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Shan Gao [71]Shangkai Gao [1]Shanxing Gao [1]
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Shan Gao
Shanxi University
  1.  13
    How Green Management Influences Product Innovation in China: The Role of Institutional Benefits.Chengli Shu, Kevin Z. Zhou, Yazhen Xiao & Shanxing Gao - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (3):471-485.
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  2.  8
    The Meaning of the Wave Function: In Search of the Ontology of Quantum Mechanics.Shan Gao - unknown
    The meaning of the wave function has been a hot topic of debate since the early days of quantum mechanics. Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in this long-standing question. Is the wave function ontic, directly representing a state of reality, or epistemic, merely representing a state of knowledge, or something else? If the wave function is not ontic, then what, if any, is the underlying state of reality? If the wave function is indeed ontic, then exactly what physical (...)
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  3.  10
    Why Protective Measurement Establishes the Reality of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - unknown
    It has been debated whether protective measurement implies the reality of the wave function. In this paper, I present a new analysis of the relationship between protective measurement and the reality of the wave function. First, I briefly introduce protective measurements and the ontological models framework for them. Second, I give a simple proof of Hardy's theorem in terms of protective measurements. It shows that when assuming the ontic state of the protected system keeps unchanged during a protective measurement, the (...)
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  4.  31
    What Does It Feel Like to Be in a Quantum Superposition?Shan Gao - unknown
    We suggest a new answer to this intriguing question and argue that the answer may have implications for the solutions to the measurement problem. The main basis of our analysis is the doctrine of psychophysical supervenience. First of all, based on this doctrine, we argue that an observer in a quantum superposition or a quantum observer has a definite conscious experience, which is neither disjunctive nor illusive. The inconsistency of this result with the bare theory is further analyzed, and it (...)
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  5.  5
    Unitary Quantum Theory is Incompatible with Special Relativity.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is shown that the combination of unitary quantum theory and special relativity may lead to a contradiction when considering the EPR correlations in different inertial frames in a Gedankenexperiment. This result seems to imply that either unitary quantum theory is wrong or if unitary quantum theory is right then there must exist a preferred Lorentz frame.
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  6. An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation.Shan Gao - manuscript
    It is shown that the superposed wave function of a measuring device, in each branch of which there is a definite measurement result, does not correspond to many mutually unobservable but equally real worlds, as the superposed wave function can be observed in our world by protective measurement.
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  7. Protective Measurement and the Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - manuscript
    This article analyzes the implications of protective measurement for the meaning of the wave function. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion is not continuous but (...)
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  8.  9
    Why Minds Are Not Emergent in Everett's Theory.Shan Gao - unknown
    Psychophysical supervenience requires that the mental properties of a system cannot change without the change of its physical properties. In this paper, I argue that the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics or Everett's theory seems to violate the principle of psychophysical supervenience. In order to be consistent with our experience, the theory assumes psychophysical supervenience in each world, including our world. However, this permits the possibility that under certain unitary time evolution which does not lead to world branching, the wave (...)
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  9. Three Possible Implications of Spacetime Discreteness.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We analyze the possible implications of spacetime discreteness for the special and general relativity and quantum theory. It is argued that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime may explain the invariance of the speed of light in special relativity and Einstein’s equivalence principle in general relativity. Moreover, the discreteness of spacetime may also result in the collapse of the wave function in quantum mechanics, which may provide a possible solution to the quantum measurement problem. These interesting results might (...)
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  10. Why the de Broglie-Bohm Theory is Probably Wrong.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the validity of the field explanation of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. It is argued that a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. This is also a consequence of protective measurement. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously (...)
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  11. Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference (...)
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  12.  8
    Why Protective Measurement Implies the Reality of the Wave Function: Further Consolidation.Shan Gao - unknown
    The existing psi-ontology theorems are based on a simplified assumption of the ontological models framework, according to which when a measurement is performed the behaviour of the measuring device is determined by the ontic state of the measured system immediately before the measurement. In this paper, I give an argument for the reality of the wave function in terms of protective measurements under a more reasonable assumption, according to which the behaviour of the measuring device during a measurement is determined (...)
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  13. A Model of Wavefunction Collapse in Discrete Space-Time.Shan Gao - 2006 - International Journal of Theoretical Physics 45 (10):1965-1979.
    We give a new argument supporting a gravitational role in quantum collapse. It is demonstrated that the discreteness of space-time, which results from the proper combination of quantum theory and general relativity, may inevitably result in the dynamical collapse of thewave function. Moreover, the minimum size of discrete space-time yields a plausible collapse criterion consistent with experiments. By assuming that the source to collapse the wave function is the inherent random motion of particles described by the wave function, we further (...)
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  14. A Quantum Physical Argument for Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (1-2):1 - 2.
    It has been widely thought that consciousness has no causal efficacy in the physical world. However, this may be not the case. In this paper, we show that a conscious being can distinguish definite perceptions and their quantum superpositions, while a physical measuring system without consciousness cannot distinguish such nonorthogonal quantum states. The possible existence of this distinct quantum physical effect of consciousness may have interesting implications for the science of consciousness. In particular, it suggests that consciousness is not emergent (...)
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  15. The Wave Function and Its Evolution.Shan Gao - manuscript
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation invariance and (...)
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  16. Derivation of the Schrödinger Equation.Shan Gao - manuscript
    It is shown that the heuristic "derivation" of the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics textbooks can be turned into a real derivation by resorting to spacetime translation invariance and relativistic invariance.
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  17.  7
    Does Protective Measurement Imply the Reality of the Wave Function?Shan Gao - unknown
    Recently the first protective measurement has been realized in experiment [Nature Phys. 13, 1191 ], which can measure the expectation value of an observable from a single quantum system. This raises an important and pressing issue of whether protective measurement implies the reality of the wave function. If the answer is yes, this will improve the influential PBR theorem [Nature Phys. 8, 475 ] by removing auxiliary assumptions, and help settle the issue about the nature of the wave function. In (...)
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  18.  77
    Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.Shan Gao - manuscript
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  19.  31
    Interpreting Quantum Mechanics in Terms of Random Discontinuous Motion of Particles.Shan Gao - unknown
    This thesis is an attempt to reconstruct the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation (...)
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  20. Why Gravity is Not an Entropic Force.Shan Gao - manuscript
    The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics (...)
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  21.  14
    An Argument for Ψ-Ontology in Terms of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):198-202.
    The ontological model framework provides a rigorous approach to address the question of whether the quantum state is ontic or epistemic. When considering only conventional projective measurements, auxiliary assumptions are always needed to prove the reality of the quantum state in the framework. For example, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem is based on an additional preparation independence assumption. In this paper, we give a new proof of psi-ontology in terms of protective measurements in the ontological model framework. The proof does not rely (...)
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  22. Derivation of the Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We show that the physical meaning of the wave function can be derived based on the established parts of quantum mechanics. It turns out that the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and its modulus square determines the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  23. Protective Measurement and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the implications of protective measurement for de Broglie-Bohm theory, mainly focusing on the interpretation of the wave function. It has been argued that the de Broglie-Bohm theory gives the same predictions as quantum mechanics by means of quantum equilibrium hypothesis. However, this equivalence is based on the premise that the wave function, regarded as a Ψ-field, has no mass and charge density distributions. But this premise turns out to be wrong according to protective measurement; a charged quantum system (...)
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  24. A Possible Quantum Basis of Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2001 - Neuroquantology 1 (1):4-9.
    We show that consciousness may violate the basic quantum principle, according to which the nonorthogonal quantum states can't be distinguished. This implies that the physical world is not causally closed without consciousness, and consciousness is a fundamental property of matter.
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  25.  5
    Can Particle Configurations Represent Measurement Results in Bohm's Theory?Shan Gao - unknown
    It is argued that if the relative configuration of Bohmian particles represents the measurement result, then the predictions of Bohm's theory may be inconsistent with the Born rule in some situations.
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  26.  5
    Failure of Psychophysical Supervenience in Everett's Theory.Shan Gao - unknown
    Everett's theory assumes the completeness of the description by the wave function, the linearity of the dynamics for the wave function, and multiplicity. In this paper, I argue that these three assumptions of Everett's theory may lead to the violation of psychophysical supervenience.
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  27.  5
    Relativity Without Light: A Further Suggestion.Shan Gao - unknown
    The role of the light postulate in special relativity is reexamined. The existing theory of relativity without light shows that one can deduce Lorentz-like transformations with an undetermined invariant speed based on homogeneity of space and time, isotropy of space and the principle of relativity. However, since the transformations can be Lorentzian or Galilean, depending on the finiteness of the invariant speed, a further postulate is needed to determine the speed in order to establish a real connection between the theory (...)
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  28.  19
    Protective Measurement: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Quantum Mechanics.Shan Gao - unknown
    This article introduces the method of protective measurement and discusses its deep implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics.
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  29.  11
    A Discrete Model of Energy-Conserved Wavefunction Collapse.Shan Gao - unknown
    Energy nonconservation is a serious problem of dynamical collapse theories. In this paper, we propose a discrete model of energy-conserved wavefunction collapse. It is shown that the model is consistent with existing experiments and our macroscopic experience.
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  30.  96
    The Wave Function and Particle Ontology.Shan Gao - manuscript
    In quantum mechanics, the wave function of a N-body system is a mathematical function defined in a 3N-dimensional configuration space. We argue that wave function realism implies particle ontology when assuming: (1) the wave function of a N-body system describes N physical entities; (2) each triple of the 3N coordinates of a point in configuration space that relates to one physical entity represents a point in ordinary three-dimensional space. Moreover, the motion of particles is random and discontinuous.
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  31. A Quantum Theory of Consciousness.Shan Gao - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):39-52.
    The relationship between quantum collapse and consciousness is reconsidered under the assumption that quantum collapse is an objective dynamical process. We argue that the conscious observer can have a distinct role from the physical measuring device during the process of quantum collapse owing to the intrinsic nature of consciousness; the conscious observer can know whether he is in a definite state or a quantum superposition of definite states, while the physical measuring device cannot “know”. As a result, the consciousness observer (...)
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  32.  9
    On Uffink's Criticism of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):513-518.
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Vaidman, and Anandan, with the aim of measuring the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. According to these authors, this feature of protective measurements favors a realistic interpretation of the wave function. These claims were challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, (...)
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  33.  90
    Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.Shan Gao - manuscript
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  34.  91
    Quantum Collapse, Consciousness and Superluminal Communication.Shan Gao - 2004 - Foundations Of Physics Letters 17 (2):167-182.
    The relation between quantum collapse, consciousness and superluminal communication is analyzed. As we know, quantum collapse, if exists, can result in the appearance of quantum nonlocality, and requires the existence of a pre- ferred Lorentz frame. This may permit the realization of quantum superluminal communication (QSC), which will no longer result in the usual causal loop in case of the existence of a preferred Lorentz frame. The possibility of the existence of QSC is further analyzed under the assumption that quantum (...)
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  35.  1
    Separate Compilation of Bayesian Networks for Efficient Exact Inference.Shan Gao, Masakazu Ishihata & Shin-Ichi Minato - 2018 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 33 (6):A-I35_1-15.
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  36.  63
    What Quantum Mechanics Describes is Discontinuous Motion of Particles.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We present a theory of discontinuous motion of particles in continuous space-time. We show that the simplest nonrelativistic evolution equation of such motion is just the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics. This strongly implies what quantum mechanics describes is discontinuous motion of particles. Considering the fact that space-time may be essentially discrete when considering gravity, we further present a theory of discontinuous motion of particles in discrete space-time. We show that its evolution will naturally result in the dynamical collapse process (...)
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  37.  6
    Can Chinese Philosophy Embrace Wilderness?Shan Gao - 2017 - Environmental Ethics 39 (2):147-159.
    Because of rapid industrialization and urbanization, many natural resources in China have increasingly been degraded. In response to this situation, China haslearned from the United States about one of its best ideas, national parks. This idea triggers many philosophical questions. How is wilderness interpreted in theUnited States? What are the philosophical foundations for the concept of intrinsic value in wilderness? Can Chinese philosophy accept wilderness? To answer these questions, the idea of intrinsic value in wilderness and the Western philosophical foundations (...)
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  38.  58
    On the Invariance of the Speed of Light.Shan Gao - unknown
    It has been argued that the existence of a minimum observable interval of space and time is a model-independent result of the combination of quantum field theory and general relativity. In this paper, I promote this result to a fundamental postulate, called the MOIST postulate. It is argued that the postulate leads to the existence of a maximum signal speed and its invariance. This new result may have two interesting implications. On the one hand, it suggests that the MOIST postulate (...)
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  39.  26
    The Measurement Problem Revisited.Shan Gao - unknown
    It has been realized that in order to solve the measurement problem, the physical state representing the measurement result is required to be also the physical state on which the mental state of an observer supervenes. This introduces an additional restriction on the solutions to the measurement problem. In this paper, I give a new formulation of the measurement problem which lays more stress on psychophysical connection, and analyze whether Everett's theory, Bohm's theory and dynamical collapse theories can satisfy the (...)
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  40.  3
    Protective Measurements and the Reality of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - unknown
    The ontological status of the wave function in quantum mechanics is usually analyzed in the context of conventional impulsive measurements. These analyses are always based on some nontrivial assumptions, e.g. a preparation independence assumption is needed to prove the PBR theorem. In this paper, we point out that the reality of the wave function can be argued without resorting to nontrivial assumptions by analyzing protective measurements, by which one can measure the expectation values of observables on a single quantum system. (...)
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  41.  52
    On Uffink's Alternative Interpretation of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - unknown
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman. By a protective measurement, one can measure the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. This remarkable feature of protective measurements was challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, and a protective measurement of an observable that does not commute (...)
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  42.  26
    A New Ontological Interpretation of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - unknown
    In this paper, we propose an ontological interpretation of the wave function in terms of random discontinuous motion of particles. According to this interpretation, the wave function of an N-body quantum system describes the state of random discontinuous motion of N particles, and in particular, the modulus squared of the wave function gives the probability density that the particles appear in every possible group of positions in space. We present three arguments supporting this new interpretation of the wave function. These (...)
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  43.  47
    Comment on "Distinct Quantum States Can Be Compatible with a Single State of Reality".Shan Gao - unknown
    Lewis et al. recently demonstrated that additional assumptions such as preparation independence are always necessary to rule out a psi-epistemic model, in which the quantum state is not uniquely determined by the underlying physical state. Here we point out that these authors ignored the important work of Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman on protective measurements, and their conclusion, which is based only on an analysis of conventional projective measurements, is not true.
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  44.  42
    An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation: Further Consolidations.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is argued that the components of the superposed wave function of a measuring device, each of which represents a definite measurement result, do not correspond to many worlds, one of which is our world, because all components of the wave function can be measured in our world by a serious of protective measurements, and they all exist in this world.
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  45.  41
    On the Origin of Gravity.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is argued that the existence of a minimum interval of space and time may imply the existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime described by general relativity.
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  46.  21
    Explaining Holographic Dark Energy.Shan Gao - unknown
    The physical origin of holographic dark energy is investigated. The main existing explanations, namely the UV/IR connection argument of Cohen et al, Thomas' bulk holography argument, and Ng's spacetime foam argument, are shown to be not satisfactory. A new explanation of the HDE model is then proposed based on the ideas of Thomas and Ng. It is suggested that the dark energy might originate from the quantum fluctuations of spacetime limited by the event horizon of the universe. Several potential problems (...)
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  47.  21
    Reality of the Quantum State: A New Proof in Terms of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - unknown
    The ontological model framework provides a rigorous approach to address the question of whether the quantum state is ontic or epistemic. When considering only conventional projective measurements, auxiliary assumptions are always needed to prove the reality of the quantum state in the framework. For example, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem is based on an additional preparation independence assumption. In this paper, we give a new proof of psi-ontology in terms of protective measurements in the ontological model framework. It is argued that the (...)
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  48.  59
    A Possible Quantum Basis of Panpsychism.Shan Gao - 2001 - Cogprints.
    We show that consciousness may violate the basic quantum principle, according to which the nonorthogonal quantum states can't be distinguished. This implies that the physical world is not causally closed without consciousness, and consciousness is a fundamental property of matter, thus provides a possible quantum basis for panpsychism.
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  49. A Possible Connection Between Quantum and Self-Consciousness.Shan Gao - 2004 - Axiomathes: An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems 14 (4):295-305.
     
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  50.  16
    On the Possibility of Nonlinear Quantum Evolution and Superluminal Communication.Shan Gao - unknown
    A possible mechanism of nonlinear quantum evolution is introduced and its implications for quantum communication are investigated. First, it is demonstrated that an appropriate combination of wavefunction collapse and the consciousness of observer may permit the observer to distinguish nonorthogonal quantum states in principle, and thus consciousness will introduce certain nonlinearity into quantum dynamics. Next, it is shown that the distinguishability of nonorthogonal states can be used to achieve quantum superluminal communication, by which information can be transmitted nonlocally and faster (...)
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