Results for 'Shane Legg'

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  1. Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  2. The Hardness of the Iconic Must: Can Peirce's Existential Graphs Assist Modal Epistemology?C. Legg - 2012 - Philosophia Mathematica 20 (1):1-24.
    Charles Peirce's diagrammatic logic — the Existential Graphs — is presented as a tool for illuminating how we know necessity, in answer to Benacerraf's famous challenge that most ‘semantics for mathematics’ do not ‘fit an acceptable epistemology’. It is suggested that necessary reasoning is in essence a recognition that a certain structure has the particular structure that it has. This means that, contra Hume and his contemporary heirs, necessity is observable. One just needs to pay attention, not merely to individual (...)
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  3. Perceiving Necessity.Catherine Legg & James Franklin - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (3).
    In many diagrams one seems to perceive necessity – one sees not only that something is so, but that it must be so. That conflicts with a certain empiricism largely taken for granted in contemporary philosophy, which believes perception is not capable of such feats. The reason for this belief is often thought well-summarized in Hume's maxim: ‘there are no necessary connections between distinct existences’. It is also thought that even if there were such necessities, perception is too passive or (...)
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  4. What is a Logical Diagram?Catherine Legg - 2013 - In Sun-Joo Shin & Amirouche Moktefi (eds.), Visual Reasoning with Diagrams. Springer. pp. 1-18.
    Robert Brandom’s expressivism argues that not all semantic content may be made fully explicit. This view connects in interesting ways with recent movements in philosophy of mathematics and logic (e.g. Brown, Shin, Giaquinto) to take diagrams seriously - as more than a mere “heuristic aid” to proof, but either proofs themselves, or irreducible components of such. However what exactly is a diagram in logic? Does this constitute a semiotic natural kind? The paper will argue that such a natural kind does (...)
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  5.  49
    Charles Peirce's Limit Concept of Truth.Catherine Legg - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (3):204-213.
    This entry explores Charles Peirce's account of truth in terms of the end or ‘limit’ of inquiry. This account is distinct from – and arguably more objectivist than – views of truth found in other pragmatists such as James and Rorty. The roots of the account in mathematical concepts is explored, and it is defended from objections that it is (i) incoherent, (ii) in its faith in convergence, too realist and (iii) in its ‘internal realism’, not realist enough.
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  6. Bill Gates is Not a Parking Meter: Philosophical Quality Control in Automated Ontology Building.Catherine Legg & Samuel Sarjant - 2012 - Proceedings of the Symposium on Computational Philosophy, AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012 (Birmingham, England, July 2-6).
    The somewhat old-fashioned concept of philosophical categories is revived and put to work in automated ontology building. We describe a project harvesting knowledge from Wikipedia’s category network in which the principled ontological structure of Cyc was leveraged to furnish an extra layer of accuracy-checking over and above more usual corrections which draw on automated measures of semantic relatedness.
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  7. Making It Explicit and Clear: From "Strong" to "Hyper-" Inferentialism in Brandom and Peirce.Catherine Legg - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (1):105–123.
    This article explores how Robert Brandom's original "inferentialist" philosophical framework should be positioned with respect to the classical pragmatist tradition. It is argued that Charles Peirce's original attack on the use of "intuition" in nineteenth-century philosophy of mind is in fact a form of inferentialism, and thus an antecedent relatively unexplored by Brandom in his otherwise comprehensive and illuminating "tales of the mighty dead." However, whereas Brandom stops short at a merely "strong" inferentialism, which admits some non-inferential mental content , (...)
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  8. The Problem of the Essential Icon.Catherine Legg - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):207-232.
    Charles Peirce famously divided all signs into icons, indices and symbols. The past few decades have seen mainstream analytic philosophy broaden its traditional focus on symbols to recognise the so-called essential indexical. Can the moral now be extended to icons? Is there an “essential icon”? And if so, what exactly would be essential about it? It is argued that there is and it consists in logical form. Danielle Macbeth’s radical new “expressivist” interpretation of Frege’s logic and Charles Peirce’s existential graphs (...)
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  9. Higher-Order One–Many Problems in Plato's Philebus and Recent Australian Metaphysics.S. Gibbons & C. Legg - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):119 - 138.
    We discuss the one?many problem as it appears in the Philebus and find that it is not restricted to the usually understood problem about the identity of universals across particulars that instantiate them (the Hylomorphic Dispersal Problem). In fact some of the most interesting aspects of the problem occur purely with respect to the relationship between Forms. We argue that contemporary metaphysicians may draw from the Philebus at least three different one?many relationships between universals themselves: instantiation, subkind and part, and (...)
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  10.  12
    An Evaluation of Early and Late Stage Attentional Processing of Positive and Negative Information in Dysphoria.Matthew S. Shane & Jordan B. Peterson - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):789-815.
  11.  45
    The Meaning of Meaning-Fallibilism.Catherine Legg - 2004 - Axiomathes 15 (2):293-318.
    Much discussion of meaning by philosophers over the last 300 years has been predicated on a Cartesian first-person authority (i.e. “infallibilism”) with respect to what one’s terms mean. However this has problems making sense of the way the meanings of scientific terms develop, an increase in scientific knowledge over and above scientists’ ability to quantify over new entities. Although a recent conspicuous embrace of rigid designation has broken up traditional meaning-infallibilism to some extent, this new dimension to the meaning of (...)
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  12. Understanding Bible Study Curricula Theologyy Hermeneuticsy and Education in the Congregation.Pamela Mitchell Legg - forthcoming - Interpretation 56 (4):398-409.
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  13. Review of Anne Freadman. The Machinery of Talk: Charles Peirce and the Sign Hypothesis. [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2006 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):642-645.
    This book, officially a contribution to the subject area of Charles Peirce’s semiotics, deserves a wider readership, including philosophers. Its subject matter is what might be termed the great question of how signification is brought about (what Peirce called the ‘riddle of the Sphinx’, who in Emerson’s poem famously asked, ‘Who taught thee me to name?’), and also Peirce’s answer to the question (what Peirce himself called his ‘guess at the riddle’, and Freadman calls his ‘sign hypothesis’).
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  14. Extension, Intension and Dormitive Virtue.Catherine Legg - 1999 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 35 (4):654 - 677.
    Would be fairer to call Peirce’s philosophy of language “extensionalist” or “intensionalist”? The extensionalisms of Carnap and Quine are examined, and Peirce’s view is found to be prima facie similar, except for his commitment to the importance of “hypostatic abstraction”. Rather than dismissing this form of abstraction (famously derided by Molière) as useless scholasticism, Peirce argues that it represents a crucial (though largely unnoticed) step in much working inference. This, it is argued, allows Peirce to transcend the extensionalist-intensionalist dichotomy itself, (...)
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  15. What Achilles Did and the Tortoise Wouldn't.Catherine Legg - manuscript
    This paper offers an expressivist account of logical form, arguing that in order to fully understand it one must examine what valid arguments make us do (or: what Achilles does and the Tortoise doesn’t, in Carroll’s famed fable). It introduces Charles Peirce’s distinction between symbols, indices and icons as three different kinds of signification whereby the sign picks out its object by learned convention, by unmediated indication, and by resemblance respectively. It is then argued that logical form is represented by (...)
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  16. “Things Unreasonably Compulsory”: A Peircean Challenge to a Humean Theory of Perception, Particularly With Respect to Perceiving Necessary Truths.Catherine Legg - 2014 - Cognitio 15 (1):89-112.
    Much mainstream analytic epistemology is built around a sceptical treatment of modality which descends from Hume. The roots of this scepticism are argued to lie in Hume’s (nominalist) theory of perception, which is excavated, studied and compared with the very different (realist) theory of perception developed by Peirce. It is argued that Peirce’s theory not only enables a considerably more nuanced and effective epistemology, it also (unlike Hume’s theory) does justice to what happens when we appreciate a proof in mathematics.
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  17.  86
    Real Law in Charles Peirce's Pragmaticism.Catherine Legg - 1999 - In Howard Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 125--142.
    How scholastic realism met the scientific method.
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  18. Review of Naomi Cumming, "The Sonic Self: Musical Subjectivity and Signification". [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2002 - Recherches Semiotiques / Semiotic Inquiry 22 (1-2-3):315-327.
  19.  23
    Argument-Forms Which Turn Invalid Over Infinite Domains: Physicalism as Supertask?Catherine Legg - 2008 - Contemporary Pragmatism 5 (1):1-11.
    Argument-forms exist which are valid over finite but not infinite domains. Despite understanding of this by formal logicians, philosophers can be observed treating as valid arguments which are in fact invalid over infinite domains. In support of this claim I will first present an argument against the classical pragmatist theory of truth by Mark Johnston. Then, more ambitiously, I will suggest the fallacy lurks in certain arguments for physicalism taken for granted by many philosophers today.
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  20.  75
    Idealism Operationalized: How Pragmatism Can Help Explicate and Motivate the Possibly Surprising Idea of Reality as Representational.Catherine Legg - manuscript
    This paper begins by outlining Hume's understanding of perception according to which ideas are copies of impressions, which are thought to constitute a foundational confrontation with reality. This understanding is contrasted with Peirce's theory of perception according to which percepts give rise to perceptual judgements, but perceptual judgements are not a copy but an index (or 'true symptom' - just as a weather-cock indicates the direction of the wind) of the percept. Percept and perceptual judgement are thereby able to mutually (...)
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  21. Hacking: The Performance of Technology? [REVIEW]Cathy Legg - 2005 - Techne 9 (2):151-154.
    The word “hacker” has an interesting double meaning: one vastly more widespread connotation of technological mischief, even criminality, and an original meaning amongst the tech savvy as a term of highest approbation. Both meanings, however, share the idea that hackers possess a superior ability to manipulate technology according to their will (and, as with God, this superior ability to exercise will is a source of both mystifying admiration and fear). This book mainly concerns itself with the former meaning. To Thomas (...)
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  22.  28
    Diagrammatic Teaching: The Role of Iconic Signs in Meaningful Pedagogy.Catherine Legg - forthcoming - In Inna Semetsky (ed.), Edusemiotics: A Handbook. Springer.
    Charles S. Peirce’s semiotics uniquely divides signs into: i) symbols, which pick out their objects by arbitrary convention or habit, ii) indices, which pick out their objects by unmediated ‘pointing’, and iii) icons, which pick out their objects by resembling them (as Peirce put it: an icon’s parts are related in the same way that the objects represented by those parts are themselves related). Thus representing structure is one of the icon’s greatest strengths. It is argued that the implications of (...)
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  23.  52
    Naturalism and Wonder: Peirce on the Logic of Hume's Argument Against Miracles.Catherine Legg - 2001 - Philosophia 28 (1-4):297-318.
    Peirce wrote that Hume’s argument against miracles (which is generally liked by twentieth century philosophers for its antireligious conclusion) "completely misunderstood the true nature of" ’abduction’. This paper argues that if Hume’s argumentative strategy were seriously used in all situations (not just those in which we seek to "banish superstition"), it would deliver a choking epistemological conservatism. It suggests that some morals for contemporary naturalistic philosophy may be drawn from Peirce’s argument against Hume.
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  24.  85
    Catnesses.Catherine Legg - 2008 - In Stephen D. Hales (ed.), What Philosophy Can Tell you About your Cat. Carus.
    An introduction to cat metaphysics..........
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  25.  54
    The Work of Christian Education in the Seminary and the Church: Then (1812) and Now (2012).Pamela Mitchell Legg - 2012 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 66 (4):423-433.
    The shape of Christian Education in the United States has shifted as new communication media have come to the fore, interacting with the overarching purposes and content of Christian Education. As we begin to ask how computer technologies and the Internet may affect Christian Education, it is helpful to look back at the ways communication media have affected Christian Education over the past 200 years.
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  26.  66
    Review of Brunning and Forster (Eds), The Rule of Reason. [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 1999 - Metascience 8 (1):170-174.
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  27.  66
    Review of Liszka, "An Introduction to the Semeiotic of Charles Sanders Peirce". [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 1998 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76 (1):122-124.
  28.  36
    The Purpose of the Essential Indexical.Catherine Legg - 2015 - The Commens Working Papers.
    This paper takes indexicality as a case-study for critical examination of the distinction between semantics and pragmatics as currently conceived in mainstream philosophy of language. Both a ‘pre-indexical’ and ‘post-indexical’ analytic formal semantics are examined and found wanting, and instead an argument is mounted for a ‘properly pragmatist pragmatics’, according to which we do not work out what signs mean in some abstract overall sense and then work out to what use they are being put; rather, we must understand to (...)
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  29.  30
    Review of Danielle Macbeth, "Realizing Reason: A Narraitve of Truth and Knowing". [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2015 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:online.
  30.  32
    An Aristotelian Realist Philosophy of Mathematics: Mathematics as the Science of Quantity and Structure, by Franklin, James. [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (4):837-837.
  31.  13
    Self‐Induced Memory Distortions and the Allocation of Processing Resources at Encoding and Retrieval.Matthew Shane & Jordan Peterson - 2004 - Cognition and Emotion 18 (4):533-558.
  32.  1
    Empathising with the Enemy: Emotion Regulation and Support for Humanitarian Aid in Violent Conflicts.Guy Roth, Noa Shane & Yaniv Kanat-Maymon - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-14.
    Considering that negative intergroup emotions can hinder conflict resolution, we proposed integrative emotion regulation as possibly predicting conciliatory policies towards outgroups in violent conflict. Two studies examined Jewish Israelis’ self-reported IER, empathy, liberal attitudes, and support for humanitarian aid to Palestinians in Gaza. Study 1 found that unlike reappraisal Jewish Israelis’ ability to explore emotions promoted concern for others’ emotions, which in turn predicted support for humanitarian aid. Study 2 replicated this mediation model, additionally confirming that liberal attitudes moderated the (...)
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  33.  36
    “The Meaning of a Thought is Altogether Something Virtual”: Joseph Ransdell and His Legacy.Catherine Legg - 2013 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 49 (4):451-456,.
    Joseph Ransdell (1931–2010), who received his Ph.D in philosophy from Columbia University in 1966, where he was advised by Sidney Morgenbesser, and spent most of his career at Texas Tech University, offered an original and focused challenge to academic philosophy at the end of the Second Millennium. His guiding philosophical passion was understanding how communication might best encourage and support truth seeking. This introduction to a special edition of the Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society which is devoted to (...)
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  34.  27
    Letting Reality Bite.Catherine Legg - 2008 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 44 (2):208-212.
    Describes an experiment in teaching undergraduate epistemology, guided by Peirce’s pragmatic maxim.
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  35.  72
    Engineering Philosophy.Catherine Legg - 2010 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (1):45-50.
    A commentary on a current paper by Aaron Sloman. Sloman argues that in order to make progress in AI, consciousness, "should be replaced by more precise and varied architecture-based concepts better suited to specify what needs to be explained by scientific theories". This original vision of philosophical inquiry as mapping out 'design-spaces' for a contested concept seeks to achieve a holistic, synthetic understanding of what possibilities such spaces embody. It therefore does not reduce to either "relations of ideas" or "matters (...)
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  36.  14
    Peirce’s Account of Purposefulness: A Kantian Perspective. [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (2):267-270.
  37.  6
    Towards a Philosophy of Academic Publishing.M. Peters, P. Jandric, R. Irwin, K. Locke, N. Devine, R. Heraud, A. Gibbons, T. Besley, J. White, D. Forster, L. Jackson, E. Grierson, C. Mika, G. Stewart, M. Tesar, S. Brighouse, S. Arndt, G. Lazaroiu, R. Mihaila, C. Legg & L. Benade - forthcoming - .
    This article is concerned with developing a philosophical approach to a number of significant changes to academic publishing, and specifically the global journal knowledge system wrought by a range of new digital technologies that herald the third age of the journal as an electronic, interactive and mixed-media form of scientific communication. The paper emerges from an Editors' Collective, a small New Zealand-based organisation comprised of editors and reviewers of academic journals mostly in the fields of education and philosophy. The paper (...)
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  38.  25
    This is Simply What I Do.Catherine Legg - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):58–80.
    Wittgenstein's discussion of rule-following is widely regarded to have identified what Kripke called "the most radical and original sceptical problem that philosophy has seen to date". But does it? This paper examines the problem in the light of Charles Peirce's distinctive "scientific hierarchy". Peirce identifies a phenomenological inquiry which is prior to both logic and metaphysics, whose role is to identify the most fundamental philosophical categories. His third category, particularly salient in this context, pertains to general predication. Rule-following scepticism, the (...)
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  39.  15
    The Ethical Imperative: Myth or Reality? [REVIEW]Constance R. Heiland, John P. Daniels, Hugh M. Shane & Jerry L. Wall - 1984 - Journal of Business Ethics 3 (2):119-125.
    As a result of recent legislative developments and greater ease of accessibility, the Human Resources Manager (HRM) faces the challenge of not only maintaining records but also that of protecting employees from misuse of personal information contained in their individual personnel files. The widespread use of computers for maintaining employee records has resulted in new ethical dimensions and/or challenges for the HRM. Serious questions regarding accessibility to and dissemination of such personal information now confront the HRM. Unless policies are developed (...)
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  40.  49
    Reading Peirce Reading. [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2002 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (3):388 – 390.
    Book Information Reading Peirce Reading. By Richard A. Smyth. Rowman and Littlefield. Maryland. 1997. Pp. ix + 327. Hardback, US$64.50. Paperback, US$24.95.
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  41.  43
    Mining Meaning From Wikipedia.David Milne, Catherine Legg, Medelyan Olena & Witten Ian - 2009 - International Journal of Human-Computer Interactions 67 (9):716-754.
    Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, (...)
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  42. Integrating Cyc and Wikipedia: Folksonomy Meets Rigorously Defined Common-Sense.Olena Medelyan & Catherine Legg - 2008 - Proceedings of Wikipedia and AI Workshop at the AAAI-08 Conference. Chicago, US, July 12 2008.
    Integration of ontologies begins with establishing mappings between their concept entries. We map categories from the largest manually-built ontology, Cyc, onto Wikipedia articles describing corresponding concepts. Our method draws both on Wikipedia’s rich but chaotic hyperlink structure and Cyc’s carefully defined taxonomic and common-sense knowledge. On 9,333 manual alignments by one person, we achieve an F-measure of 90%; on 100 alignments by six human subjects the average agreement of the method with the subject is close to their agreement with each (...)
     
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  43.  38
    Predication and the Problem of Universals.Catherine Legg - 2001 - Philosophical Papers 30 (2):117-143.
    Abstract This paper contrasts the scholastic realisms of David Armstrong and Charles Peirce. It is argued that the so-called ?problem of universals? is not a problem in pure ontology (concerning whether universals exist) as Armstrong construes it to be. Rather, it extends to issues concerning which predicates should be applied where, issues which Armstrong sets aside under the label of ?semantics?, and which from a Peircean perspective encompass even the fundamentals of scientific methodology. It is argued that Peirce's scholastic realism (...)
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  44.  16
    Peirce and the Threat of Nominalism.Catherine Legg - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):137-138.
  45.  24
    Review of Forster, "Peirce and the Threat of Nominalism". [REVIEW]Catherine Legg - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):137-8.
  46.  24
    “All You Can Eat” Ontology-Building: Feeding Wikipedia to Cyc.Samuel Sarjant, Catherine Legg, Olena Medelyan & Michael Robinson - 2009 - IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI-09), 15 – 18 September 2009 Università Degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. (...)
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  47.  16
    Teaching Peirce to Undergraduates.James Campbell, Cornelis De Waal, Richard Hart, Vincent Colapietro, Herman De Regt, Douglas Anderson, Kathleen Hull, Catherine Legg, Lee A. Mcbride Iii & Michael L. Raposa - 2008 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 64 (2):189-235.
    Fourteen philosophers share their experience teaching Peirce to undergraduates in a variety of settings and a variety of courses. The latter include introductory philosophy courses as well as upper-level courses in American philosophy, philosophy of religion, logic, philosophy of science, medieval philosophy, semiotics, metaphysics, etc., and even an upper-level course devoted entirely to Peirce. The project originates in a session devoted to teaching Peirce held at the 2007 annual meeting of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy. The session, (...)
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  48.  15
    Ethical Issues in the Feeding of Patients Suffering From Dementia: A Focus Group Study of Hospital Staff Responses to Conflicting Principles.Stephen Wilmot, Lesley Legg & Janice Barratt - 2002 - Nursing Ethics 9 (6):599-611.
    Feeding difficulties in older patients who are suffering from dementia present problems with balancing conflicting ethical principles. They have been considered by several writers in recent years, and the views of nursing and care staff have been studied in different contexts. The present study used focus groups to explore the way in which nursing and care staff in a National Health Service trust deal with conflict between ethical principles in this area. Three focus groups were convened, one each from the (...)
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  49.  12
    Peirce, Meaning, and the Semantic Web.Catherine Legg - 2013 - Semiotica 2013 (193):119-143.
    This paper seeks an explanation for the challenges faced by Semantic Web developers in achieving their vision, compared to the staggering near-instantaneous success of the World Wide Web. To this end it contrasts two broad philosophical understandings of meaning and argues that the choice between them carries real consequences for how developers attempt to engineer the Semantic Web. The first is Rene Descartes’ ‘private’, static account of meaning (arguably dominant for the last 400 years in Western thought) which understands the (...)
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  50.  16
    Ontologies on the Semantic Web.Catherine Legg - 2007 - Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 41:407-451.
    As an informational technology, the World Wide Web has enjoyed spectacular success. In just ten years it has transformed the way information is produced, stored, and shared in arenas as diverse as shopping, family photo albums, and high-level academic research. The “Semantic Web” was touted by its developers as equally revolutionary but has not yet achieved anything like the Web’s exponential uptake. This 17 000 word survey article explores why this might be so, from a perspective that bridges both philosophy (...)
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