic behaviors as shown in Table 1. It is striking that the majority of these behaviors, namely groups 1 and 2, help spread viral and bacterial infections underlying encephalitis, a situation similar to Ophiocordyceps unilateralis .Could some of the behaviors in Table 1 be of utility to the host as well? Note that the behavioral symptoms may not coincide with impaired intellect . Furthermore, these symptoms may be vestigial in the sense of having been of utility to the (...) host species at a time when the latter possessed lower intelligence to begin with. It is also important to note that encephalitis is often triggered by physical and emotional stress, so that utility of behaviors is better assessed for such conditions.Continuous and compulsive exploration of one’s environment is of course a recipe for learning and discovery. Drinking, eating, biting, chewi .. (shrink)
This paper reports on a mixed methods study of adolescents' responses to case material about social exclusion. First, a qualitative coding method is presented that describes the way adolescents choose and justify strategies to negotiate such situations. The responses were then analysed quantitatively using chi square tests and multinomial logistic regression. Findings indicate that adolescents' interpretation of their social context was a significant factor in their choice of strategy. Those adolescents who invoked normative rules and conventions as the most salient (...) justifications were more likely to recommend bystanding rather than joining in the exclusion. However, adolescents who viewed the protagonist's own choice as an opportunity for making long?lasting positive changes in the social environment were more likely to recommend helping the victim. Gender and school context also were associated with adolescents' choice of strategy. Implications for research in moral development as well as practical implications for school?based programming are discussed. (shrink)
En el fallo de la Cámara Federal de La Plata se resolvió declarar la nulidad de las Resoluciones 28 y 31 del Ministerio de Energía y Minería de la Nación, retrotrayéndose la situación tarifaria a la existente previamente al dictado de ambas.El fallo platense presentaba dos características relevantes. Estos aspectos trazaban una diferencia con el caso de los amparos cordobeses. En primer lugar, la nulidad de las resoluciones se fundaba en un aspecto procedimental, a saber: la no realización de la (...) audiencia pública previa a la modificación del cuadro tarifario.En segundo lugar, la cámara echó mano de la acción colectiva consagrada jurisprudencialmente en el fallo Halabi. Aunque los límites a la judicialización se justifican en la división de poderes dentro del estado republicano, un estado republicano también debe garantizar que los ciudadanos tengan el control sobre las políticas públicas implementadas por el gobierno. (shrink)
Lo studio della personalità umana ha impegnato, per lungo tempo, la riflessione di Habermas non solo perché egli interessato a indagare l’apporto delle funzioni soggettive al processo di riproduzione simbolica delle altre componenti del mondo vitale e, viceversa, come queste forniscano il contesto socio-culturale dell’ontogenesi. Il confronto con l’epistemologia genetica di Piaget, Kohlberg e Selman, la psicologia sociale di Mead e la psicoanalisi freudiana dischiude, soprattutto, l’orizzonte interpretativo all’interno dal quale Habermas ricercava un modello per la configurazione metodologica delle (...) scienze sociali in una prospettiva ricostruttiva. Questa è la ragione fondamentale per cui è opportuno interessarsi al tentativo habermasiano di applicare il modello ricostruttivo nel campo della teoria della socializzazione. (shrink)
Abstract: Cognitive developmental research has neglected the very early stages of moral development. Three recent attempts to fill this gap are briefly described. The first is Martin Hoffman's stage theory account of the origins of empathy. The second is Selman's theory of the development of social perspective?taking. The third is Damon's account of the development of ?positive justice? in early childhood. The implications of these approaches for early moral education are then discussed.
Science cannot be based on dogma or authority of any kind, nor on any intuition or revelation, unless indeed it be of the Book of Nature that lies open before our eyes. We need not dwell on the processes of acquiring knowledge by observation, experiment, and inductive and deductive reasoning. The study of scientific method both in theory and practice is of great importance. It is inherent in the philosophy that the record may be imperfect and the conceptions erroneous; the (...) potential fallibility of our science is not only acknowledged but also insisted upon.—R. Robinson [i]. (shrink)