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Shan Gao [86]Shanxing Gao [1]Shangce Gao [1]Shangkai Gao [1]
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Shan Gao
Shanxi University
  1.  64
    The Meaning of the Wave Function: In Search of the Ontology of Quantum Mechanics.Shan Gao - unknown
    The meaning of the wave function has been a hot topic of debate since the early days of quantum mechanics. Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in this long-standing question. Is the wave function ontic, directly representing a state of reality, or epistemic, merely representing a state of knowledge, or something else? If the wave function is not ontic, then what, if any, is the underlying state of reality? If the wave function is indeed ontic, then exactly what physical (...)
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  2.  60
    Interpreting Quantum Mechanics in Terms of Random Discontinuous Motion of Particles.Shan Gao - unknown
    This thesis is an attempt to reconstruct the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation (...)
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  3.  22
    The Measurement Problem Revisited.Shan Gao - 2019 - Synthese 196 (1):299-311.
    It has been realized that the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is essentially the determinate-experience problem, and in order to solve the problem, the physical state representing the measurement result is required to be also the physical state on which the mental state of an observer supervenes. This necessitates a systematic analysis of the forms of psychophysical connection in the solutions to the measurement problem. In this paper, I propose a new, mentalistic formulation of the measurement problem which lays more (...)
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  4.  47
    How Green Management Influences Product Innovation in China: The Role of Institutional Benefits.Chengli Shu, Kevin Z. Zhou, Yazhen Xiao & Shanxing Gao - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (3):471-485.
    Does being green facilitate product innovation? This study examines whether green management in firms operating in China fosters radical product innovation to a greater extent than it does incremental product innovation and investigates the underlying institutional mechanisms involved in the relationship between green management and product innovation. The findings show that green management is more likely to lead to radical product innovation than to incremental product innovation. Moreover, government support as a formal institutional benefit more strongly mediates the effect of (...)
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  5. A Model of Wavefunction Collapse in Discrete Space-Time.Shan Gao - 2006 - International Journal of Theoretical Physics 45 (10):1965-1979.
    We give a new argument supporting a gravitational role in quantum collapse. It is demonstrated that the discreteness of space-time, which results from the proper combination of quantum theory and general relativity, may inevitably result in the dynamical collapse of thewave function. Moreover, the minimum size of discrete space-time yields a plausible collapse criterion consistent with experiments. By assuming that the source to collapse the wave function is the inherent random motion of particles described by the wave function, we further (...)
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  6.  47
    Unitary Quantum Theory is Incompatible with Special Relativity.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is shown that the combination of unitary quantum theory and special relativity may lead to a contradiction when considering the EPR correlations in different inertial frames in a Gedankenexperiment. This result seems to imply that either unitary quantum theory is wrong or if unitary quantum theory is right then there must exist a preferred Lorentz frame.
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  7.  31
    An Argument for Ψ-Ontology in Terms of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):198-202.
    The ontological model framework provides a rigorous approach to address the question of whether the quantum state is ontic or epistemic. When considering only conventional projective measurements, auxiliary assumptions are always needed to prove the reality of the quantum state in the framework. For example, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem is based on an additional preparation independence assumption. In this paper, we give a new proof of psi-ontology in terms of protective measurements in the ontological model framework. The proof does not rely (...)
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  8. Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - 2010
    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference (...)
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  9.  96
    Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.Shan Gao - 2011
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  10.  47
    What Does It Feel Like to Be in a Quantum Superposition?Shan Gao - unknown
    We suggest a new answer to this intriguing question and argue that the answer may have implications for the solutions to the measurement problem. The main basis of our analysis is the doctrine of psychophysical supervenience. First of all, based on this doctrine, we argue that an observer in a quantum superposition or a quantum observer has a definite conscious experience, which is neither disjunctive nor illusive. The inconsistency of this result with the bare theory is further analyzed, and it (...)
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  11.  46
    The Measurement Problem Revisited.Shan Gao - unknown
    It has been realized that in order to solve the measurement problem, the physical state representing the measurement result is required to be also the physical state on which the mental state of an observer supervenes. This introduces an additional restriction on the solutions to the measurement problem. In this paper, I give a new formulation of the measurement problem which lays more stress on psychophysical connection, and analyze whether Everett's theory, Bohm's theory and dynamical collapse theories can satisfy the (...)
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  12.  70
    On Uffink's Alternative Interpretation of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - unknown
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman. By a protective measurement, one can measure the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. This remarkable feature of protective measurements was challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, and a protective measurement of an observable that does not commute (...)
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  13.  24
    On Uffink's Criticism of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):513-518.
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Vaidman, and Anandan, with the aim of measuring the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. According to these authors, this feature of protective measurements favors a realistic interpretation of the wave function. These claims were challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, (...)
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  14. Derivation of the Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - 2011
    We show that the physical meaning of the wave function can be derived based on the established parts of quantum mechanics. It turns out that the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and its modulus square determines the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  15.  19
    A Puzzle for the Field Ontologists.Shan Gao - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (11):1541-1553.
    It has been widely thought that the wave function describes a real, physical field in a realist interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I present a new analysis of the field ontology for the wave function. First, I argue that the non-existence of self-interactions for a quantum system such as an electron poses a puzzle for the field ontologists. If the wave function represents a physical field, then it seems odd that there are interactions between the fields of two (...)
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  16.  97
    Quantum Collapse, Consciousness and Superluminal Communication.Shan Gao - 2004 - Foundations Of Physics Letters 17 (2):167-182.
    The relation between quantum collapse, consciousness and superluminal communication is analyzed. As we know, quantum collapse, if exists, can result in the appearance of quantum nonlocality, and requires the existence of a pre- ferred Lorentz frame. This may permit the realization of quantum superluminal communication (QSC), which will no longer result in the usual causal loop in case of the existence of a preferred Lorentz frame. The possibility of the existence of QSC is further analyzed under the assumption that quantum (...)
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  17.  3
    Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem.Mary Bell & Shan Gao (eds.) - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    A collaboration between distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, this important anthology surveys the deep implications of Bell's nonlocality theorem.
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  18. Protective Measurement and the Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - 2011
    This article analyzes the implications of protective measurement for the meaning of the wave function. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion is not continuous but (...)
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  19.  34
    God Does Play Dice with the Universe.Shan Gao - 2008 - Arima.
    Science has made a mighty advance since it originated in ancient Greece more than 2500 years ago. Yet we still live in Plato's cave today; we think everything around us moves continuously, but continuous motion is merely a shadow of real motion. This book will lead you to walk out the cave along a logical and comprehensible road. After passing Zeno's arrow, Newton's inertia, Einstein's light, and Schrodinger's cat, you will reach the real world, where every thing in the universe, (...)
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  20.  25
    A Contradiction in Bohm's Theory.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is argued that the result assumption of Bohm's theory, which says that particle configurations represent measurement results, contradicts the predictions of the Schroedinger equation.
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  21.  2
    Collapse of the Wave Function: Models, Ontology, Origin, and Implications.Shan Gao (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    An overview of the collapse theories of quantum mechanics. Written by distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, it discusses the origin and implications of wave-function collapse, the controversies around collapse models and their ontologies, and new arguments for the reality of wave function collapse.
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  22.  34
    Does Gravity Induce Wavefunction Collapse? An Examination of Penrose's Conjecture.Shan Gao - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (2):148-151.
    According to Penrose, the fundamental conflict between the superposition principle of quantum mechanics and the principle of general covariance of general relativity entails the existence of wavefunction collapse, e.g. a quantum superposition of two different space–time geometries will collapse to one of them due to the ill-definedness of the time-translation operator for the superposition. In this paper, we argue that Penrose's conjecture on gravity's role in wavefunction collapse is debatable. First of all, it is still a controversial issue what the (...)
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  23.  8
    Failure of Psychophysical Supervenience in Everett's Theory.Shan Gao - unknown
    Everett's theory assumes the completeness of the description by the wave function, the linearity of the dynamics for the wave function, and multiplicity. In this paper, I argue that these three assumptions of Everett's theory may lead to the violation of psychophysical supervenience.
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  24.  5
    A Differential Evolution-Oriented Pruning Neural Network Model for Bankruptcy Prediction.Yajiao Tang, Junkai Ji, Yulin Zhu, Shangce Gao, Zheng Tang & Yuki Todo - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-21.
    Financial bankruptcy prediction is crucial for financial institutions in assessing the financial health of companies and individuals. Such work is necessary for financial institutions to establish effective prediction models to make appropriate lending decisions. In recent decades, various bankruptcy prediction models have been developed for academics and practitioners to predict the likelihood that a loan customer will go bankrupt. Among them, Artificial Neural Networks have been widely and effectively applied in bankruptcy prediction. Inspired by the mechanism of biological neurons, we (...)
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  25.  25
    Protective Measurement: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Quantum Mechanics.Shan Gao - unknown
    This article introduces the method of protective measurement and discusses its deep implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics.
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  26.  20
    A Discrete Model of Energy-Conserved Wavefunction Collapse.Shan Gao - unknown
    Energy nonconservation is a serious problem of dynamical collapse theories. In this paper, we propose a discrete model of energy-conserved wavefunction collapse. It is shown that the model is consistent with existing experiments and our macroscopic experience.
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  27. Three Possible Implications of Spacetime Discreteness.Shan Gao - 2013
    We analyze the possible implications of spacetime discreteness for the special and general relativity and quantum theory. It is argued that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime may explain the invariance of the speed of light in special relativity and Einstein’s equivalence principle in general relativity. Moreover, the discreteness of spacetime may also result in the collapse of the wave function in quantum mechanics, which may provide a possible solution to the quantum measurement problem. These interesting results might (...)
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  28. A Quantum Theory of Consciousness.Shan Gao - 2007 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):39-52.
    The relationship between quantum collapse and consciousness is reconsidered under the assumption that quantum collapse is an objective dynamical process. We argue that the conscious observer can have a distinct role from the physical measuring device during the process of quantum collapse owing to the intrinsic nature of consciousness; the conscious observer can know whether he is in a definite state or a quantum superposition of definite states, while the physical measuring device cannot “know”. As a result, the consciousness observer (...)
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  29. A Quantum Physical Argument for Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (1-2):59-70.
    It has been widely thought that consciousness has no causal efficacy in the physical world. However, this may be not the case. In this paper, we show that a conscious being can distinguish definite perceptions and their quantum superpositions, while a physical measuring system without consciousness cannot distinguish such nonorthogonal quantum states. The possible existence of this distinct quantum physical effect of consciousness may have interesting implications for the science of consciousness. In particular, it suggests that consciousness is not emergent (...)
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  30. A Possible Quantum Basis of Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2001 - Neuroquantology 1 (1):4-9.
    We show that consciousness may violate the basic quantum principle, according to which the nonorthogonal quantum states can't be distinguished. This implies that the physical world is not causally closed without consciousness, and consciousness is a fundamental property of matter.
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  31. Derivation of the Schrödinger Equation.Shan Gao - manuscript
    It is shown that the heuristic "derivation" of the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics textbooks can be turned into a real derivation by resorting to spacetime translation invariance and relativistic invariance.
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  32.  4
    Is Retrocausal Quantum Mechanics Consistent with Special Relativity?Shan Gao - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-4.
    Retrocausal quantum mechanics provides a local causal explanation of Bell correlations. It is widely thought that RQM is consistent with special relativity. In this paper, I point out that this view is not wholly right. It is argued that RQM violates the Lorentz invariance of the temporal relation between cause and effect for certain spacelike separated events in Bell-type experiments.
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  33. Why the de Broglie-Bohm Theory is Probably Wrong.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the validity of the field explanation of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. It is argued that a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. This is also a consequence of protective measurement. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously (...)
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  34. An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation.Shan Gao - 2011
    It is shown that the superposed wave function of a measuring device, in each branch of which there is a definite measurement result, does not correspond to many mutually unobservable but equally real worlds, as the superposed wave function can be observed in our world by protective measurement.
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  35. The Wave Function and Its Evolution.Shan Gao - 2011
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation invariance and (...)
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  36. Why Gravity is Not an Entropic Force.Shan Gao - 2010
    The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics (...)
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  37. Protective Measurement and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the implications of protective measurement for de Broglie-Bohm theory, mainly focusing on the interpretation of the wave function. It has been argued that the de Broglie-Bohm theory gives the same predictions as quantum mechanics by means of quantum equilibrium hypothesis. However, this equivalence is based on the premise that the wave function, regarded as a Ψ-field, has no mass and charge density distributions. But this premise turns out to be wrong according to protective measurement; a charged quantum system (...)
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  38.  33
    Explaining Holographic Dark Energy.Shan Gao - unknown
    The physical origin of holographic dark energy is investigated. The main existing explanations, namely the UV/IR connection argument of Cohen et al, Thomas' bulk holography argument, and Ng's spacetime foam argument, are shown to be not satisfactory. A new explanation of the HDE model is then proposed based on the ideas of Thomas and Ng. It is suggested that the dark energy might originate from the quantum fluctuations of spacetime limited by the event horizon of the universe. Several potential problems (...)
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  39.  21
    On the Possibility of Nonlinear Quantum Evolution and Superluminal Communication.Shan Gao - unknown
    A possible mechanism of nonlinear quantum evolution is introduced and its implications for quantum communication are investigated. First, it is demonstrated that an appropriate combination of wavefunction collapse and the consciousness of observer may permit the observer to distinguish nonorthogonal quantum states in principle, and thus consciousness will introduce certain nonlinearity into quantum dynamics. Next, it is shown that the distinguishability of nonorthogonal states can be used to achieve quantum superluminal communication, by which information can be transmitted nonlocally and faster (...)
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  40. The Wave Function and Particle Ontology.Shan Gao - 2014
    In quantum mechanics, the wave function of a N-body system is a mathematical function defined in a 3N-dimensional configuration space. We argue that wave function realism implies particle ontology when assuming: (1) the wave function of a N-body system describes N physical entities; (2) each triple of the 3N coordinates of a point in configuration space that relates to one physical entity represents a point in ordinary three-dimensional space. Moreover, the motion of particles is random and discontinuous.
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  41. Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.Shan Gao - 2014
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  42.  5
    A No-Go Result for QBism.Shan Gao - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (5):1-6.
    In QBism the wave function does not represent an element of physical reality external to the agent, but represent an agent’s personal probability assignments, reflecting his subjective degrees of belief about the future content of his experience. In this paper, I argue that this view of the wave function is not consistent with protective measurements. The argument does not rely on the realist assumption of the ψ-ontology theorems, namely the existence of the underlying ontic state of a quantum system.
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  43.  12
    Is There Density Matrix Realism?Shan Gao - manuscript
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  44.  34
    Understanding Scientific Progress: Aim-Oriented Empiricism. [REVIEW]Shan Gao - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (4):435-438.
    Volume 31, Issue 4, December 2017, Page 435-438.
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  45.  27
    Criticism in a Foreign Language Hurts Less.Shan Gao, Lizhu Luo & Ting Gou - 2019 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (4):822-830.
    Understanding emotional resonances to social evaluations delivered in different languages may contribute to favourable social communication in today’s increasingly internationalised world. The pres...
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  46.  29
    A Simple Proof That the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics is Inconsistent.Shan Gao - unknown
    The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on three key assumptions: the completeness of the physical description by means of the wave function, the linearity of the dynamics for the wave function, and multiplicity. In this paper, I argue that the combination of these assumptions may lead to a contradiction. In order to avoid the contradiction, we must drop one of these key assumptions.
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  47.  8
    Nature, Wilderness, and Civilization.Shan Gao - 2020 - Environmental Ethics 42 (3):211-212.
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  48.  88
    The Basis of Indeterminism.Shan Gao - 2001
  49.  63
    On the Invariance of the Speed of Light.Shan Gao - unknown
    It has been argued that the existence of a minimum observable interval of space and time is a model-independent result of the combination of quantum field theory and general relativity. In this paper, I promote this result to a fundamental postulate, called the MOIST postulate. It is argued that the postulate leads to the existence of a maximum signal speed and its invariance. This new result may have two interesting implications. On the one hand, it suggests that the MOIST postulate (...)
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  50.  7
    Nature, Wilderness, and Supreme Goodness.Shan Gao - 2020 - Environmental Ethics 42 (3):237-251.
    Transcendentalism and Confucianism involve different understandinsgs of the concepts of nature, wilderness, and supreme goodness in terms of the metaphysical understanding of nature and how it influences the understanding of human nature. The goodness of Tao is not transcendental as understood by transcendentalism. Rather the goodness of Tao as the important moral values is shaped by human beings’ experience of the natural world. It is this deeper philosophical reason why transcendentalism encourages the aesthetic appreciation of wilderness while Confucianism encourages the (...)
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