Results for 'Sentence reductions'

999 found
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  1.  24
    Response to Tudor: Remorse-Based Sentence Reductions in Theory and Practice.Richard L. Lippke - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (3):259-268.
    Steven Tudor defends the mitigation of criminal sentences in cases in which offenders are genuinely remorseful for their crimes. More than this, he takes the principle that such remorse-based sentence reductions are appropriate to be a ‘well-settled legal principle’—so well settled, in fact, that ‘it is among those deep-seated commitments which can serve to test general theories as much as they are tested by them’. However, his account of why remorse should reduce punishment is strongly philosophical in character. (...)
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  2.  15
    Countable Structures, Ehrenfeucht Strategies, and Wadge Reductions.Tom Linton - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (4):1325-1348.
    For countable structures U and B, let $\mathfrak{U}\overset{\alpha}{\rightarrow}\mathfrak{B}$ abbreviate the statement that every Σ0 α (Lω1,ω) sentence true in U also holds in B. One can define a back and forth game between the structures U and B that determines whether $\mathfrak{U}\overset{\alpha}{\rightarrow}\mathfrak{B}$ . We verify that if θ is an Lω,ω sentence that is not equivalent to any Lω,ω Σ0 n sentence, then there are countably infinite models U and B such that $\mathfrak{U} \vDash \theta, \mathfrak{B} \vDash (...)
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  3.  18
    Remorse, Reform and the Real World: Reply to Lippke. [REVIEW]Steven Tudor - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (3):269-272.
    This article replies to some of Richard Lippke’s criticisms of my earlier article on the issue of whether remorse should mitigate sentence. I query whether remorse-based mitigation must always wait for signs of moral reform, and re-affirm that remorse is worthy of recognition in itself and not just for the moral reform it may bring. I also argue that, where delayed mitigation is appropriate, the task of ascertaining moral reform is not as dubious, practically or in principle, as Lippke (...)
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  4. Theory and Observation in the Philosophy of Science.Dale Jacquette - 2004 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 7.
    This essay seeks to rehabilitate the distinction between theory and observation in philosophy of science. Historical background to the distinction in the early development of empiricism is highlighted for clues to its later rejection as overly simplistic, and for an indication of its useful purpose in scientific thinking. The post-positivistic objection that all observation is theory-laden is considered, and key arguments against the theory-observation distinction are evaluated and criticized as inconclusive. At most such attempts to undermine the theory-observation distinction show (...)
     
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  5.  42
    To Waive or Not to Waive: The Right to Trial and Plea Bargaining. [REVIEW]Richard L. Lippke - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (2):181-199.
    Criminal defendants in many countries are faced with a dilemma: If they waive their right to trial and plead guilty, they typically receive charge or sentence reductions in exchange for having done so. If they exercise their right to trial and are found guilty, they often receive stiffer sanctions than if they had pled guilty. I characterize the former as ‘waiver rewards’ and the latter as ‘non-waiver penalties.’ After clarifying the two and considering the relation between them, I (...)
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  6. All Sets Great and Small: And I Do Mean ALL.Stewart Shapiro - 2003 - Philosophical Perspectives 17 (1):467–490.
    A number of authors have recently weighed in on the issue of whether it is coherent to have bound variables that range over absolutely everything. Prima facie, it is difficult, and perhaps impossible, to coherently state the “relativist” position without violating it. For example, the relativist might say, or try to say, that for any quantifier used in a proposition of English, there is something outside of its range. What is the range of this quantifier? Or suppose we ask the (...)
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  7.  52
    Lies, Lies, and More Lies: A Plea for Propositions.Jordan Howard Sobel - 1992 - Philosophical Studies 67 (1):51-69.
    To resolve putative liar paradoxes it is sufficient to attend to the distinction between liar-sentences and the propositions they would express, and to exercise the option of turning would-be deductions of paradox (of contradictions) into reductions of the existence of those propositions. Defending the coherence of particular resolutions along these lines, leads to recognition of the non-extensionality of some liar-sentences. In particular, it turns out that exchanges of terms for identicals in the open-sentence '- does not expression a (...)
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  8.  52
    Continuing Empiricist Epistemology: Holistic Aspects in James’s Pragmatism.Isaac Nevo - 1992 - The Monist 75 (4):458-476.
    Quine's thesis of holism is justly regarded as the cornerstone of his naturalized epistemology. It is, to use Quine's own image, the crucial milestone in the development of post-Humean empiricism. Quine's holism constitutes a transition from the individual sentence to the organized system of sentences as the basic unit of empirical meaning. This system-centered approach allows him to dispense with theoretical reductions by dispensing not with the empiricist rejection of non-empirical facts, but with traditional assumptions concerning uniqueness and (...)
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  9.  34
    A Realizability Interpretation for Classical Arithmetic.Jeremy Avigad - 2002 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (3):439-440.
    Summary. A constructive realizablity interpretation for classical arithmetic is presented, enabling one to extract witnessing terms from proofs of 1 sentences. The interpretation is shown to coincide with modified realizability, under a novel translation of classical logic to intuitionistic logic, followed by the Friedman-Dragalin translation. On the other hand, a natural set of reductions for classical arithmetic is shown to be compatible with the normalization of the realizing term, implying that certain strategies for eliminating cuts and extracting a witness (...)
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  10.  15
    Provability Logic in the Gentzen Formulation of Arithmetic.Paolo Gentilini & P. Gentilini - 1992 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):535-550.
    In this paper are studied the properties of the proofs in PRA of provability logic sentences, i.e. of formulas which are Boolean combinations of formulas of the form PIPRA, where h is the Gödel-number of a sentence in PRA. The main result is a Normal Form Theorem on the proof-trees of provability logic sequents, which states that it is possible to split the proof into an arithmetical part, which contains only atomic formulas and has an essentially intuitionistic character, and (...)
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  11. The Ontological Import of Adding Proper Classes.Alfredo Roque Freire & Rodrigo de Alvarenga Freire - 2019 - Manuscrito 42 (2):85-112.
    In this article, we analyse the ontological import of adding classes to set theories. We assume that this increment is well represented by going from ZF system to NBG. We thus consider the standard techniques of reducing one system to the other. Novak proved that from a model of ZF we can build a model of NBG (and vice versa), while Shoenfield have shown that from a proof in NBG of a set-sentence we can generate a proof in ZF (...)
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  12. Teaching and Learning Guide For: Recent Work on Propositions.Peter Hanks - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (5):889-892.
    Some of the most interesting recent work in philosophy of language and metaphysics is focused on questions about propositions, the abstract, truth-bearing contents of sentences and beliefs. The aim of this guide is to give instructors and students a road map for some significant work on propositions since the mid-1990s. This work falls roughly into two areas: challenges to the existence of propositions and theories about the nature and structure of propositions. The former includes both a widely discussed puzzle about (...)
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  13.  9
    Experimental Reductions of Delay Discounting and Impulsive Choice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Jillian M. Rung & Gregory J. Madden - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (9):1349-1381.
  14. Modest Reductions and the Unity of Science.Peter Smith - 1992 - In K. Lennon & D. Charles (eds.), Reduction, Explanation, and Realism. Oxford University Press. pp. 19--43.
     
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  15.  26
    Baire Reductions and Good Borel Reducibilities.Luca Motto Ros - 2010 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (1):323-345.
    In [9] we have considered a wide class of "well-behaved" reducibilities for sets of reals. In this paper we continue with the study of Borel reducibilities by proving a dichotomy theorem for the degree-structures induced by good Borel reducibilities. This extends and improves the results of [9] allowing to deal with a larger class of notions of reduction (including, among others, the Baire class ξ functions).
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  16. Multiple Reductions Revisited.Justin Clarke-Doane - 2008 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (2):244-255.
    Paul Benacerraf's argument from multiple reductions consists of a general argument against realism about the natural numbers (the view that numbers are objects), and a limited argument against reductionism about them (the view that numbers are identical with prima facie distinct entities). There is a widely recognized and severe difficulty with the former argument, but no comparably recognized such difficulty with the latter. Even so, reductionism in mathematics continues to thrive. In this paper I develop a difficulty for Benacerraf's (...)
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  17.  55
    Reductions in the Theory of Types.K. Jaakko Hintikka - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (4):660-660.
  18. Against A Priori Reductions.Laura Schroeter - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (225):562-586.
    According to David Chalmers and Frank Jackson, conceptual competence puts one in a position to have a priori knowledge of conditional claims of the form ‘If my environment is thus and so, then water = H2O’. The rationale for this position, I argue, rests on controversial semantic assumptions about the individuation of meanings or concepts. I sketch a new model of conceptual competence, which undermines the apriority of such conditionals.
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  19.  52
    Sentence Planning as Description Using Tree Adjoining Grammar.Matthew Stone - unknown
    We present an algorithm for simultaneously constructing both the syntax and semantics of a sentence using a Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG). This approach captures naturally and elegantly the interaction between pragmatic and syntactic constraints on descriptions in a sentence, and the inferential interactions between multiple descriptions in a sentence. At the same time, it exploits linguistically motivated, declarative specifications of the discourse functions of syntactic constructions to make contextually appropriate syntactic choices.
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  20. Sentence Processing Strategies in Adult Bilinguals.Kerry Kilborn & Takehiko Ito - 1989 - In Brian MacWhinney & Elizabeth Bates (eds.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Sentence Processing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 257--291.
  21.  61
    Sentence-Internal Different as Quantifier-Internal Anaphora.Adrian Brasoveanu - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (2):93-168.
    The paper proposes the first unified account of deictic/sentence-external and sentence-internal readings of singular different . The empirical motivation for such an account is provided by a cross-linguistic survey and an analysis of the differences in distribution and interpretation between singular different , plural different and same (singular or plural) in English. The main proposal is that distributive quantification temporarily makes available two discourse referents within its nuclear scope, the values of which are required by sentence-internal uses (...)
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  22. Sentence, Proposition, Judgment, Statement, and Fact: Speaking About the Written English Used in Logic.John Corcoran - 2009 - In W. A. Carnielli (ed.), The Many Sides of Logic. College Publications. pp. 71-103.
    The five English words—sentence, proposition, judgment, statement, and fact—are central to coherent discussion in logic. However, each is ambiguous in that logicians use each with multiple normal meanings. Several of their meanings are vague in the sense of admitting borderline cases. In the course of displaying and describing the phenomena discussed using these words, this paper juxtaposes, distinguishes, and analyzes several senses of these and related words, focusing on a constellation of recommended senses. One of the purposes of this (...)
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  23.  17
    Reductions of Laws and Concepts. Kuipers, Theo A. F. - unknown
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  24.  7
    Reductions of Theories for Analysis.Wilfried Sieg, Georg Dorn & P. Weingartner - 1990 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):354-354.
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  25.  40
    Elective Twin Reductions: Evidence and Ethics.Leah Mcclimans - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (6):295-303.
    ABSTRACTTwelve years ago the British media got wind of a London gynecologist who performed an elective reduction on a twin pregnancy reducing it to a singleton. Perhaps not surprisingly, opinion on the moral status of twin reductions was divided. But in the last few years new evidence regarding the medical risks of twin pregnancies has emerged, suggesting that twin reductions are relevantly similar to the reductions performed on high‐end multi‐fetal pregnancies. This evidence has appeared to resolve the (...)
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  26.  4
    Symmetry Groups, Similarity Reductions, and Conservation Laws of the Time-Fractional Fujimoto–Watanabe Equation Using Lie Symmetry Analysis Method.Baoyong Guo, Huanhe Dong & Yong Fang - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-9.
    In this paper, the time-fractional Fujimoto–Watanabe equation is investigated using the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. Symmetry groups and similarity reductions are obtained by virtue of the Lie symmetry analysis approach. Meanwhile, the time-fractional Fujimoto–Watanabe equation is transformed into three kinds of reduced equations and the third of which is based on Erdélyi–Kober fractional integro-differential operators. Furthermore, the conservation laws are also acquired by Ibragimov’s theory.
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  27.  5
    Borel Reductions and Cub Games in Generalised Descriptive Set Theory.Vadim Kulikov - 2013 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 78 (2):439-458.
    It is shown that the power set of $\kappa$ ordered by the subset relation modulo various versions of the non-stationary ideal can be embedded into the partial order of Borel equivalence relations on $2^\kappa$ under Borel reducibility. Here $\kappa$ is an uncountable regular cardinal with $\kappa^{<\kappa}=\kappa$.
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  28. Fiction and Fictionalist Reductions.Gerald Vision - 1993 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74 (2):150--74.
     
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  29. Ramsey Sentence Realism as an Answer to the Pessimistic Meta‐Induction.Mark Newman - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1373-1384.
    John Worrall recently provided an account of epistemic structural realism, which explains the success of science by arguing for the correct mathematical structure of our theories. He accounts for the historical failures of science by pointing to bloated ontological interpretations of theoretical terms. In this paper I argue that Worrall’s account suffers from five serious problems. I also show that Pierre Cruse and David Papineau have developed a rival structural realism that solves all of the problems faced by Worrall. This (...)
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  30. Sentence-Relativity and the Necessary a Posteriori.Kai-Yee Wong - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 83 (1):53 - 91.
  31.  5
    The Phenomenological Reductions in Husserl’s Phenomenology.Panos Theodorou - 2015 - In Husserl and Heidegger on Reduction, Primordiality, and the Categorial. Springer.
    The evolution of Husserl’s thought did not follow a linear route. Time and again, crucial changes were taking place in its course. The content of fundamental concepts was shifting; successive discoveries of new thematics were happening; incessant expansions of the ever-under-rework teachings to new fields of application were being developed. The evaluation of Husserl’s work in its entirety becomes, thus, an extremely difficult task. The huge bulk of the writings, the multifariousness of their thematics, and the successive reforms and shifts (...)
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  32.  54
    The “Sentence-Type Version” of the Tenseless Theory of Time.Quentin Smith - 1999 - Synthese 119 (3):233-251.
  33.  34
    Continuous Versus Borel Reductions.Simon Thomas - 2009 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 48 (8):761-770.
    We present some natural examples of countable Borel equivalence relations E, F with E ≤ B F such that there does not exist a continuous reduction from E to F.
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  34.  38
    Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning. [REVIEW]Mandy Simons - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (1):152.
    In this book, Alston articulates and argues for a use-based and normative account of sentence meaning. He proposes that sentence meaning consists in illocutionary act potential, the usability of a sentence for the performance of a certain illocutionary act type. This potential is itself explained in terms of illocutionary rules, normative rules governing the acceptable use of sentences.
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  35.  16
    Connectionist Sentence Processing in Perspective.Mark Steedman - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (4):615-634.
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  36.  8
    Successive Reductions of Liquid and Solid Sucrose Rewards.R. A. Burns, E. S. Dupree & T. S. Lorig - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12 (5):351-354.
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  37.  8
    Cost-Sharing Reductions, Technocrat Tinkering, and Market-Based Health Policy.Allison K. Hoffman - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (4):873-876.
  38.  34
    Prioritarianism and Welfare Reductions.Ingmar Persson - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):289-301.
    Derek Parfit has argued that egalitarianism is exposed to a levelling down objection because it implies, implausibly, that a change, which consists only in the better-off sinking to the level of the worse-off, is in one respect better, though it is better for nobody. He claims that, in contrast, the prioritarian view that benefits to the worse-off have greater moral weight escapes this objection. This article contends, first, that prioritarianism is equally affected by the levelling down objection as is egalitarianism, (...)
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  39.  23
    Caffeine-Induced Global Reductions in Resting-State BOLD Connectivity Reflect Widespread Decreases in MEG Connectivity.Omer Tal, Mithun Diwakar, Chi-Wah Wong, Valur Olafsson, Roland Lee, Ming-Xiong Huang & Thomas T. Liu - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  40.  10
    Action Negation and Alternative Reductions for Dynamic Deontic Logics.Jan Broersen - 2004 - Journal of Applied Logic 2 (1):153-168.
  41. Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents.Knud Lambrecht - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Why do speakers of all languages use different grammatical structures under different communicative circumstances to express the same idea? In this comprehensive study, Professor Lambrecht explores the relationship between the structure of sentences and the linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts in which they are used. His analysis is based on the observation that the structure of a sentence reflects a speaker's assumptions about the hearer's state of knowledge and consciousness at the time of the utterance. This relationship between speaker assumptions (...)
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  42.  27
    Finite-Valued Reductions of Infinite-Valued Logics.Aguzzoli Stefano & Gerla Brunella - 2002 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 41 (4):361-399.
    In this paper we present a method to reduce the decision problem of several infinite-valued propositional logics to their finite-valued counterparts. We apply our method to Łukasiewicz, Gödel and Product logics and to some of their combinations. As a byproduct we define sequent calculi for all these infinite-valued logics and we give an alternative proof that their tautology problems are in co-NP.
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  43.  56
    Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production.Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Lisa Shank, Eunice Lim & Evelina Fedorenko - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (3):559-583.
    Syntactic complexity effects have been investigated extensively with respect to comprehension . According to one prominent class of accounts , certain structures cause comprehension difficulty due to their scarcity in the language. But why are some structures less frequent than others? In two elicited-production experiments we investigated syntactic complexity effects in relative clauses and wh-questions varying in whether or not they contained non-local dependencies. In both experiments, we found reliable durational differences between subject-extracted structures and object-extracted structures : Participants took (...)
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  44.  16
    Sentence Comprehension: A Psycholinguistic Processing Model of Verification.Patricia A. Carpenter & Marcel A. Just - 1975 - Psychological Review 82 (1):45-73.
  45.  73
    Verbal Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension.David Caplan & Gloria S. Waters - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.
    This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as that used in verbally (...)
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  46. Adding Sentence Types to a Model of Syntactic Category Acquisition.Stella Frank, Sharon Goldwater & Frank Keller - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):495-521.
    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children (...)
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  47.  32
    Strong Isomorphism Reductions in Complexity Theory.Sam Buss, Yijia Chen, Jörg Flum, Sy-David Friedman & Moritz Müller - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (4):1381-1402.
    We give the first systematic study of strong isomorphism reductions, a notion of reduction more appropriate than polynomial time reduction when, for example, comparing the computational complexity of the isomorphim problem for different classes of structures. We show that the partial ordering of its degrees is quite rich. We analyze its relationship to a further type of reduction between classes of structures based on purely comparing for every n the number of nonisomorphic structures of cardinality at most n in (...)
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  48.  53
    Language and the Phenomenological Reductions of Edmund Husserl.Suzanne Cunningham - 1976 - M. Nijhoff.
    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Rene" Descartes started modern Western philosophy on its search for an absolutely certain foundation for knowledge. ...
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  49.  24
    On Priming by a Sentence Context.Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 1983 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112 (1):1-36.
  50.  18
    Sentence, Proposition, and Context. On the Idea of an Intermediate Level.Stefan Riegelnik - 2014 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Semantics and Beyond: Philosophical and Linguistic Inquiries. De Gruyter. pp. 241-254.
    In contemporary theories of language it is common to appeal to propositions as expressed by utterances of sentences. The aim of this paper is to question this idea, for as I argue, the relationship between sentences and propositions cannot be worked out in any rewarding way.
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