Монографія об‘єднала зусилля науковців факультету міжнародної економіки Дніпропетровського національного університету імені Олеся Гончара та учасників Міжнародної науково-практичної конференції «Стратегії економічного розвитку країн в умовах глобалізації» у процесі пошуку й визначення стратегічних орієнтирів економічного розвитку України в глобальному середовищі й обрання своєї вірної дороги. На відміну від Ван Гога, усі дороги якого ведуть у нікуди, ми віримо, що спроможні обрати ту саму – нашу дорогу у світле й заможне майбутнє, й усі наші зусилля не будуть марними.
We develop a general theory of FDE-based modal logics. Our framework takes into account the four-valued nature of FDE by considering four partially defined modal operators corresponding to conditions for verifying and falsifying modal necessity and possibility operators. The theory comes with a uniform characterization for all obtained systems in terms of FDE-style formula-formula sequents. We also develop some correspondence theory and show how Hilbert-style axiom systems can be obtained in appropriate cases. Finally, we outline how different systems from the (...) literature can be expressed in our framework. (shrink)
We prove that a propositional Linear Temporal Logic with Until and Next has unitary unification. Moreover, for every unifiable in LTL formula A there is a most general projective unifier, corresponding to some projective formula B, such that A is derivable from B in LTL. On the other hand, it can be shown that not every open and unifiable in LTL formula is projective. We also present an algorithm for constructing a most general unifier.
We exploit properties of certain directed graphs, obtained from the families of sets with special effective enumeration properties, to generalize several results in computable model theory to higher levels of the hyperarithmetical hierarchy. Families of sets with such enumeration features were previously built by Selivanov, Goncharov, and Wehner. For a computable successor ordinal α, we transform a countable directed graph into a structure such that has a isomorphic copy if and only if has a computable isomorphic copy.A computable structure is (...) categorical if for all computable isomorphic copies of , there is an isomorphism from onto , which is . We prove that for every computable successor ordinal α, there is a computable, categorical structure, which is not relatively categorical. This generalizes the result of Goncharov that there is a computable, computably categorical structure, which is not relatively computably categorical.An additional relation R on the domain of a computable structure is intrinsically on if in all computable isomorphic copies of , the image of R is . We prove that for every computable successor ordinal α, there is an intrinsically relation on a computable structure, which not relatively intrinsically . This generalizes the result of Manasse that there is an intrinsically computably enumerable relation on a computable structure, which is not relatively intrinsically computably enumerable.The dimension of a structure is the number of computable isomorphic copies, up to isomorphisms. We prove that for every computable successor ordinal α and every n≥1, there is a computable structure with dimension n. This generalizes the result of Goncharov that there is a structure of computable dimension n for every n≥1.Finally, we prove that for every computable successor ordinal α, there is a countable structure with isomorphic copies in just the Turing degrees of sets X such that relative to X is not . In particular, for every finite n, there is a structure with isomorphic copies in exactly the non- Turing degrees. This generalizes the result obtained by Wehner, and independently by Slaman, that there is a structure with isomorphic copies in exactly the nonzero Turing degrees. (shrink)
The article deals with the problem of coining terms and nomenclature signs with proper names illustrated by the example of the English language legal terminology. The article begins with the discussion of the problems of intersection of two linguistic areas and differentiation between terms and nomenclature signs. It is observed that linguistic units with proper names possess a cultural specificity in the legal English as compared to the Russian terminological system of law. Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors influencing language units’ formation (...) with the help of proper names in legal English, their structural and semantic specificity are revealed. The latter is considered from the point of view of the two-level semantics of language signs. The authors come to the following conclusions: structural variability of the units under consideration especially strongly manifest in formation of legal nomenclature; systemic linguistic oppositions of terms and nomenclature signs with proper names determine the semantics of these units; the basis of the meaning of a term and a nomenclature sign is a notion, its essential components being included into the definitions; differential semes of the meanings are assigned to the proper name elements of terms; all semes of nomenclature signs with proper names constitute an inseparable whole and are not assigned to any specific elements of these units; the meanings of nomenclature signs with proper names specify those of the terms in the hierarchical structure of the terminological system and in particular legal situations. (shrink)
The interdisciplinary notion picture of the world makes research works devoted to this area of studies challenging from the point of view of finding interconnections between linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the process of structuring categories of words, including those functioning in terminological systems and subsystems. Legal pictures of the world are specific cultural phenomena that may differ in various countries due to the nationally specific features of law and legal culture development. One of the most complicated problems of representing (...) specific knowledge through linguistic, terminological, signifiers is the problem of linguistic categorization of concepts. The article considers the problem of forming legal categories based on word-building suffixes from the point of view of the development of the legal language ‘picture of the world’ [reflection of the world] closely associated with its conceptual picture. The conclusion is drawn that commonly used derivational suffixes transform their meanings in accordance with the legal taxonomies, forming the conceptual legal picture of the world. The results of theoretical studies in terminological conceptualization may be used in teaching legal English vocabulary in the form of systematic presentation of term-building patterns expressing certain conceptual categories. (shrink)
The complexity of the self-strengthening relationship between debts, money and manipulation is discussed. This ‘Trinity‘ has a significant impact on dehumanization of contemporary society. The ‘Trinity‘ also contributes to formation of dependency of individuals and groups to their creditors and to emergence of postmodern slavery.
The necessity to provide for a stable regional development as one of the main priorities of regional social and economic policies in the unstable world economics is justified. A wide classification of stability types in region development is considered and factors influencing the institutional stability are singled out.
Interpretation of Wittgenstein’s statement ‘whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent’ and consequences of rule-following paradox is the topic of this article. The revision of Wittgensteinian approach to the relations between speech and mind, and approaches to the speech by Vygotsky and Austin allow approving the disagreement with Wittgenstein and exhibit the cases when is necessary ‘to break silence and speak’. Argument is based on the hermeneutical approach to the skeptical image of Wittgenstein studies that disclose the meaning (...) of hypothetic relevance between performative utterances and impulses generated by inner speech. Wittgenstein’s ideas are demonstrated as the contemporary version of a Pyrrhonism. Classical skepticism intensifies procedures for justification of philosophical knowledge, because philosophy tries to disprove skeptical claims. Wittgenstein studies play approximately the same role. Interpretation of the proposition ‘whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent’ in a view of performative utterance allow coordinating the inner philosophical speech made by Wittgenstein, and the speech made by his commentators and critics. (shrink)
The object of research is to clarify the connections between non-anthropogenic mind and culture as sign systems. Investigation of such an object discloses the perspectives on construction of the generalized model of mind and can help to build the bridge between traditional and digital humanities. The subject of traditional humanities is natural human activity; the subject of digital humanities is computer-based forms of activity and communication. Finding signs created not only by human but also by natural circumstances helps to define (...) the sign system that unites the natural (non-anthropogenic) and artificial kinds of mind. Methodology of research includes the principles of semiotics previously developed by Charles Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure and expanded by Yuri Lotman and Boris Uspensky. Semiotic interpretation of mind as the object of culture allows the building of a generalized model of mind as one of textual constructions, presenting the history of mankind as the replacement of natural events by secondary models. The author concludes that the revealing of a generalized model of mind opens new opportunities for the construction of the intelligent activity strictly interpreted as special sign systems. Semiotic studies interpret culture as a rationality making machine, and activity of mind is caused by the work of such a machine. Because of that, if traditional meaning sign systems were estimated as human-made kinds of complex of primary signs, then modern statements help to see the absence of an irresistible limit to interpret such complex as a nature-made but non-anthropogenic phenomenon. (shrink)
This article considers how people judge the identity of objects (e.g., how people decide that a description of an object at one time, t₀, belongs to the same object as a description of it at another time, t₁). The authors propose a causal continuer model for these judgments, based on an earlier theory by Nozick (1981). According to this model, the 2 descriptions belong to the same object if (a) the object at t₁ is among those that are causally close (...) enough to be genuine continuers of the original and (b) it is the closest of these close-enough contenders. A quantitative version of the model makes accurate predictions about judgments of which a pair of objects is identical to an original (Experiments 1 and 2). The model makes correct qualitative predictions about identity across radical disassembly (Experiment 1) as well as more ordinary transformations (Experiments 2 and 3). (shrink)
The logic with independent truth and falsehood operators TFL is proposed. In TFL(→) standard truth-conditions for the implication are adopted. Nevertheless the laws of classical logic are not valid. In this language more then 107 different binary connectives can be defined. So this logic can be treated as universal logic relatively to the class of sentential logics.
We propose a novel seismic attribute, local skewness, as an indicator of localized phase of seismic signals. The proposed attribute appears to have a higher dynamical range and a better stability than the previously used local kurtosis. Synthetic and real data examples demonstrate the effectiveness of local skewness in detecting and correcting time-varying, locally observed phase of seismic signals.
The category of coherent phase spaces introduced by the author is a refinement of the symplectic “category” of A. Weinstein. This category is *-autonomous and thus provides a denotational model for Multiplicative Linear Logic. Coherent phase spaces are symplectic manifolds equipped with a certain extra structure of “coherence”. They may be thought of as “infinitesimal” analogues of familiar coherent spaces of Linear Logic. The role of cliques is played by Lagrangian submanifolds of ambient spaces. Physically, a symplectic manifold is the (...) phase space of a classical dynamical system, and a Lagrangian submanifold is a phase of a short-wave oscillation. Typically, Lagrangian submanifolds represent such objects as short-wave approximations of wave functions in asymptotic quantization and wave fronts in geometrical optics. The coherent phase space semantics was motivated to a large extent by methods of geometric and asymptotic quantization and suggests some interesting intuitions on Linear Logic. In particular Lagrangian submanifold-cliques of types A and A can be interpreted as semiclassical limits of eigenstates of respectively position and momentum observables. These observables being canonically conjugate cannot be measured simultaneously, which corresponds to the idea that a formula A and its negation A cannot both simultaneously have proofs . We show that the coherent phase space semantics of Linear Logic enjoys several completeness properties in general much stronger than the usual full completeness with respect to the class of dinatural transformations. These properties of completeness in conjunction with a quite natural -physical meaning make the coherent phase space semantics an interesting object of investigation. (shrink)
The role of China in the world economy is constantly growing. In particular we observe that it plays more and more important role in the support of theworld economic growth (as well as high prices of certain very important commodities). In the meantime the perspectives of the Chinese economy (as well as possible fates of the Chinese society) remain unclear, whereas respective forecasts look rather contradictory. That is why the search for new aspects and modes of analysis of possible development (...) of China turns out to be rather important for the forecasting of global futures. This article employs a combination of scientific methods that imply (a) the analysis at the level of Chinese economic model; (b) the analysis at regional level (at this level the Chinese economic model is compared with the regional East Asian model); (c) the analysis at the global level that relies on the modified world-system approach that allows to answer the question whether China will replace the USA as the global leader. It is important that the analysis is conducted simultaneously in economic, social, demographic, and political dimensions. As regards the analysis of specific features of the Chinese model as an especial type of the East Asian model (that is based on the export orientation, capital & technology importation, as well as cheap labor force), we note as organic features of the Chinese model the totalitarian power of the Communist Party and the immenseness of resources. As regards special features of the Chinese model, we note (in addition to “cheap ecology” and cheap labor force) and emphasize that China has a multilevel (in a way unique) system of growth driving forces, where, as opposed to developed states, the dominant role belongs not to native private capital, but to state corporations, local authorities and foreign business. This explains the peculiarities of the Chinese investment (or rather overinvestment), which determines high growth rate up to a very significant degree. A unique feature of the Chinese model is the competition of provinces and territories for investments and high growth indicators. As regards perspectives of the global hegemony of China, we intend to demonstrate that, on the one hand, economic and political positions of China will strengthen in the forthcoming decades, but, on the other hand, China, assuming all possible future success, will be unable to take the USA position in the World System. We believe that in a direct connection with the development of globalization processes the hegemony cycle pattern is likely to come to its end, which will lead to the World System reconfiguration and the emergence of its new structure that will allow the World System to continue its further development without a hegemon. Finally, the article describes some possible scenarios of the development of China. We demonstrate that China could hardly avoid serious difficulties and critical situations (including those connected with demographic problems); however, there could be different scenarios of how China will deal with the forthcoming crisis. We also come to the conclusion that it would be better for China to achieve a slowdown to moderate growth rates (that would allow China to go through the forthcoming complex transition period with less losses) than to try to return at any cost to explosive growth rates attested in the 2000s. (shrink)
We review the literature on various approaches to modeling animal intergroup conflict behavior in theoretical biology, highlight the intricacies emerging in the process of adding due biological realism to such models, and point out recent empirical findings that can inspire future theorizing.
Detection and interpretation of fault systems and stratigraphic features and the relationship between them are crucial for seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization. To provide better interpretation insight and to be able to extract overlooked features out of seismic data volumes, we have developed a new attribute that detects faults and other discontinuities while handling local nonstationary variations across them. First, we used predictive painting to form a structural prediction of seismic events from neighboring traces according to the local structural slopes. (...) Then, we computed prediction residuals by subtracting each prediction from the original data, and we found the smallest prediction-error interval for each point that best represented discontinuity information at that point. The extracted fault information changed with location, and it was nonstationary. Conventional coherence measures operate on a spatial window of neighboring traces and a temporal analysis window of samples above and below the analysis point, and they can hardly cope with nonstationarity in fault information. In contrast, in our method, neither temporal nor spatial windows were involved in coherence computation, which allowed us to honor nonstationary changes of fault information and to achieve high resolution in the vertical and lateral directions. To assess the performance of the proposed attribute, we compared it with the conventional coherence attribute over the same data set. The comparison demonstrated the effectiveness of discontinuity detection using predictive coherence and showed its value in extracting additional information from seismic data. (shrink)
Many approaches to evidence amalgamation focus on relatively static information or evidence: the data to be amalgamated involve different variables, contexts, or experiments, but not measurements over extended periods of time. However, much of scientific inquiry focuses on dynamical systems; the system’s behavior over time is critical. Moreover, novel problems of evidence amalgamation arise in these contexts. First, data can be collected at different measurement timescales, where potentially none of them correspond to the underlying system’s causal timescale. Second, missing variables (...) have a significantly different impact on time series measurements than they do in the traditional static setting; in particular, they make causal and structural inference much more difficult. In this paper, we argue that amalgamation should proceed by integrating causal knowledge, rather than at the level of “raw” evidence. We defend this claim by first outlining both of these problems, and then showing that they can be solved only if we operate on causal structures. We therefore must use causal discovery methods that are reliable given these problems. Such methods do exist, but their successful application requires careful consideration of the problems that we highlight. (shrink)
The economic importance of optimizing the environmental situation from the perspective of an entrepreneur are assessed in the article. The classification of administrative decisions taken in the course of the business activities is proposed. The authors identified a group of solutions directly providing optimization of environment external to the enterprise, solutions that have an indirect positive impact on the environment and solutions that improve ecology of industrial premises. The nature of economic effect of resulting solutions of various types is taken (...) into account. Vectors of influence of working conditions on the economic results of business activities are described. The nature and strength of the impact of model management decisions results of business activities are defined. Key performance indicators of entrepreneurial activity are identified: employee productivity, the amount of revenue and profitability, solvency, staff stability, the competitiveness of enterprises. Grouping the costs of ecological parameters optimization of the production environment is proposed. Relationship between level of working conditions and socio-psychological climate in the collective enterprise is disclosed. The methods of motivation of entrepreneurs in solving of environmental, production problems are considered. The role of training entrepreneurs engaged of medium and small businesses are underlined especially. Thus, in the article the relationship between environmental and economic problems of entrepreneurial activity is investigated. Role and opportunities of entrepreneurs in solving these problems are defined and structured. (shrink)
The article deals with a topic of the role of science in current society and focuses on the role of political economy. There has been a critical feedback to the fact that the social sciences subordinate themselves to the interests of power instead of looking for the models of healthy society. These models should correspond with the changes in the society and should not allow to be tied with unchanging paradigms and various ‘-isms‘. Political economy should deal with the topic (...) of human freedom and increasing social inequalities, which threaten the society. It is important to work with sustainable relationship of social-economical and natural environment and with the relationship of culture and nature.) It is a new way of understanding what production means and how the society should cope with it. It is not just about classic waste but also about negative externalities. The human cannot be reduced to ‘human resources‘ or ‘homo economicus‘. The emphasis is laid on humanity and taking human as an indivisible individual. The article emphasizes the importance of full responsibility preference over limited responsibility and preference of the individual and community over an economical corporation. The society cannot be reduced or administrated as an economical or accounting unit. Good governance includes taking care of reproduction, justice and safety. It is all about sufficiency, dignity and trust among people. The most important is the fight for human freedom and independent life, which is the meaning of itself. People who are free and can persist in such fight, which is held by a spirit of unity, are important but also more and more rare. Political economy should look for the possibilities how to follow up the Jewish-Christian tradition without the God. (shrink)
Analyzing seismic attributes in the frequency domain is helpful for reservoir characterization. To analyze the reservoir interval of interest in detail, it is important to capture the seismic response at each frequency subset. Spectral recomposition can be used to extract significant components from the seismic spectrum. We propose a separable nonlinear least-squares algorithm for spectral recomposition, which estimates linear and nonlinear parts automatically in separate steps. Our approach is applied to estimate fundamental signal parameters, peak frequencies, and amplitudes, with which (...) the seismic spectrum can be reconstructed. Automated spectral recomposition helps us visualize frequency-dependent geologic features on cross sections and time slices by extracting significant frequency components. Spectral recomposition can also indicate how frequency contents attenuate with time. (shrink)
Tying the synthetic trace to the actual seismic trace at the well location is a labor-intensive task that relies on the interpreter’s experience and the similarity metric used. The traditional seismic to well tie suffers from subjectivity by visually matching major events and using global crosscorrelation to measure the quality of that tying. We compared two automatic techniques that will decrease the subjectivity in the entire process. First, we evaluated the dynamic time warping method, and then, we used the local (...) similarity attribute based on regularized shaping filters. These two methods produced a guided stretching and squeezing process to find the best match between the two signals. We explored the proposed methods using real well log examples and compared to the manual method, showing promising results with both semiautomatic approaches. (shrink)
Integration of well-log data and seismic data to predict rock properties is an essential but challenging task in reservoir characterization. The standard methods commonly used to create subsurface model do not fully honor the importance of seismic reflectors and detailed structural information in guiding the spatial distribution of rock properties in the presence of complex structures, which can make these methods inaccurate. To overcome initial model accuracy limitations in structurally complex regimes, we have developed a method that uses the seismic (...) image structures to accurately constrain the interpolation of well properties between well locations. A geologically consistent framework provides a more robust initial model that, when inverted with seismic data, delivers a highly detailed yet accurate subsurface model. An application to field data from the North Sea demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, which proves that incorporating the seismic structural framework when interpolating rock properties between wells culminates in the increased accuracy of the final inverted result compared with the standard inversion workflows. (shrink)
Even if one can experiment on relevant factors, learning the causal structure of a dynamical system can be quite difficult if the relevant measurement processes occur at a much slower sampling rate than the “true” underlying dynamics. This problem is exacerbated if the degree of mismatch is unknown. This paper gives a formal characterization of this learning problem, and then provides two sets of results. First, we prove a set of theorems characterizing how causal structures change under undersampling. Second, we (...) develop an algorithm for inferring aspects of the causal structure at the “true” timescale from the causal structure learned from the undersampled data. Research on causal learning in dynamical contexts has largely ignored the challenges of undersampling, but this paper provides a framework and foundation for learning causal structure from this type of complex time series data. (shrink)
Although Lermontov is traditionally viewed as Russia's “second greatest poet,” the bard of Russia's beauty and the critic of Russia's “superfluous men,” the philosophical content of his poetry and prose remains relatively unexamined. The article considers Lermontov's themes of the rebellious angel, freedom, and fate, and argues that although these themes were a product of his time, they are still relevant today.
Pothos suggests dispensing with the distinction between rules and similarity, without defining what is meant by either term. We agree that there are problems with the distinction between rules and similarity, but believe these will be solved only by exploring the representations and processes underlying cases purported to involve rules and similarity.
What follows is a two-part review of Günther Witzany’s two-part book, The Logos of the Bios. The first part of the review is written by Sergey Chebanov, and it approaches the text as a source of ideas on biosemiotics and biohermeneutics. The second part is written by Anton Markoš, and it estimates the biological pithiness of the book and the correctness of the reflection of the included data of modern biology.
The modern theory of the self-organization of complex systems, or synergetics, is considered in the context of historical traditions of natural philosophy. It is substantiated that it is unfairly to treat synergetics as a modern “speculative physics”, i.e. the natural philosophy of a new type. However, there is no doubt that on the basis of synergetics a certain worldview is built, and this worldview oversteps the boundaries of basic scientific disciplines and reaches a meta-scientific level of research. The paper presents (...) an attempt of a critical analysis of the claims of the theory of complex systems selforganization and the interdisciplinary generalizations and the universal efficacy of its models. The grounds of synergetic models transfer to different disciplinary fields are discussed. It is argued that synergetics is rather a mental scheme or a heuristic approach to exploring the complex behavior of systems, and not a universal key of solving concrete scientific problems. Some prospects of the development and the possible future of synergetics in the next decades are estimated. (shrink)