Results for 'Sex Discrimination'

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  1.  23
    Sex Discrimination and Female Top Managers: Evidence From China.Huasheng Gao, Yaheng Lin & Yujing Ma - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (4):683-702.
    We examine whether sex discrimination contributes to the underrepresentation of female executives in large corporations. China’s strong cultural preference for sons has made newborn boys greatly outnumber newborn girls. Using the male-to-female sex ratio at birth as the proxy for discrimination against women, we find that firms headquartered in more discriminatory areas hire fewer female executives. Even conditional on a woman reaching an executive position, she faces a higher likelihood of dismissal and receives lower compensation than her male (...)
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  2. Sex Discrimination and the Affirmative Action Remedy: The Role of Sex Stereotypes. [REVIEW]Madeline E. Heilman - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (9):877-889.
    This paper explores the psychological phenomena of sex stereotypes and their consequences for the occurrence of sex discrimination in work settings. Differential conceptions of the attributes of women and men are shown to extend to women and men managers, and the lack of fit model is used to explain how stereotypes about women can detrimentally affect their career progress. Commonly-occurring organizational conditions which facilitate the use of stereotypes in personnel decision making are identified and, lastly, data are provided demonstrating (...)
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  3.  78
    Sex Discrimination, Gender Balance, Justice and Publicity in Admissions.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):59-71.
    This paper examines the problem of selecting a number of candidates to receive a good (admission) from a pool in which there are more qualified applicants than places. I observe that it is rarely possible to order all candidates according to some relevant criterion, such as academic merit, since these standards are inevitably somewhat vague. This means that we are often faced with the task of making selections between near-enough equal candidates. I survey one particular line of response, which says (...)
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  4.  38
    Sex Discrimination in Education: A Reply to Shaw.Sandra Acker - 1981 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 15 (1):107–118.
  5.  12
    Sex Discrimination, Gender Balance, Justice and Publicity in Admissions.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (1):59-71.
    abstractThis paper examines the problem of selecting a number of candidates to receive a good from a pool in which there are more qualified applicants than places. I observe that it is rarely possible to order all candidates according to some relevant criterion, such as academic merit, since these standards are inevitably somewhat vague. This means that we are often faced with the task of making selections between near‐enough equal candidates. I survey one particular line of response, which says that (...)
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  6.  25
    Sex Discrimination in Insurance.Perry C. Beider - 1987 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (1):65-75.
  7.  11
    Sex Discrimination in Education: Theory and Practice.B. Shaw - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 13 (1):33–40.
  8. Prostitution, Sexual Autonomy, and Sex Discrimination.Jeffrey Gauthier - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (1):166 - 186.
    Feminist critics of the stigmatization of prostitution such as Martha Nussbaum and Sybil Schwarzenbach argue that the features of the practice do not, or at least need not, differ essentially from those of other more respected sorts of labor. I argue that even the least degraded forms of the current practice of prostitution remain objectionable on feminist grounds because patrons demand a semblance of sexual self-expression that engages discriminatory beliefs about women's sexuality.
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  9.  22
    FOCUS: Sex‐Discrimination in Job Evaluation.Jeanne Bruijn - 1993 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 2 (1):25-29.
    Job evaluation systems are becoming increasingly important in Europe to counter sex‐discrimination, but evaluation criteria can themselves be discriminatory. Dr Jeanne de Bruijn is Professor in Women and Policy at the Free University of Amsterdam.
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  10.  51
    Sex, Discrimination, and Violence: Surprising and Unpopular Results in Applied Ethics.Stephen Kershnar - 2009 - Upa.
    This book is about how the systematic application of some basic principles of applied ethics yields some surprising and very unpopular results. In particular, Kershnar investigate three areas: sex, discrimination, and violence. The book argues that the following are some permissible in theory and practice. (1) Adult-child sex (2) Watching rape-pornography (3) State universities discriminating against women (4) The U.S. denying welfare to immigrants (5) Interrogational torture (6) Assassination In addition, the book argues that different races likely have different (...)
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  11. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975: The End of a Decade.Susan Atkins - 1986 - Feminist Review 24 (1):57-70.
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  12.  1
    ""Sex Discrimination Against Part-Time Workers: The" Biggs" Issues for Women.Lesley Baker - 1998 - Feminist Legal Studies 6 (2):257-271.
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  13.  15
    FOCUS: Sex-Discrimination in Job Evaluation.Jeanne Bruijn - 1993 - Business Ethics: A European Review 2 (1):25-29.
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  14.  7
    FOCUS: Sex-Discrimination in Job Evaluation.Jeanne de Bruijn - 1993 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 2 (1):25–29.
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  15.  7
    Sex Discrimination and Pregnancy: Anatomy is Not Destiny.David Pannick - 1983 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 3 (1):1-21.
  16.  29
    Sex Discrimination in Education: Interaction of Ethical and Contextual Challenges in Implementing Equal Opportunities in Hong Kong.Fanny M. Cheung - 2010 - Ethics and Behavior 20 (3-4):277-287.
    Ethical decisions are contextualized in the dialectic of a multidimensional system, including situation, setting, culture, and generation. There may be further gaps between the ethical considerations of professionals and folk values. The experience of promoting equal opportunities in Hong Kong illustrates some of these challenges. Whereas the rule of law under a Western legal system advocates human rights, the traditional emphasis on harmony and preference for balancing in conflict resolution underlie the gaps in the interpretation of these ideals. The case (...)
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  17.  10
    Comparing Theories of Sex Discrimination: The Role of Comparison.Denise Réaume - 2005 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 25 (3):547-564.
  18. Bodily Privacy, Toilets, and Sex Discrimination: The Problem of "Manhood" in a Women's Prison.Jami L. Anderson - 2009 - In Olga Gershenson Barbara Penner (ed.), Ladies and Gents. pp. 90.
    Unjustifiable assumptions about sex and gender roles, the untamable potency of maleness, and gynophobic notions about women's bodies inform and influence a broad range of policy-making institutions in this society. In December 2004, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit continued this ignoble cultural pastime when they decided Everson v. Michigan Department of Corrections. In this decision, the Everson Court accepted the Michigan Department of Correction's claim that “the very manhood” of male prison guards both threatens the safety (...)
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  19.  18
    Religion, Taxes, and Sex Discrimination.Andrew Altman - 2005 - Legal Theory 11 (2):125-142.
  20.  17
    Religion, Taxes, and Sex Discrimination: Where Do Liberal Principles Lead?Altman Andrew - 2005 - Legal Theory 11 (2):125-142.
  21.  1
    Monopoly Power and Sex Discrimination.Howard Sherman & Barbara Deckard - 1974 - Politics and Society 4 (4):475-482.
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  22. The Equal Pay and Sex Discrimination Acts: Their Impact in the Workplace.Mandy Snell - 1979 - Feminist Review 1 (1):37-57.
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  23. Equal Pay and Sex Discrimination: Why Women Are Giving Up the Fight.Jeanne Gregory - 1982 - Feminist Review 10 (1):75-89.
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  24.  10
    [Book Review] Justice and Gender, Sex Discrimination and the Law. [REVIEW]Deborah L. Rhode - 1991 - Feminist Studies 17:493-507.
  25.  19
    Limiting Gebser: Institutional Liability for Non-Harassment Sex Discrimination Under Title IX.David S. Cohen - manuscript
    In Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District, the Supreme Court set an exacting standard for establishing institutional liability under Title IX for a teacher sexually harassing a student. That standard, rejecting the simple application of agency principles and instead requiring a student to notify the school of the harassment and then the school to be deliberately indifferent to the student's complaints, has been inconsistently applied by lower courts faced with other, non-harassment forms of sex discrimination under Title IX. (...)
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  26.  14
    Collective Protest and the Meritocracy: Faculty Women and Sex Discrimination Lawsuits.Emily Abel - 1981 - Feminist Studies 7 (3):505.
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  27.  8
    The Significance of EEC Directives in UK Sex Discrimination Law.Barry Fitzpatrick - 1989 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 9 (3):336-355.
  28.  36
    Blood Donation, Deferral, and Discrimination: FDA Donor Deferral Policy for Men Who Have Sex With Men.Charlene Galarneau - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2):29-39.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration policy prohibits blood donation from men who have had sex with men even one time since 1977. Growing moral criticism claims that this policy is discriminatory, a claim rejected by the FDA. An overview of U.S. blood donation, recent donor deferral policy, and the conventional ethical debate introduce the need for a different approach to analyzing discrimination claims. I draw on an institutional understanding of injustice to discern and describe five features of the MSM (...)
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  29.  33
    Sex and Blood: A Deeper Exploration of Discrimination in the FDA Blood Donor Policy.Christopher Fisher & Toby Schonfeld - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2):40-42.
  30.  41
    Freedom, Sex Roles, and Anti-Discrimination Law.Adam Hosein - 2015 - Law and Philosophy 34 (5):485-517.
    In this paper I consider the role of freedom in the justification of prohibitions on discrimination. As a case study, I focus mainly on U.S. constitutional and employment law and, in particular, restrictions on sex-stereotyping. I present a new argument that freedom can play at least some important role in justifying these restrictions. Not just any freedom, I claim: the Millian freedom to challenge existing stereotypes and contribute to social change. This ‘social change account’, I argue, can be a (...)
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  31.  36
    Gendered Violence and International Human Rights: Thinking Non-Discrimination Beyond the Sex Binary.Kathryn McNeilly - 2014 - Feminist Legal Studies 22 (3):263-283.
    The concept of non-discrimination has been central in the feminist challenge to gendered violence within international human rights law. This article critically explores non-discrimination and the challenge it seeks to pose to gendered violence through the work of Judith Butler. Drawing upon Butler’s critique of heteronormative sex/gender, the article utilises an understanding of gendered violence as effected by the restrictive scripts of sex/gender within heteronormativity to illustrate how the development of non-discrimination within international human rights law renders (...)
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  32. Same-Sex Marrige and Gender Discrimination : A Response to Orlando.Jo Trigilio - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love: 1993-2003. Rodopi.
  33.  13
    Sexual Discrimination and the Equal Opportunities Commission: Ought Schools to Eradicate Sex Stereotyping?Beverley Shaw - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 23 (2):295–302.
  34.  1
    Sex Segregation in the Blue-Collar Occupations: Women’s Choices or Unremedied Discrimination?: Comment on England.Barbara R. Bergmann - 2011 - Gender and Society 25 (1):88-93.
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  35.  38
    The Impact of Handedness, Sex, and Cognitive Abilities on Left–Right Discrimination: A Behavioral Study.Martin Constant & Emmanuel Mellet - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    The present study examined the relationship between left–right discrimination (LRD) performance and handedness, sex and cognitive abilities. In total, 31 men and 35 women – with a balanced ratio of left-and right-handers – completed the Bergen Left–Right Discrimination Test. We found an advantage of left-handers in both identifying left hands and in verifying “left” propositions. A sex effect was also found, as women had an overall higher error rate than men, and increasing difficulty impacted their reaction time more (...)
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  36.  77
    Sex Selection in India: Why a Ban is Not Justified.Aksel Braanen Sterri - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (3):150-156.
    When widespread use of sex‐selective abortion and sex selection through assisted reproduction lead to severe harms to third parties and perpetuate discrimination, should these practices be banned? In this paper I focus on India and show why a common argument for a ban on sex selection fails even in these circumstances. I set aside a common objection to the argument, namely that women have a right to procreative autonomy that trumps the state's interest in protecting other parties from harm, (...)
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  37. Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination.Timothy Macklem - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    In Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination Timothy Macklem addresses foundational issues in the long-running debate in legal, political and social theory about the nature of gender discrimination. He takes the highly original and controversial view that the heart of discrimination lies not in the unfavorable comparisons with the treatment and opportunities that men enjoy but rather in a denial of resources and opportunities that women need to lead successful and meaningful lives as women. Therefore, to understand what (...)
     
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  38.  90
    Extended Sex: An Account of Sex for a More Just Society.Saray Ayala & Nadya Vasilyeva - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):725-742.
    We propose an externalist understanding of sex that builds upon extended and distributed approaches to cognition, and contributes to building a more just, diversity-sensitive society. Current sex categorization practices according to the female/male dichotomy are not only inaccurate and incoherent, but they also ground moral and political pressures that harm and oppress people. We argue that a new understanding of sex is due, an understanding that would acknowledge the variability and, most important, the flexibility of sex properties, as well as (...)
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  39.  10
    Gender Discrimination at Work: Connecting Gender Stereotypes, Institutional Policies, and Gender Composition of Workplace.Donna Bobbitt-Zeher - 2011 - Gender and Society 25 (6):764-786.
    Research on gender inequality has posited the importance of gender discrimination for women’s experiences at work. Previous studies have suggested that gender stereotyping and organizational factors may contribute to discrimination. Yet it is not well understood how these elements connect to foster gender discrimination in everyday workplaces. This work contributes to our understanding of these relationships by analyzing 219 discrimination narratives constructed from sex discrimination cases brought before the Ohio Civil Rights Commission. By looking across (...)
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  40.  51
    The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys.David Benatar - 2012 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Does sexism against men exist? What it looks like and why we need to take it seriously_ This book draws attention to the "second sexism," where it exists, how it works and what it looks like, and responds to those who would deny that it exists. Challenging conventional ways of thinking, it examines controversial issues such as sex-based affirmative action, gender roles, and charges of anti-feminism. The book offers an academically rigorous argument in an accessible style, including the careful use (...)
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  41. Same-Sex Marriage and Equality.Reginald Williams - 2011 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):589-595.
    Some argue that same-sex marriage is not an equal rights issue because, where same-sex marriage is illegal, heterosexuals and homosexuals have the exact same right to marry—i.e., the right to marry one adult of the opposite sex. I dispute this argument by pointing out that while societies that prohibit same-sex marriage equally permit individual heterosexuals and homosexuals to marry one adult of the opposite sex, same-sex couples in such societies are denied an important right that opposite-sex couples enjoy—i.e., the right (...)
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  42.  41
    Discrimination: An Interdisciplinary Analysis. [REVIEW]Walter Block - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (4):241 - 254.
    Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, etc., is often morally wrong. But should such behaviour be proscribed by legislation, and penalized by fines or jail sentences? This paper argues that such enactments are incompatible with the law of free association, and with the concept of economic liberty and civil rights.
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  43.  9
    Age and Sex Differences in Discrimination Learning.Mitri E. Shanab & Faith H. Mcclure - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (5):387-390.
  44. Timothy Macklem, Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination Reviewed By.Christine Sypnowich - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25 (3):191-193.
     
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  45. Timothy Macklem, Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination[REVIEW]Christine Sypnowich - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25:191-193.
     
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  46.  50
    Sex Differences in Pain.Karen J. Berkley - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):371-380.
    Are there sex differences in pain? For experimentally delivered somatic stimuli, females have lower thresholds, greater ability to discriminate, higher pain ratings, and less tolerance of noxious stimuli than males. These differences, however, are small, exist only for certain forms of stimulation and are affected by many situational variables such as presence of disease, experimental setting, and even nutritive status. For endogenous pains, women report more multiple pains in more body regions than men. With no obvious underlying rationale, some painful (...)
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  47.  51
    Anti-Discrimination Laws: Undermining Our Rights. [REVIEW]Javier Portillo & Walter E. Block - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):209-217.
    The purpose of this article is to argue in favor of a private employer’s right to discriminate amongst job applicants on any basis he chooses, and this certainly includes unlawful characteristics such as race, sex, national origin, sexual preference, religion, etc. John Locke and many after him have argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property or the pursuit of happiness. In this view, law should be confined to protecting these rights and be limited to prohibiting other (...)
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  48.  71
    On Unjust Forms of Marriage. Comments on the Discussion on Discrimination Against Same-Sex Couples.Andrzej Waleszczyński - 2018 - Diametros 56:110-130.
    This article defends the thesis that, in light of the postulates of liberal ethics, it is not possible to put forward universal arguments in support of any form of marriage. The existing forms of marriage should be either deemed unjust or founded on specific arguments recognized within a particular political community and determining the understanding of justice in a particular society. It defends the thesis that the requirement of universality, and consequently of impartiality, is not met, since behind every form (...)
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  49.  40
    Justifying Same-Sex Marriage: A Philosophical Investigation.Louise Richardson-Self - 2015 - London: Rowman & Littlefield International.
  50. Is Sex-Selective Abortion Morally Justified and Should It Be Prohibited?Wendy Rogers, Angela Ballantyne & Heather Draper - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (9):520–524.
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