The just war tradition assumes that civil war is a possible site of justice. It has an uneasy relationship with liberalism, because the latter resists the idea that insurgency and counterinsurgency can be justified in moral terms. The paper suggests that, even if this is true, these two schools of thought are closer to each other than often appears to be the case. In particular, the paper argues that insurgency and counterinsurgency can be justified using the liberal assumptions that nonviolent (...) opposition is the proper non-institutional technique to fight oppressive regimes, and that law enforcement is the appropriate response to unjustified rebellions. Given these assumptions, insurgent warfare is limited to circumstances in which, firstly, nonviolent resistance is no longer a reasonable course of action; and secondly, insurgents have the intention to create the political conditions that are needed to make it a coherent option again.Counter insurgent warfare, in turn, is restrained to those situations in which, first, there is a rebellion or revolution even though the use of nonviolent strategies for conflict and change remains a reasonable choice; and second, police agencies lack the resources that arerequired for managing and suppressing rebel activities. Of course, these requirements should be taken as presumptions, and there may be cases when they do not hold. (shrink)
Is it possible to interfere with individual decision-making while preserving freedom of choice? The purpose of this article is to assess whether ‘libertarian paternalism’, a set of political and ethical principles derived from the observations of behavioural sciences, can form the basis of a viable framework for the ethical analysis of public health interventions. First, the article situates libertarian libertarianism within the broader context of the law and economics movement. The main tenets of the approach are then presented and particular (...) attention is given to its operationalization through the notion of a ‘nudge’. Essentially, a ‘nudge’ consists in an intervention, which aims to suggest one choice over another by gently steering individual choices in welfare-enhancing directions yet without imposing any significant limit on available choices. Finally, the article concludes that, while it fails as an overreaching framework of ethical analysis, libertarian paternalism nonetheless constitutes a valuable addition to the conceptual toolbox of public health ethics. (shrink)
This paper adopts a symmetrical approach tocontroversies over R.H. MacArthur and E.O. Wilson'sequilibrium model of island biogeography, in order toshow how different interpretations of the model dependupon different philosophical understandings of theapplication of models and theories. In particular,there are quite distinct domains to which the modelcould apply; in addition, some equivocation amongthese domains is important to the model's success.Therefore, apparently inconsistent interpretations,interpretations that fit into roughly instrumentalist,realist and rationalist conceptions of science, may bemutually supporting in practice. Descriptions ofscientific practice, then, (...) should not adjudicate amongthese interpretations, but should instead recognizeways in which successful models translate amongdomains, and in so doing can become realistic,instrumentally successful, or rationally established.As complex social objects, models can afford complexrepresentational relations. (shrink)
This issue brings together a selection of articles based on presentations at two Conferences in 1997. The aim has been 1) to offer clearer and more understandable descriptions of the major trends and relationships that are involved in the structural transformations that are occurring in food systems at all levels; 2) to help develop better theoretical and conceptual tools to aid us in analyzing such restructurings and their dynamics; and 3) to clarify a number of practical issues facing those seeking (...) to promote more sustainable and just food systems, especially at the local level. With only one exception, all the articles here focus on Western economies where food systems are highly commodified, globally integrated, corporate, and state structures have been restructured by a series of neo-liberal reforms in recent years. In pointing out the problems with these food systems, the articles also discuss various possibilities for structural reforms for more healthy, sustainable, just, and equitable food systems and societies. (shrink)
In this study, the determinants of contraceptive use and method choice are examined based on various variables, classified as individual, cultural, fertility and contextual. The data used came from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The main finding is that there exists a positive association between the educational level of both spouses and the use of contraceptive methods in Turkey. After all individual, cultural, fertility and contextual variables are controlled, a woman's education is a stronger predictor of method use (...) and method choice than that of her husband. Increasing the educational level of women may be the most effective means of advancing family planning acceptance and increasing the demand for contraceptive services in Turkey. The study also shows that, to a great extent, contraceptive use and choice of modern method depend on the sex of a couple’s living children, implying some preference for sons, although generally women prefer to have children of both sexes. (shrink)
Este artículo trata de inventariar y enjuiciar las críticas que desde la filosofía de la ciencia se han realizado al psicoanálisis freudiano desde hace 30 años atrás y que hasta la fecha aún gozan de buena salud entre algunos profesores de metodología de la ciencia y algunos psicólogos que quier..
En 1895 Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) escribe Las Reglas del Método Sociológico (RMS). No se trataría ya de metafísica social o de filosofía social sino de una sobria práctica epistemológica asentada en la Universidad y legitimada social y políticamente. Descartes y Durkheim pueden ser considerados..
La escuela de la Teoría Crítica de la sociedad tuvo como baluarte el texto "Dialéctica de la Ilustración" escrito por Max Horkheimer y Teodoro Adorno. En él, los autores se lamentan del deplorable estado de la tradición científica occidental, ya que los avances de la actividad científica modern.
Este ensayo aborda la relevancia de lo que se discute en la filosofía de la ciencia. La filosofía no se trata de hablar cosas complicadas usando un lenguaje difícilmente comprensible para tratar problemas que sólo los mismos filósofos consideran importantes. Preguntas como ¿Es real el mundo en q..
This article aims to introduce, in brief, studies on psychology of religion in Turkey from 1949 to 2012 using literature survey methodology. The historical development of psychology of religion in the West will first be presented before focusing on the historical development of such studies in Turkey. Thereafter, the number of academic psychologists of religion in Turkey is listed. In addition, some information is given about journals, articles and academic dissertations covering scientific studies on the psychology of religion in Turkey. (...) Finally, information about professional conferences regarding this field of study held in Turkey will be given. (shrink)
The practicum provides an opportunity for preservice teachers to apply knowledge and skills in actual classroom settings. Thus, it serves as a central component of virtually all teacher education programmes. This study focused the views of 16 preservice science teachers on their practicum experiences. Individual interviews were made to construct a picture of practicum as experienced by the preservice science teachers. Group seminar sessions, and written reflections were also utilised to confirm and support data from the interviews. The findings based (...) on data gathered indicate that preservice science teachers were not exposed to environment that reflected their expectations toward learning outcomes. It is essential to provide conditions of a quality experience to preservice science teachers during their teacher education programmes in order to prepare preservice teachers to teach science effectively. (shrink)