This paper adopts a symmetrical approach tocontroversies over R.H. MacArthur and E.O. Wilson'sequilibrium model of island biogeography, in order toshow how different interpretations of the model dependupon different philosophical understandings of theapplication of models and theories. In particular,there are quite distinct domains to which the modelcould apply; in addition, some equivocation amongthese domains is important to the model's success.Therefore, apparently inconsistent interpretations,interpretations that fit into roughly instrumentalist,realist and rationalist conceptions of science, may bemutually supporting in practice. Descriptions ofscientific practice, then, (...) should not adjudicate amongthese interpretations, but should instead recognizeways in which successful models translate amongdomains, and in so doing can become realistic,instrumentally successful, or rationally established.As complex social objects, models can afford complexrepresentational relations. (shrink)
Este artículo trata de inventariar y enjuiciar las críticas que desde la filosofía de la ciencia se han realizado al psicoanálisis freudiano desde hace 30 años atrás y que hasta la fecha aún gozan de buena salud entre algunos profesores de metodología de la ciencia y algunos psicólogos que quier..
As crenças fazem parte de um sistema conceitual que se forma na infância e é refinado e estabelecido ao longo da vida. O presente estudo investiga associações entre crenças básicas e bem-estar pessoal em 1.588 adolescentes brasileiros, meninos e meninas com idade entre 12-16 anos (M= 14,13; DP=1,26)..
En 1895 Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) escribe Las Reglas del Método Sociológico (RMS). No se trataría ya de metafísica social o de filosofía social sino de una sobria práctica epistemológica asentada en la Universidad y legitimada social y políticamente. Descartes y Durkheim pueden ser considerados..
Este ensayo aborda la relevancia de lo que se discute en la filosofía de la ciencia. La filosofía no se trata de hablar cosas complicadas usando un lenguaje difícilmente comprensible para tratar problemas que sólo los mismos filósofos consideran importantes. Preguntas como ¿Es real el mundo en q..
La escuela de la Teoría Crítica de la sociedad tuvo como baluarte el texto "Dialéctica de la Ilustración" escrito por Max Horkheimer y Teodoro Adorno. En él, los autores se lamentan del deplorable estado de la tradición científica occidental, ya que los avances de la actividad científica modern.
Paradiso 2’s sustained direct address warns readers unprepared for its complexities to “turn back to see your shores again…for perhaps losing me, you would be lost,” but then offers the “other few” who crave “the bread of angels” the promise of a marvel that would rival the deeds of the mythological hero Jason. I will argue that, by appearing to impose this choice on its readers, this direct address in fact activates the craving for the bread of angels (for (...) who, by obeying the interpretive imperative to make such a decision, would not also be one who thereby does choose to pursue the bread that is promised in return for this obedience?). In other words, the very act of interpreting the representation of readers as divided into those who are capable of allegorical interpretation and those who are not constructs and activates the will of a single readership for the Divine Comedy and, consequently, challenges us to provide an articulation of what it means even to read or to misread the Divine Comedy. (shrink)
One widely discussed feature of Paradiso 33 is Dante’s emphasis on his failure to represent in words and memory his pilgrim’s exalted vision of the Trinity. Against other interpretations of this canto, I will discuss why, despite the fact that the language of failure seeks to reinforce the poetic illusion that revelation’s authority is grounded in an unmediated access to divine truth, the theophantic moment “represented” in Paradiso 33 instead shows that revelatory experience is nothing but a product (...) of the impulse of natural reason to exceed its own legitimate scope—that is, the theophantic moment illustrates natural reason’s inherent tendency to overstep its own limits. Consequently, I shall argue, the poema sacro’s carefully constructed representations of the pilgrim’s revelatory insight are in fact grounded in Dante’s proto-humanist understanding of the authoritative role of natural reason in representing to ourselves the possibilities of our own spiritual and earthly beatitudes. (shrink)
Sergio Cremaschi’s L’etica del Novecento offers a clear and careful account of the development of ethical theory in English-language and German Philosophy. The focus on meta-ethics and normative concerns allows the author to offer a very concise, reliable and comprehensive overview of philosophical ethics. In this respect the book effectively fills the gap left by the lack of a good, updated history of ethics. Although those qualities establish Cremaschi’s work as a valuable reference book, a few doubts are raised (...) about the highly theoretical approach adopted. On the one hand this choice proves not to be very hospitable to some traditions and overlooks the connections between ethics and the socio-historical world, with the effect of giving a picture of moral philosophy as a very abstract and academic discipline. On the other hand it is not clear whether the emergence of applied ethics is to be greeted as the culmination of the resurgence of normative ethics, or whether it is conspiring with other trends to undermine the whole enterprise of constructing normative theories. If, as I suspect, the latter is the case, the moral of Cremaschi’s narrative may be different from the one he suggests. (shrink)
“But when you meet her again,” he observed, “in Heaven, you, too, will be changed. You will see her spiritualized, with spiritual eyes.”1Dante is not a philosopher, although George Santayana sees him as one among a very few philosophical poets.2 The Divine Comedy deals in terza rima with issues that are philosophically urgent, including the relation between reasoning well and happiness.3And as one of the few great epics in Western literature, the Comedy offers its readers the pleasures of world-class poetry, (...) fabulous beasts from classical literature, good people and sinners from Dante’s Italy, and the prolongation in verse of Thomas Aquinas’s summa Theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. In some ways, Dante’s epic .. (shrink)
En esta réplica a la crítica que Sergio Martínez hace de nuestro artículo "Una teoría combinatoria de las representaciones científicas" sostenemos que su posición está basada en una aceptación acrítica de algunas dicotomías tradicionales y en una interpretación algo distorsionada de la historia de la filosofía. Indicamos que el enfoque expuesto en UTC no puede calificarse de formalista. En filosofía de la ciencia la distinción entre el enfoque "formalista" y el "historicista" es ya obsoleta. Por ello, tanto las herramientas (...) formales como las informales son de utilidad en la elucidación del concepto de representación, concepto clave de UTC. Además, sostenemos que los argumentos que Martínez recaba de la historia de la filosofía contra nuestro enfoque no son atinados. \\\ In this reply to Martínez's discussion of our paper "Una teoría combinatoria de las representaciones científicas" we argue that his criticism is informed by the uncritical acceptance of some traditional dichotomies and a rather distorted interpretation of the history of philosophy. We point out that UTC should not be characterized as a formalist approach. The distinction between "formalist" and "historicist" accounts in philosophy of science is obsolete. Henee, formal and informal means are useful for the explication of the concept of representation to be considered as a key concept of UTC. Moreover, we argue that the arguments from history of philosophy Martínez launches against our account are ill-founded. (shrink)
El ejercicio filosófico de raíz marxista en Chile tiene un capítulo escrito por los intelectuales comunistas de la década del 60 del siglo XX. Uno de ellos, Sergio Vuskovic, se abocó a discutir con las tesis althusserianas que identificaron la teorización de Marx como un antihumanismo teórico. Para oponerse a tal perspectiva, Vuskovic realiza una operación teórica al interior de la obra de Marx con el objetivo de afirmar la categoría de sujeto, así como la interna relación entre ejercicio (...) teórico y praxis socio-histórica. Chilean communist intellectuals of the 1960's wrote a chapter of the history of Marxist philosophy. One of them was Sergio Vuskovic who focused on discussing Marx's theories according to Althusser's thesis of anti-humanism. By affirming the subject category and the internal relationship between "theoretical operation" and socio-historical praxis within Marx's philosophy, Vuskovic opposes Althusser's perspective. (shrink)
In his book Appearances of the Good, Sergio Tenenbaum has offered an impressive new defence of a classical account of practical reason, which marks him as heir to a philosophical tradition going back to Aristotle and Kant or, more recently, to Anscombe and Davidson. This account has come under heavy attack in the past twenty years, and it would be no exaggeration to say that it is now a minority view. This is at least so if one counts the (...) number of living philosophers who deny that strict akratic action is possible. Tenenbaum claims that, minimally, his aim is to show that what he calls after Kant “the scholastic view” still merits a place in the philosophical landscape, and in this respect, it is clear that his enterprise is a success. (shrink)
Every scholar and reader of William James is aware of his frequent uses of "energy," especially in his discussions of ethics and most notably in his 1906 Presidential Address to the American Philosophical Association, "The Energies of Men". But while other interpretations treat James's use of "energy" as merely one of his several folksy metaphors, The Ethics of Energy: William James's Moral Philosophy in Focus is the first monograph, as its author, Sergio Franzese, rightly claims, to focus upon "energy" (...) as a central concept in James's ethics. Ethics, for James, is not about values, goods, or principles but about the organization of energy, especially into habits, in the service of personal, aesthetic ideals. As such this book is an original and valuable addition to the literature on James, and it does much to bring James into closer dialogue with other recent efforts to rethink ethics without appeal to some rule of reason, whether it be in the form of an utilitarian calculus or a categorical imperative. Such efforts include those of Friedrich Nietzsche, whom Franzese discusses extensively, Max Scheler, whom he mentions only briefly (51-52), and especially Michel Foucault, whom he does not mention at all. (shrink)
There is an obvious paradox in any attempt to map the topography of Paradise, for Paradise, theologians assure us, is outside of space as well as time. Yet mapping Paradise is what Dante's poem, the Paradiso, attempts to do. For the two preceding realms of the afterlife, hell and purgatory, Dante provides numerous finely articulated descriptions of rigorously ordered regions. And again for Paradise, the variegated states of the souls making up the spiritual order of the realm are expressed (...) very precisely by a topographical scheme, one in this case based on Ptolemy's system of the heavens. The seven planetary spheres are followed by the sphere of the fixed stars and the primum mobile, the whole finally bordering on the completely nonspatial heaven of the Empyrean. But this last “sphere” alone is Paradise in the full and strict sense. As Dante has Beatrice explain in canto 4.28–48, the whole poem attempts to describe this totally nonspatial order in terms of the array of the nine physical heavens as metaphorical correlatives for the successive degrees of beatitude experienced by the souls “in” the Empyrean. Paradise in this sense—as the Empyrean—is thus utopic, if any place is: it is literally “no place” at all. (shrink)
This paper reviews the recent writing of Sergio Bologna and Carlo Formenti. These authors are proposed as post-workerist dissenters with respect to Hardt and Negri’s conceptualisation of contemporary capitalism. Therefore, while the latter has risen to prominence within Anglo-American academia astheradical account of the political economy of the knowledge economy, the work of Bologna and Formenti is here presented as providing alternative accounts of contemporary capitalism and its dynamics. In doing so, this work challenges the Anglo-American reception of post-operaismo. (...) However, these analyses are also assessed by showing the many similarities they share with Hardt and Negri’s account. These similarities are argued to pose immanent limits, impeding this post-workerist dissent’s ability to carryoperaismobeyond Hardt and Negri. (shrink)
As published, the authorship for this article is incorrect. Coauthor Hilda Helena Soares Bentes was omitted due to an editorial error. The correct citation is: Bentes, Hilda and Salles, Sergio. Paul Ricoeur e o humanismo jurídico moderno: O reconhecimento do sujeito de direito. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies vol. 2, no. 2 : 106–117. The online version reflects these changes.
O presente artigo aborda a ontologia de A. Sérgio, numa dupla vertente expositiva e crítica. Num primeiro momento enunciam-se os temas, o método e os critérios da abordagem, enquadrando a interpretação no próprio horizonte aberto pelo pensamento sergiano. Num segundo momento descobre-se a arquitectura do mundo tacitamente proposto pela sua gnosiologia e pela sua epistemologia idealistas, perspectivando-a como implícita "ontologia ideal". Num terceiro momento opera-se a análise crítica desta ontologia, segundo o duplo critério da consistência e da universalidade, retirando algumas (...) conclusões de âmbito genérico /// Le présente article aborde l'ontologie de A. Sérgio sous le double aspect d'exposition et de critique. En un premier moment on enoncerá le thème, la méthode et les critères de cette analyse, en insérant l'interprétation dans l'horizon même ouvert par la pensée de Sérgio. En un second moment, on découvre l'architectonique du monde tacitement proposé par sa gnoséologie et par son épistémologie idéalistes, en la montrant sous l'angle d'une ontologie "idéale" implicite. En un troisième moment, on passe a l'analyse critique de cette ontologie selon le double critère de la consistance et de l'universalité, pour tirer enfin quelques conclusions de caractère général /// This article begins with an indication of how the ontology of A. Sérgio may be approached. A description of its "ideal ontology" is then proposed on the basis of his idealist epistemology. Finally, a critical analysis of this ontology is attempted in order to evaluate its consistency and universality. (shrink)
This is the first Italian translation of Bentham’s “Deontology”. The translation goes with a rather extended apparatus meant to provide the reader with some information on Bentham’s ethical theory's own context. Some room is made for so-called forerunners of Utilitarianism, from the consequentialist-voluntarist theology of Lebniz, Malebranche, John Gay, Thomas Brown and William Paley to Locke and Hartley's incompatible associationist theories. After the theoretical context, also the real-world context is documented, from Bentham’s campaigns against the oppression of women and cruelty (...) to animals to his projects of political reform. Another section illustrates the ideas from Bentham's followers as well as from nineteenth- and twentieth-century critics of utilitarianism. -/- . (shrink)
The editor's introduction discusses Clarence I. Lewis's conceptual pragmatism when compared with post-empiricist epistemology and argues that several Cartesian assumptions play a major role in the work, not unlike those of Logical Positivism. The suggestion is made that the Cartesian legacy still hidden in Logical Positivism turns out to be a rather heavy ballast for Lewis’s project of restructuring epistemology in a pragmatist key. More in detail, the sore point is the nature of inter-subjectivity. For Lewis, no less than for (...) the Logical Positivists at the time of the Protocols Controversy and Husserl in the Cartesian Meditations, this is a problem without a solution. The reason is that all these philosophers are apparently unable to realize that the existence of a plurality of knowing subjects cannot be treated at once both as a speculative problem and a methodological one. Lewis, thanks to his pragmatist approach both comes closer to the right answer and offers an even more naïve unsatisfactory solution to the pseudo-problem under discussion. The fact that he has clear in mind that inter-subjectivity means not only a plurality of linguistic utterances but also a co-existence of different kinds of practical behaviour. Eventually, the very idea of mind, the key-idea in the book, suffers from the above mentioned tension. In fact, if inter-subjective communication and action is considered at a methodological level, the very idea of mind would not need an analysis, and no kind of ‘reflexive’ analysis. Methodology might be limited to a ‘naïve’ level where the existence of the world and a plurality of subjects be taken as a bedrock of uncritically accepted evidence. Philosophical reflection on ultimate evidence, instead, would take a different approach, maybe the one Wittgenstein was putting into practice in the same years when Mind and the world order was written, namely it would be bound to question the very meaning of the idea of ‘mind’ as an undue fiction – the same carried out by Descartes – when he assumed the Cogito to be at once a body of self-evident truths and a thing or substance, the familiar Platonic idea of psyche or soul. (shrink)